click links in text for more info

Buckfast Abbey

Buckfast Abbey forms part of an active Benedictine monastery at Buckfast, near Buckfastleigh, England. Buckfast first became home to an abbey in 1018; the first Benedictine abbey was followed by a Savignac abbey constructed on the site of the current abbey in 1134. The monastery was surrendered for dissolution in 1539, with the monastic buildings stripped and left as ruins, before being demolished; the former abbey site was used as a quarry, became home to a Gothic mansion house. In 1882 the site was purchased by a group of French Benedictine monks, who refounded a monastery on the site, dedicated to Saint Mary. New monastic buildings and a temporary church were constructed incorporating the existing Gothic house. Buckfast was formally reinstated as an Abbey in 1902, the first abbot of the new institution, Boniface Natter, was blessed in 1903. Work on a new abbey church, constructed on the footprint of the former Cistercian abbey, started in 1907; the church was consecrated in 1932 but not completed until 1938.

The abbey continues to operate as a Benedictine foundation today, is a registered charity under English law. The first abbey at Buckfast was founded as a Benedictine monastery in 1018; the abbey was believed to be founded by Earldorman of Devon, or King Cnut. This first monastery was "small and unprosperous", it is unknown where it was located, its existence was "precarious" after the Norman Conquest. In 1134 or 1136, the abbey was established in its current position; this second abbey was home to Savignac monks. In 1147 the Savignac congregation merged with the Cistercian, the abbey thereby became a Cistercian monastery. Following the conversion to the Cistercian Congregation, the abbey was rebuilt in stone. Limited excavation work undertaken in 1882 revealed that the monastery was built to the standard plan for Cistercian monasteries. In medieval times the abbey became rich through fishing and trading in sheep wool, By the 14th century Buckfast was one of the wealthiest abbeys in the south-west of England.

It had come to own "extensive sheep runs on Dartmoor, seventeen manors in central and south Devon, town houses in Exeter, fisheries on the Dart and the Avon, a country house for the abbot at Kingsbridge". The Black Death killed many monks. By the mid 1400s however, the abbey again flourished. By the 16th century, the abbey was in decline. Only 22 new monks were tonsured between 1500 and 1539, at the time of the abbey's dissolution in 1539, there were only 10 monks in residence. At the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the last Abbot, Gabriel Donne, despite the solemn oaths he had taken, on 25 February 1539 together with nine others of his religious community, surrendered his abbey into the hands of Sir William Petre, as agent for King Henry VIII. On 26 April 1539 he was rewarded with a large annual pension of £120 which he enjoyed until his death; the other monks, who all co-signed the deed of surrender received smaller pensions. Afterwards, 1.5 tons of gold and silver, from the treasures of the abbey, were delivered to the Tower of London.

The site was granted to the King who granted it to others, including William Petre, the Secretary of State, Sir Thomas Dennis of Holcombe Burnell in Devon, who had married Donne's sister Elizabeth and was Chamberlain of the Household to Cardinal Wolsey. Following dissolution, the abbey site and its lands were granted by the crown to Sir Thomas Denys of Holcombe Burnell, near Exeter, who stripped the buildings and "reduced them to ruins"; the abbey site was subsequently used as a stone quarry. In 1800, the site was purchased by Samuel Berry. Berry had the ruins demolished, constructing a Gothic style "castellated Tudor" mansion house, a wool mill on the site in 1806; the Gothic house was constructed on the site of the abbey's former west cloister. The only pieces of the former abbey to escape demolition were some of the outer buildings - which were retained as farm buildings - and the tower from the former abbot's lodgings, the only part which remains to this day. Over the next eighty years, the Buckfast site changed hands four times falling into the hands of Dr. James Gale in 1872.

Ten years Dr. Gale decided to sell the property, but was keen to offer it to a religious community. An advert was placed in The Tablet, describing the Abbey as "a grand acquisition could it be restored to its original purpose." Within six weeks of the sale, monks were again living at the abbey. In 1882 "the whole site was purchased" by French Benedictine monks, exiled from the Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in 1880. On 28 October 1882, six Benedictine monks arrived at Buckfast having been exiled from France; the land had been leased by monks from the St. Augustine's Priory in Ramsgate and it was bought for £4,700. Most of Samuel Berry's house was remodeled and incorporated into new claustral ranges which were built in 1882. A temporary church was constructed to the south of these new buildings, with the current abbey church constructed between 1906 and 1938 on the footprint of the Cistercian Abbey; the new abbey church was built in the "Norman Transitional and Early English" styles, to the designs of architect, Frederick Arthur Walters.

