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Buckminster Fuller

Richard Buckminster Fuller was an American architect, systems theorist, designer and futurist. Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such as "Spaceship Earth", "Dymaxion", synergetic, "tensegrity", he developed numerous inventions architectural designs, popularized the known geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were named by scientists for their structural and mathematical resemblance to geodesic spheres. Fuller was the second World President of Mensa from 1974 to 1983. Fuller was born on July 12, 1895, in Milton, the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews, grand-nephew of Margaret Fuller, an American journalist and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement; the unusual middle name, was an ancestral family name. As a child, Richard Buckminster Fuller tried numerous variations of his name, he used to sign his name differently each year in the guest register of his family summer vacation home at Bear Island, Maine.

He settled on R. Buckminster Fuller. Fuller spent much of his youth in Penobscot Bay off the coast of Maine, he attended Froebelian Kindergarten. He disagreed with the way geometry was taught in school, being unable to experience for himself that a chalk dot on the blackboard represented an "empty" mathematical point, or that a line could stretch off to infinity. To him these were illogical, led to his work on synergetics, he made items from materials he found in the woods, sometimes made his own tools. He experimented with designing a new apparatus for human propulsion of small boats. By age 12, he had invented a'push pull' system for propelling a rowboat by use of an inverted umbrella connected to the transom with a simple oar lock which allowed the user to face forward to point the boat toward its destination. In life, Fuller took exception to the term "invention". Years he decided that this sort of experience had provided him with not only an interest in design, but a habit of being familiar with and knowledgeable about the materials that his projects would require.

Fuller earned a machinist's certification, knew how to use the press brake, stretch press, other tools and equipment used in the sheet metal trade. Fuller attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts, after that began studying at Harvard College, where he was affiliated with Adams House, he was expelled from Harvard twice: first for spending all his money partying with a vaudeville troupe, after having been readmitted, for his "irresponsibility and lack of interest". By his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity environment. Between his sessions at Harvard, Fuller worked in Canada as a mechanic in a textile mill, as a laborer in the meat-packing industry, he served in the U. S. Navy in World War I, as a shipboard radio operator, as an editor of a publication, as commander of the crash rescue boat USS Inca. After discharge, he worked again in the meat packing industry. In 1917, he married Anne Hewlett. During the early 1920s, he and his father-in-law developed the Stockade Building System for producing light-weight and fireproof housing—although the company would fail in 1927.

Buckminster Fuller recalled 1927 as a pivotal year of his life. His daughter Alexandra had died in 1922 of complications from polio and spinal meningitis just before her fourth birthday. Stanford historian, Barry Katz, found signs that around this time in his life Fuller was suffering from depression and anxiety. Fuller dwelled on his daughter's death, suspecting that it was connected with the Fullers' damp and drafty living conditions; this provided motivation for Fuller's involvement in Stockade Building Systems, a business which aimed to provide affordable, efficient housing. In 1927, at age 32, Fuller lost his job as president of Stockade; the Fuller family had no savings, the birth of their daughter Allegra in 1927 added to the financial challenges. Fuller drank and reflected upon the solution to his family's struggles on long walks around Chicago. During the autumn of 1927, Fuller contemplated suicide by drowning in Lake Michigan, so that his family could benefit from a life insurance payment.

Fuller said that he had experienced a profound incident which would provide direction and purpose for his life. He felt as though he was suspended several feet above the ground enclosed in a white sphere of light. A voice spoke directly to Fuller, declared: From now on you need never await temporal attestation to your thought. You think the truth. You do not have the right to eliminate yourself. You do not belong to you. You belong to Universe. Your significance will remain forever obscure to you, but you may assume that you are fulfilling your role if you apply yourself to converting your experiences to the highest advantage of others. Fuller stated, he chose to embark on "an experiment, to find what a single individual could contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity". Speaking to audiences in life, Fuller would recount the story of his Lake Michigan experience, its transformative impact on his life. Historians have been unable to identify direct evidence for this experience within the 1927 papers of Fuller's Chronofile archives, housed at Stanford University.

