Fluvanna County, Virginia
Fluvanna County is a county located in the Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,691, its county seat is Palmyra. Fluvanna County is part of Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. Through the 17th century, the Point of Fork was the site of Rassawek, a major Monacan village of the Native Americans. By 1701, the Seneca Iroquois had overrun the entire Virginia Piedmont, which they sold to Virginia Colony in 1721 at the Treaty of Albany; the area, now Fluvanna County was once considered part of Henrico County, one of the original shires of the Virginia Colony. Henrico was divided in 1727 and the Fluvanna County area became a part of Goochland County. In 1744 Goochland was divided and the area presently known as Fluvanna became a part of Albemarle County; when Amherst County, Nelson County and Buckingham County were split off from Albemarle County, the Albemarle County Seat was moved in 1762 from Scottsville to Charlottesville. When the Albemarle County seat was moved citizens in the Fluvanna area would now have to trek over the Southwest Mountains to reach the new seat at Charlottesville.
Fluvanna area citizens lobbied the Virginia General Assembly to create a new county. In 1777, Albemarle County was divided again and Fluvanna County established; the county was named for the Fluvanna River, a name once given to the James River west of Columbia. "Fluvanna" means "Anne's River", in honor of Anne, Queen of Great Britain, who reigned until 1714. Located in the Piedmont above the Fall Line, the county has the James and Rivanna rivers running through it, it was sometimes referred to as "Old Flu."Fluvanna was defended by six militia companies during the American Revolutionary War. The county was invaded by British forces in 1781. From an initial 882 "tithables," the population reached 3,300 by 1782. Columbia was formed in 1788 with Wilmington following soon after. Lyles Baptist Church was organized in 1774 and the formation of the Methodist denomination had its roots in a Conference held in Fluvanna in 1779; the "Brick Union" Church was built in 1825 for the use of Episcopalians, Methodists and Presbyterians.
The village of Fork Union grew up around the Church. When Palmyra was made the county seat in 1828 it became a thriving town after the new courthouse was completed in 1830. In the late eighteenth century, Thomas Jefferson improved the navigability of the Rivanna River, as he owned much property along its upper course, e.g. Shadwell and Monticello plantations. Improvements included in the first generation were small dams and batteaux locks. Second-generation improvements made by others included construction of long stretches of canal, serviced by large locks, many of which are still visible along the river. Shortly after the completion of the initial Rivanna navigational works, Virginia requested that the river be opened to public usage. Jefferson initially refused, but the state insisted and the Rivanna became an integral part of the central Virginian transportation network; the route serviced a large community of farmsteads, plantations throughout Albemarle and Fluvanna counties. It was lined by increasing numbers of industrial facilities, such as those at Union Mills.
Construction of the larger mills prompted the great improvements to navigation. For instance, Union Mills featured a two-and-a-half-mile long canal and towpath, one upper and two massive lower locks, all directly upon the river. Where the Rivanna meets the James River at Columbia, the Rivanna Connexion Canal merged with a much longer canal.. In 1840, the James River and Kanawha Canal was constructed adjacent to the north bank of the James River and opened to traffic; the new canal was part of a planned link between the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean via the James and the Kanawha rivers. The canal was used by packet and freight boats, which replaced the earlier shallow-draft batteau for commerce; these boats brought passengers to and from Richmond and points beyond. Long a dream of early Virginians such as George Washington, a surveyor early in his career, the canal was never completed as envisioned. In the batteaux era, Milton was the head of navigation on the river. By the early nineteenth century, horse-drawn canal boats were traveling all the way upstream to Charlottesville.
The head of navigation was located at the point where the Fredericksburg Road and Three Chopt Road, the primary road to Richmond and entered the city at the Free Bridge, establishing the city as a major commercial hub. While no Civil War battles were fought in Fluvanna, Union soldiers burned mills and bridges and damaged the James River and Kanawha Canal to disrupt traffic and commerce. During the American Civil War more than 1,200 of the county's citizens served in the Confederate forces, its citizens served in infantry and artillery units during the war, including the Fluvanna Artillery. The canal was repaired after the war, but traffic never returned to pre-war levels, as railroads were being constructed throughout the state and were more efficient. After many years of trying to compete with the ever-expanding railroad network, the James River and Kanawha Canal was conveyed to a new railroad company by a deed dated March 4, 1880. Railroad construction workers promptly started laying tracks on the towpath.
The new Richmond and Allegheny Railroad offered a water-level route fr
Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities; this means a resident will list city on official paperwork. It is named after the British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who as the wife of George III was Virginia's last Queen. In 2016, an estimated 46,912 people lived within the city limits; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with Albemarle County for statistical purposes, bringing its population to 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Fluvanna and Nelson counties. Charlottesville was the home of Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. During their terms as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, traveled to and from Richmond, along the 71-mile historic Three Notch'd Road.
Orange, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the city's southwestern border. Monticello, 3 miles southeast of the city, is, along with the University of Virginia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, attracting thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough. An Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County established Charlottesville in 1762. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee, it was situated along a trade route called Three Notched Road, which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. The town took its name from Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who became queen consort of Great Britain when she married King George III in 1761. During the American Revolutionary War, Congress imprisoned the Convention Army in Charlottesville at the Albemarle Barracks between 1779 and 1781.