There were never more than six monks working on the project at any one time, although the whole community had repaired the ancient foundations up to ground level. Construction methods were primitive: wooden scaffolding was held together by


Procellariiformes is an order of seabirds that comprises four families: the albatrosses and shearwaters, 2 families of storm petrels. Called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English, they are referred to collectively as the petrels, a term, applied to all Procellariiformes, or more all the families except the albatrosses, they are exclusively pelagic, have a cosmopolitan distribution across the world's oceans, with the highest diversity being around New Zealand. Procellariiformes are colonial nesting on remote, predator-free islands; the larger species nest on the surface, while most smaller species nest in natural cavities and burrows. They exhibit strong philopatry, returning to their natal colony to breed and returning to the same nesting site over many years. Procellariiformes are monogamous and form long-term pair bonds that are formed over several years and may last for the life of the pair. A single egg is laid per nesting attempt, a single nesting attempt is made per year, although the larger albatrosses may only nest once every two years.

Both parents participate in chick rearing. Incubation times are long compared to other birds. Once a chick has fledged there is no further parental care. Procellariiformes have had a long relationship with humans, they have been important food sources for many people, continue to be hunted as such in some parts of the world. The albatrosses in particular have been the subject of numerous cultural depictions. Procellariiformes are one of the most endangered bird taxa, with many species threatened with extinction due to introduced predators in their breeding colonies, marine pollution and the danger of fisheries by-catch. Scientists, conservationists and governments around the world are working to reduce the threats posed to them, these efforts have led to the signing of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, a binding international treaty signed in 2001; the Procellariiformes have a cosmopolitan distribution across the world's oceans and seas, although at the levels of family and genus there are some clear patterns.

Antarctic petrels, Thalassoica antarctica, have to fly over 100 mi to get to the ocean from their breeding colonies in Antarctica, northern fulmars breed on the northeastern tip of Greenland, the furthest north piece of land. The most cosmopolitan family is the Procellariidae, which are found in tropical and polar zones of both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres, though the majority do not breed in the tropics, half the species are restricted to southern temperate and polar regions; the gadfly petrels, have a tropical and temperate distribution, whereas the fulmarine petrels are polar with some temperate species. The majority of the fulmarine petrels, along with the prions, are confined to the Southern Hemisphere; the storm petrels are as widespread as the procellariids, fall into two distinct subfamilies. Amongst the albatrosses the majority of the family is restricted to the Southern Hemisphere and nesting in cool temperate areas, although one genus, ranges across the north Pacific.

The family is absent from the north Atlantic. The diving-petrels are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere; the various species within the order have a variety of migration strategies. Some species undertake regular trans-equatorial migrations, such as the sooty shearwater which annually migrates from its breeding grounds in New Zealand and Chile to the North Pacific off Japan and California, an annual round trip of 64,000 km, the longest measured annual migration of any bird. A number of other petrel species undertake trans-equatorial migrations, including the Wilson's storm petrel and the Providence petrel, but no albatrosses cross the equator, as they rely on wind assisted flight. There are other long-distance migrants within the order. Many species in the order travel long distances over open water but return to the same nest site each year, raising the question of how they navigate so accurately; the Welsh naturalist Ronald Lockley carried out early research into animal navigation with the Manx shearwaters that nested on the island of Skokholm.

In release experiments, a Manx shearwater flew from Boston to Skokholm, a distance of 3,000 miles in 12​1⁄2 days. Lockley showed that when released "under a clear sky" with sun or stars visible, the shearwaters oriented themselves and "flew off in a direct line for Skokholm", making the journey so that they must have flown in a straight line, but if the sky was overcast at the time of release, the shearwaters flew around in circles "as if lost" and returned or not at all, implying that they navigated using astronomical cues. Procellariiformes range in size from the large wandering albatross, at 11 kg and a 3.6-metre wingspan, to tiny birds like the least storm petrel, at 20 g with a 32-centimetre wingspan, the smallest of the prions, the fairy prion, with a wingspan of 23 to 28 cm. Their nostrils are enclosed in one or two tubes on their straight deeply-grooved bills with hooked tips; the beaks are made up of several plates. Their wings are narrow.