Stanford historian Barry Katz suggests that the suicide story may be a myth which Fuller constructed in life, to summarize this formative period of his career. In 1927 Fuller resolved to think independently wh

Batman (2013 arcade game)

Batman is an arcade vehicular combat game based on the DC Comics character Batman, developed by Specular Interactive and released by Raw Thrills in 2013. The game can be multi-player. In Batman, players control Batman as he drives the Batmobile through Gotham City to recapture supervillain escapees from Arkham Asylum. Players can choose to pursue Bane, or Mr. Freeze. Players must use the Batmobile to chase and eliminate specified targets, such as vehicles filled with henchmen. Certain missions feature other Batman villains, such as the Scarecrow, the Penguin and Catwoman, while one mission in each gameplay route sees the player fly The Bat from The Dark Knight Rises. Weapon upgrades such as a Sky Drone, Batarangs and a Battering Ram can be collected to more and destroy targets. A timer is decreasing during gameplay; the game ends when the timer depletes or the Batmobile is destroyed, at which point the player is given the choice to insert additional credits to resume play or abandon the game. The game has a profile system for players to save their game progress and resume at a time.

Ten different Batmobile designs from previous Batman media are available for use in the game. The full list includes the following: Batman Batman Batman Batman: The Animated Series Batman Forever Batman & Robin The Dark Knight Batman: The Brave and the Bold Batman: Arkham Asylum The Dark Knight Rises The arcade cabinet for Batman consists of over 500 color shifting LEDs, a Batman-styled seat and steering wheel with force feedback, as well as a large glowing Bat emblem above the cabinet. Different on-screen action will trigger the various lighting patterns of the cabinet. Development for Batman started in 2011 at Specular Interactive, who worked with Warner Brothers to build all of the Batmobiles and the Gotham City environment. According to Steve Ranck, the Specular Interactive team spent a lot of time building Gotham City, which in this game "is nearly 10 square miles of various suburbs, unique neighborhoods, elevation changes, bridges, dirt roads, secret paths, etc."Also according to Steve Ranck, the game contains 20 characters "with nearly 1,000 lines of spoken dialog, 3 animated boss characters" and 36 missions over 6 stages.

Batman uses Umbra 3, to handle the occlusion culling in its game. The system has been developed by Umbra Software. Specular Interactive page Raw Thrills

Broadcasting (networking)

In computer networking, telecommunication and information theory, broadcasting is a method of transferring a message to all recipients simultaneously. Broadcasting can be performed as a high-level operation in a program, for example, broadcasting in Message Passing Interface, or it may be a low-level networking operation, for example broadcasting on Ethernet. All-to-all communication is a computer communication method in which each sender transmits messages to all receivers within a group. In networking this can be accomplished using multicast; this is in contrast with the point-to-point method in which each sender communicates with one receiver. In computer networking, broadcasting refers to transmitting a packet that will be received by every device on the network. In practice, the scope of the broadcast is limited to a broadcast domain. Broadcasting a message is in contrast to unicast addressing in which a host sends datagrams to another single host identified by a unique address. Broadcasting is the most general communication method, is the most intensive in the sense that many messages may be required and many network devices are involved.

Broadcasting may be performed as all scatter in which each sender performs its own scatter in which the messages are distinct for each receiver, or all broadcast in which they are the same. The MPI message passing method, the de facto standard on large computer clusters includes the MPI_Alltoall method. Not all network technologies support broadcast addressing. Broadcasting is confined to local area network technologies, most notably Ethernet and token ring, where the performance impact of broadcasting is not as large as it would be in a wide area network; the successor to Internet Protocol Version 4, IPv6 does not implement the broadcast method, so as to prevent disturbing all nodes in a network when only a few may be interested in a particular service. Instead it relies on multicast addressing - a conceptually similar one-to-many routing methodology. However, multicasting limits the pool of receivers to those that join a specific multicast receiver group. Both Ethernet and IPv4 use an all-ones broadcast address to indicate a broadcast packet.

Token Ring uses a special value in the IEEE 802.2 control field. Broadcasting may be abused to perform a type of DoS-attack known as a Smurf attack; the attacker sends fake ping requests with the source IP-address of the victim computer. The victim computer is flooded by the replies from all computers in the domain. Broadcast radiation Point-to-multipoint communication Broadcast, Unknown-Unicast and Multicast traffic Terminating Reliable Broadcast Network Broadcasting and Multicast

Whitworth Wallis

Whitworth Wallis was the first director of Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery. He was knighted in 1912. Whitworth Wallis was born in Handsworth and was educated in London and Hanover, he was the son of artist George Wallis the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection at South Kensington Museum, Matilda Condell who married in 1842. His father's lifelong friend was Sir Joseph Whitworth. Two of his siblings died in infancy; the others were George Harry, Jane Kate, Rosa. The family lived at The Residences, South Kensington, he died in Stratford-on-Avon on 16 January 1927 at the age of 71. Whitworth, like George Harry, was trained by his father at the South Kensington Museum, he was placed in charge of Bethnal Green Museum in 1879 and became curator of the newly formed Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery in 1885. He received a knighthood in 1912, the first time it had been bestowed on a provincial municipal officer. Whitworth was a Trustee of Shakespeare’s Birthplace and a member of the council of the National Art Collections Fund.

By the Gains of Industry - Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery 1885-1985, Stuart Davies, ISBN 0-7093-0131-6 Obituary, The Herald, 22 January 1927

Platform (1993 film)

Platform is a 1993 Bollywood action film directed by Deepak Pawar and starring Ajay Devgn in the lead, with Tisca Chopra and Paresh Rawal. Platform follows the story of two brothers and his elder brother Vikram, who at a young age lose their mother, after which Vikram raises Raju alone, working at kind hearted Bhaiya saab's hotel. Hariya, a drug addict on bad terms with Bhaiya saab, one night high on drugs guns down Bhaiya saab while he is taking a walk with Vikram. Police inspector Joshi tries to arrest Vikram thinking. Vikram plans to flee the city with Raju. At the railway station he leaves Raju for a moment, he is approached by Hariya, who convinces him that Vikram will never return. Hariya takes Raju under his wing and makes him part of his criminal gang. Vikram is sentenced for murder, years Raju grows up to be an efficient henchman of Hariya. Raju eliminates all of Hariya's enemies with the exception of Shetty. Having nearly completed his sentence, Vikram breaks out of jail when he hears that Raju is still alive and being brought up by Hariya.

He meets his brother, hoping to expose Hariya's criminality, but Raju is still convinced Vikram abandoned him on the platform, stands by Hariya. Shetty plans to kill both Hariya and Raju, despite warnings from his astrologer twin brother Shani Avatar, who keeps telling him his crooked ways will land him in trouble. At one point, Raju treacherously makes away with some of Shetty's money, but not before being shot in the leg by Joshi, who arrives at the scene. Joshi is aware of Vikram's escape, is keeping a close watch on Hariya and Raju. An enraged Shetty arranges for Raju to be killed. Vikram goes to Shetty. Shetty imposes his own conditions; when Hariya learns of this, he tells Raju time has come to eliminate Vikram. Vikram tells everything to Joshi, who agrees to help, but Vikram is kidnapped by Shetty's men. Shetty threatens Raju with the deaths of Vikram and their girlfriends if he does not return the stolen money. Raju is now in a fix, he decides to save his brother, but as Hariya hears of it, he allies with Shetty to kill both brothers.

At the climax of the film, Raju finds Hariya and Shetty on a railway platform with Vikram, hung by his arms just above the tracks. Raju dumps Shetty's money from the suitcase, douses it in alcohol and threatens to set Shetty's money on fire, ordering Hariya to confess to his role in the killings and separation of two brothers. Shetty, worried about his money, coerces Hariya to do so at gunpoint. Inspector Joshi appears. Raju frees his brother just in time as a speeding train arrives. Vikram falls prone on the train passing over him without harming him. Joshi arrests Shetty. Raju catches up with Hariya, clinging onto his speeding car and fighting him till the vehicle overturns, leaking fuel. An old rival of Raju's turns up and, along with Hariya, starts to beat him up, but he, strengthened by his mother's parting gift, a chain, mounts strength to fight off the two just as the fuel explodes, killing the two assailants. Vikram and the others are convinced Raju perished in the explosion until he staggers out of the debris, falling into Vikram's arms pleading with Vikram to never leave him again.

Ajay Devgn as Raju Tisca Chopra as Tina Prithvi as Vikram Paresh Rawal as Shetty Mudaliar / Shani Avatar Kiran Kumar as Inspector Joshi Surendra Pal as Hariya's brother Mohnish Bahl as Hariya Nandini Singh as Seema Anjana Mumtaz as Raju and Vikram's mother Mushtaq Khan as Arjun Gavin Packard as Cheetah The film has been long noted for being the big screen debut of actress Tisca Chopra, for its representing some of Ajay Devgn's best stunt work when in his early career he was typecast as an action hero. Platform on IMDb

Thermal spraying

Thermal spraying techniques are coating processes in which melted materials are sprayed onto a surface. The "feedstock" is heated by electrical or chemical means. Thermal spraying can provide thick coatings, over a large area at high deposition rate as compared to other coating processes such as electroplating and chemical vapor deposition. Coating materials available for thermal spraying include metals, ceramics and composites, they are fed in powder or wire form, heated to a molten or semimolten state and accelerated towards substrates in the form of micrometer-size particles. Combustion or electrical arc discharge is used as the source of energy for thermal spraying. Resulting coatings are made by the accumulation of numerous sprayed particles; the surface may not heat up allowing the coating of flammable substances. Coating quality is assessed by measuring its porosity, oxide content and micro-hardness, bond strength and surface roughness; the coating quality increases with increasing particle velocities.

Several variations of thermal spraying are distinguished: Plasma spraying Detonation spraying Wire arc spraying Flame spraying High velocity oxy-fuel coating spraying High velocity air fuel Warm spraying Cold sprayingIn classical but still used processes such as flame spraying and wire arc spraying, the particle velocities are low, raw materials must be molten to be deposited. Plasma spraying, developed in the 1970s, uses a high-temperature plasma jet generated by arc discharge with typical temperatures >15,000 K, which makes it possible to spray refractory materials such as oxides, etc. A typical thermal spray system consists of the following: Spray torch – the core device performing the melting and acceleration of the particles to be deposited Feeder – for supplying the powder, wire or liquid to the torch through tubes. Media supply – gases or liquids for the generation of the flame or plasma jet, gases for carrying the powder, etc. Robot – for manipulating the torch or the substrates to be coated Power supply – standalone for the torch Control console – either integrated or individual for all of the above The detonation gun consists of a long water-cooled barrel with inlet valves for gases and powder.

Oxygen and fuel are fed into the barrel along with a charge of powder. A spark is used to ignite the gas mixture, the resulting detonation heats and accelerates the powder to supersonic velocity through the barrel. A pulse of nitrogen is used to purge the barrel after each detonation; this process is repeated many times a second. The high kinetic energy of the hot powder particles on impact with the substrate results in a buildup of a dense and strong coating. In plasma spraying process, the material to be deposited — as a powder, sometimes as a liquid, suspension or wire — is introduced into the plasma jet, emanating from a plasma torch. In the jet, where the temperature is on the order of 10,000 K, the material is melted and propelled towards a substrate. There, the molten droplets flatten solidify and form a deposit; the deposits remain adherent to the substrate as coatings. There are a large number of technological parameters that influence the interaction of the particles with the plasma jet and the substrate and therefore the deposit properties.

These parameters include feedstock type, plasma gas composition and flow rate, energy input, torch offset distance, substrate cooling, etc. The deposits consist of a multitude of pancake-like'splats' called lamellae, formed by flattening of the liquid droplets; as the feedstock powders have sizes from micrometers to above 100 micrometers, the lamellae have thickness in the micrometer range and lateral dimension from several to hundreds of micrometers. Between these lamellae, there are small voids, such as pores and regions of incomplete bonding; as a result of this unique structure, the deposits can have properties different from bulk materials. These are mechanical properties, such as lower strength and modulus, higher strain tolerance, lower thermal and electrical conductivity. Due to the rapid solidification, metastable phases can be present in the deposits; this technique is used to produce coatings on structural materials. Such coatings provide protection against high temperatures, erosion, wear.

When sprayed on substrates of various shapes and removed, free-standing parts in the form of plates, shells, etc. can be produced. It can be used for powder processing. In this case, the substrate for deposition is absent and the particles solidify during flight or in a controlled environment; this technique with variation may be used to create porous structures, suitable for bone ingrowth, as a coating for medical implants. A polymer dispersion aerosol can be injected into the plasma discharge in order to create a grafting of this polymer on to a substrate surface; this application is used to modify the surface chemistry of polymers. Plasma spraying systems can be categorized by several criteria. Plasma jet generation: direct current, where the energy is transferred to the plasma