The Governor and legislators had to temporarily abandon the capitol and on June 4, 1781, Jack Jouett warned the Virginia Legislature meeting at Monticello of an intended raid by Colonel Banastre Tarleton, allowing a narrow escape. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War; the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer engaged local Confederate Home Guards before retreating. The mayor surrendered the city to Custer's men to keep the town from being burned; the Charlottesville Factory, founded c. 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridan's 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had been taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woolen clothing for the soldiers, it caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the nearby railroad bridge dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962.
After the Civil War, emancipated enslaved persons who stayed in Charlottesville established communities in neighborhoods such as Vinegar Hill. In 1943, there were at least three theaters in Charlottesville: Paramount, La Fayette. In July 1957, the first real estate firm owned and operated by African Americans, opened for business; the company, named Ideal Realty Company, was owned and operated by James N. Fleming, Roy C. Preston, Vassar Tarry, it was located in the Preston Building, 115 Fourth Street, N. W. James Fleming was a graduate of Jefferson High School. After Reconstruction ended, Charlottesville's black population suffered under Jim Crow laws that segregated public places and limited opportunity. Schools were segregated by race and blacks were not served in many local businesses. Public parks were planned separately for the white and black populations: four for the whites, one, built on the site of a former dump, for blacks; the Ku Klux Klan had chapters in the Charlottesville area beginning at least in the early twentieth century, events such as lynchings and cross burnings occurred in the Charlottesville area.
In 1898, Charlottesville resident John Henry James was lynched in the nearby town of Ivy. In August 1950, three white men were observed burning a cross on Cherry Avenue, a street in a African-American neighborhood in Charlottesville, it was speculated that the cross burning might be a reaction to "a white man had been known to socialize with one of the young Negro women in that vicinity." In 1956, crosses were burned outside a progressive church and the home of white integration activist Sarah Patton Boyle. In the fall of 1958, Charlottesville closed its segregated white schools as part of Virginia's strategy of massive resistance to federal court orders requiring integration as part of the implementation of the Supreme Court of the United States decision Brown v. Board of Education; the closures were required by a series of state laws collectively known as the Stanley plan. Negro schools remained open, however; the first African American member of the Charlotteville School Board was Raymond Bell in 1963.
In 1963 than many southern cities, civil rights activists in Charlottesville began protesting segregated restaurants with sit-ins, such as one that occurred at Buddy's Restaurant near the University of Virginia. In the summer of 1940 the first Field Day event was held in Washington Park. In 1947 Charlottesville organized a local NAACP branch. In 2001, the Charlottesville and Albemarle Branches of the NAACP merged to form the Albemarle-Charlottesvi
Cumberland County, Virginia
Cumberland County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,052, its county seat is Cumberland. Cumberland County was established in 1749 from Goochland County; the county is named for William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, second son of King George II of Great Britain. Cumberland County was home to the Fleming family, which included Judge John Fleming and his son Judge William Fleming. From 1749 until the eastern portion was detached to form Powhatan County in 1777, Mosby Tavern served as the county courthouse; the tavern subsequently became known as "Old Cumberland Courthouse." In 1778 the narrow triangular area bordering the southern bank of the James River was annexed from Buckingham County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 300 square miles, of which 297 sq mi is land and 2.3 sq mi is water. Goochland County – northeast Powhatan County – east Amelia County – southeast Prince Edward County – south Buckingham County – west Fluvanna County – northwest US 60 SR 13 SR 45 This rural county suffered a long decline in population from 1880 to 1970, as the number of workers needed for agriculture was reduced through mechanization.
Since its population has grown, reaching a peak in 2010 nearly equal to its 19th-century high. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,017 people, 3,528 households, 2,487 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 4,085 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.37% White, 37.44% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.59% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. 1.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,528 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.60% were married couples living together, 14.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 14.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,816, the median income for a family was $37,965. Males had a median income of $28,846 versus $22,521 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,103. 15.10% of the population and 11.90% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 19.60% are under the age of 18 and 16.10% are 65 or older. District 1: William F. Osl, Jr. District 2: Lloyd Banks, Jr. Chairman District 3: Kevin Ingle District 4: David Meinhard District 5: Parker Wheeler Clerk of the Circuit Court: Sarah A. "Kate" Spry Commissioner of the Revenue: Julie A. Phillips Commonwealth's Attorney: Patricia Scales Sheriff: Darrell Hodges Treasurer: L. O. Pfeiffer, Jr. Cumberland County is represented by Republican Mark Peake in the Virginia Senate, Republican Thomas C. Wright, Jr. in the Virginia House of Delegates, Republican Tom A. Garrett, Jr. in the U.