Judith (given name)

Judith is a feminine given name derived from the Hebrew name יְהוּדִית or Yehudit, meaning "woman of Judea". Judith appeared in the Old Testament as one of Esau's wives, while the deuterocanonical Book of Judith deals with a different Judith, it is in common usage in English, German, many Scandinavian languages and Hebrew. The name was among the top 50 most popular given names for girls born in the United States between 1936–1956, but its popularity has since declined, it was the 893rd most popular name for baby girls born in the United States in 2012, down from 74th in 1960. Alternative forms of the name Judith include: Yahudit Giuditta הודעס Hudes Jitka Jodi Jodus Jodie Jody Jude Judeta Judina Ιουδίθ Judit, Judite Judīte Judith Juditha Judithe Judyta Jutka, Jutta Jutte, Juut Jytte Iudita יְהוּדִית Yehudit יידעל Yidel Yodit יודעל Yudel Юдифь Yudif יוטקע Yutke Ditka Queen Judith, a number of medieval women Judith of Bavaria, Frankish queen Judith of Friuli, daughter of Eberhard Judith of Flanders, Princess of the Carolingian Franks, Queen of Wessex, Countess of Flanders Judith of Schweinfurt, wife of Bretislaus I of Bohemia Gudit, queen who sacked Axum, now in Ethiopia.

List of conservative parties in Canada

This is a list of conservative parties in Canada. There are a number of conservative parties in Canada, a country that has traditionally been dominated by two political parties, one liberal and one conservative; the span between the 2015 Newfoundland and Labrador provincial election and the 2016 Manitoba provincial election was the first time since 1943 when no party with the word "Conservative" in its name formed the government in either a provincial or federal jurisdiction. The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was the primary conservative party in Canada from 1942 to, at least, 1993, it was the descendant of Sir John A. Macdonald's Liberal-Conservative Party; the party had its roots in the Great Coalition of 1864 that paved the way for Canadian confederation and was known under various names but was referred to unofficially as the Tories or "Conservative Party". In 1942, it became "Progressive Conservative" upon the election of Liberal-Progressive Premier of Manitoba John Bracken as leader in that year.

The Conservatives, the Progressive Conservatives, formed the government in Canada, alternating with the Liberal Party of Canada, from 1867-1873, 1878-1896, 1911–1921, 1926, 1930-1935, 1957-1963, 1979-1980 and 1984-1993. Throughout the period from the first election in 1867 to the 1993 election, the national conservative party always formed the government or the official opposition under the names "Liberal-Conservatives", "Unionists", "Conservatives" or Progressive Conservatives". In 1993, the Progressive Conservatives went from majority government to holding only two of 295 seats in the House of Commons of Canada, this was the first time they had done worse than third place in the House, only the second time they had placed worse than second: they in fact placed fifth and last in terms of parties represented in the commons behind the Liberals, the Reform Party of Canada, the Bloc Québécois and the New Democratic Party; the Reform Party was a populist conservative party based in Western Canada which cut into traditional PC support while the Bloc was a Quebec separatist party which cut into the support of the PCs in Quebec where they traditionally won support for their decentralization stance.

Reform and the PCs finished with similar popular vote totals in the 1993 and subsequent elections but, under the first past the post electoral system the Reformers won many more seats due to their strong regional support in the West versus the thin national support for the PCs across Canada. In the 1997 election, the PCs and Reform continued to run at par in popular vote and both increased their share of seats: Reform from 52 to 60 and Progressive Conservatives from two to 20. Despite this, neither rivalled the Liberals for power and the Reformers tried to "unite the right" with their United Alternative initiative; this talks were non-starters for many Progressive Conservatives who saw themselves as the national party of Sir John A. Macdonald, however the United Alternative did attract some provincial Blue Tories and renamed itself the "Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance", known publicly as the Canadian Alliance. In the 2000 election, the PCs were reduced to 12 seats, while the new Canadian Alliance gained seats.

Following the election and despite Alliance leadership troubles, the PCs were unable to make significant gains in opinion polls and former Prime Minister Joe Clark resigned as leader. Following Clark's resignation as leader, Peter Mackay was elected at the 2003 PC leadership convention. Mackay began a process of talks which led to the merger of the PCs with the Alliance and the creation of a new Conservative Party of Canada; this alienated many Red Tories, including Clark. The successful merger of the Progressive Conservatives and the Canadian Alliance was followed by moderate success in the 2004 election in which the new party won 99 of 308 seats, an increase from its total of 72 of 301 seats prior to the election and 78 seats won between the two parties in 2000. Detractors pointed to the fact, that the new party received 7% less in popular vote than the total of the two forerunner parties in 2000; the Liberals, were reduced to a minority government. Outgoing Canadian Alliance leader Stephen Harper had been chosen as leader of the new party just prior to the 2004 election which provided a dual handicap for the party.

It did not allow the party much time to combine and consolidate the bases of the two founding parties and it allowed the Liberals to define the party as the "Alliance Conservatives", insuating that it was the result of a hostile takeover by the Alliance, viewed by many in Ontario and Atlantic Canada as "too far to the right". These claims were bolstered by former PC Prime Minister Clark's lukewarm endorsement of the Liberals, having said Canadians would be best to choose "the devil you know than the devil you don't". Martin had come into office on December 12, 2003, following a long battle with his predecessor, Jean Chrétien for control of the Liberal Party. Martin had been a successful and popular finance minister under much of Chrétien's term and was expected to dominate politics and win a commanding majority of record size, once he was at the helm; the merger of the conservative movement was not viewed as a large impediment to this goal when it occurred simultaneously with Martin's rise to power.

However, the sponsorship scandal, which saw some Liberal supporters fraudulantely acquire government funds, Martin's response to it caused him to slip in the polls. During the 2004 campaign, Harper led in the polls for some time, but Martin launched a successful series of attack ads painting Harper to the right; this campaign


Carrieton is a small town situated in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. It is located between the towns of Orroroo to Cradock to the north. Opened in 1877 as Yanyarrie Whim, with the construction of a post office, the settlement was renamed in 1888 as Carrieton, after the daughter of Governor Jervois, Lucy Caroline; the town was on the Peterborough–Quorn railway line which opened in December 1881, served by a Class 1 station. A large goods shed and fettler's cottage were constructed. Passenger services were discontinued during 1969, when the South Australian Railways withdrew the railcar service. Declining rail traffic saw the gradual withdrawal of services on the railway, with the last station master being withdrawn on 1 July 1971; the railway was closed in 1981, removed during 1986. Carrieton acquired a school, a police station, St Raphael's Roman Catholic Church, a small Methodist Church, an Anglican Church and the railway station, built in 1885 at a cost of £1,500; the road was renamed the RM Williams Way in recognition of the area where R. M. Williams had many associations.

Carrieton is referred to as'Gum Greek' country. The town is serviced through a community general store, post office, accommodation, it is a part of the District Council of Orroroo Carrieton. After large downpours in January, many of the creeks surrounding Carrieton were demolished; the bridge over Yanyarrie Creek 10 km north of Carrieton was damaged as huge slates of bitumen disappeared down the creek. Yanyarrie creek has since been repaired with a detour, after the first detour was ruined again by another flash flood a few weeks after the first one. Carrieton is home to the Carrieton Rodeo, an Australian Professional Rodeos Association event, held every year on Proclamation Day, it held its 60th anniversary meet on 28 December 2012. Notes Citations

Giacomo the Idealist

Giacomo the Idealist is a 1943 Italian drama film directed by Alberto Lattuada and starring Massimo Serato, Marina Berti and Andrea Checchi. It represents the directorial debut of Lattuada, it is based on the novel with the same name by Emilio De Marchi. It was shot at the Fert Studios in Turin with sets designed by the art director Fulvio Jacchia. Massimo Serato as Giacomo Lanzavecchia Marina Berti as Celestina Andrea Checchi as Giacinto Magnenzio Tina Lattanzi as Countess Cristina Magnenzio Armando Migliari as Mr. Mangano Giacinto Molteni as Count Magnenzio Giulio Tempesti as Don Lorenzo Attilio Dottesio as Battistella Lanzavecchia Domenico Viglione Borghese as Il padre di Giacomo Silvia Leandri as Lisa, sorella di Giacomo Moliterno, Gino. Historical Dictionary of Italian Cinema. Scarecrow Press, 2008. Giacomo the Idealist on IMDb