S. House of Representatives. Farmville Cartersville Cumberland Tamworth Bear Creek Lake State Park is located 4.5 miles northwest of the town of Cumberland. Bear Creek Lake features overnight cabins, a lodge, permanent camp sites, picnic shelters. Swimming and boating are allowed at the lake, boat rentals are available; the park has trails for hiking and running. The 16,233-acre Cumberland State Forest is north of U. S. Route 60, west of State Route 45 and bordered on the west by the Willis River; the Forest has multiple purposes, including watershed protection, timber production, hunting and applied forest research. There are two self-guided trails at Cumberland State Forest that are open for walking, hiking and mountain bikes; these are the Willis River Hiking Trail. White-tailed deer, wild turkey, bobcats are common residents of this natural area; the State forest features five lakes which may be fished from with a Virginia State fishing license, including: Oak Hill Lake, Bear Creek Lake, Winston Lake, Arrowhead Lake, Bonbrook Lake.
Justice Paul Carrington, second member appointed of the Virginia Supreme Court. Born at "Boston Hill". National Register of Historic Places listings in Cumberland County, Virginia Cumberland County's Official Website http://www.cucps.k12.va.us/ http://www.cumberlandva.com/
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Prince Edward County, Virginia
Prince Edward County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,368, its county seat is Farmville. Prince Edward County, Virginia was formed in the Virginia Colony in 1754 from Amelia County, it was named for Prince Edward, second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and younger brother of George III of the United Kingdom. The original county seat was called Prince Edward Courthouse. Near the headwaters of the Appomattox River, the Town of Farmville was formed in 1798, was incorporated in 1912; the county seat was moved from Worsham to Farmville in 1871. In the 1850s, the Southside Railroad between Petersburg and Lynchburg was built through Farmville between Burkeville and Pamplin City; the route, subsidized by a contribution from Farmville, required an expensive crossing of the Appomattox River downstream which became known as the High Bridge. The Southside Railroad was damaged during the American Civil War; the High Bridge played a key role during Confederate General Robert E. Lee's final retreat from Petersburg to Appomattox Courthouse, where the surrender to Union General Ulysses S. Grant took place in April, 1865.
After the Civil War, under the leadership of former Confederate General William "Billy" Mahone, the Southside Railroad was rebuilt. In 1870, it was combined with the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad and the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad to form Mahone's Atlantic and Ohio Railroad, which extended 400 miles across the southern tier of Virginia from Norfolk on Hampton Roads to Bristol. After the Financial Panic of 1873, the AM&O fell into default on its debt. In 1982, it became part of the current Norfolk Southern Railway system. Due to the high cost of maintaining the High Bridge over the Appomattox River, the line through Farmville was downgraded and abandoned, in favor of the Farmville Belt Line, built on a more direct line between Burkeville and Pamplin City, as had been envisioned in the planning for the Southside Railroad. Another railroad served Farmville. In the late 19th century, the narrow gauge Farmville and Powhatan Railroad was built from Farmville through Cumberland and Chesterfield counties to reach Bermuda Hundred on the navigable portion of the James River near its confluence with the Appomattox River at City Point.
It was renamed the Tidewater and Western Railroad, but was dismantled in the early 20th century. Prince Edward County is the source of Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, a case incorporated into Brown v. Board of Education, which resulted in the U. S. Supreme Court decision that racially segregated public schools were unconstitutional; this led to the desegregation of all U. S. public schools. Among the five cases decided under Brown, Davis was the only one initiated by students, after they walked out in 1951 to protest overcrowding and poor conditions at their segregated school under Jim Crow laws; the all-black R. R. Moton High School, named after Robert Russa Moton, a noted educator from neighboring Amelia County, did not have a gymnasium, cafeteria, or teachers' restrooms. Due to overcrowding, three plywood buildings had been erected, some students had to take classes in a school bus parked outside. Teachers and students did not have blackboards; the school's requests for additional funds were denied by the all-white school board.
On Monday, April 23, 1951, Barbara Johns, the sixteen-year-old niece of Reverend Vernon Johns, a civil rights activist, led students who staged a walkout protesting the conditions. The NAACP took up their case when the students agreed to petition for an integrated school rather than improved conditions at their black school; this vote passed by one count. Howard University-trained attorneys Spottswood W. Robinson and Oliver Hill filed suit against the county school system on behalf of the students; as in other Southern states, since the turn of the twentieth century black voters in Virginia had been disenfranchised, which resulted in their lacking political power. In Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, a state court rejected the suit, agreeing with defense attorney T. Justin Moore that Virginia was vigorously equalizing conditions in white schools; the state verdict was appealed to the U. S. District Court, which ruled for the plaintiffs, a decision the school district and the state appealed.
Subsequently, it was one of five cases incorporated into Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark case in which the U. S. Supreme Court in 1954 ruled. In 1956, the Virginia General Assembly passed a series of laws to implement Massive Resistance, a policy promoted by the Byrd Organization led by former Virginia governor and U. S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, to avoid compliance with the Supreme Court ruling in Brown and its direction to integrate public schools; the state legislature created a program of "tuition grants," which could be given to students so they could attend a private school of their choice. In practice, this meant state support of all-white schools that were developed as a way to evade integration of public schools; these newly formed schools became known as the "segregation academies". As a result of the Brown decision, changes in Virginia laws, in 1959, the Board of Supervisors for Prince Edward County refused to appropriate any funds at all for the County School Board, it closed all public schools rather than i
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti