Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60. It has a cage-like fused-ring structure that resembles a soccer ball, made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons, with a carbon atom which has one π bond and two σ bonds at each corner of the shape to create a universal vertex. Buckminsterfullerene was first generated in 1984 by Eric Rohlfing, Donald Cox and Andrew Kaldor using a laser to vaporize carbon in a supersonic helium beam. In 1985 their work was repeated by Harold Kroto, James R. Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl, Richard Smalley at Rice University, who recognized the structure of C60 as buckminsterfullerene. Kroto and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of buckminsterfullerene and the related class of molecules, the fullerenes. Buckminsterfullerene is the most common occurring fullerene, it can be found in small quantities in soot. The molecule has been detected in deep space. In April 2019, working with the Hubble Space Telescope, reported the confirmed detection of the large and complex ionized molecules of buckminsterfullerene in the interstellar medium spaces between the stars.
The discoverers of the allotrope named the newfound molecule after Buckminster Fuller, who designed many geodesic dome structures that look similar to C60. This is misleading, however, as Fuller's geodesic domes are constructed only by further dividing hexagons or pentagons into triangles, which are deformed by moving vertices radially outward to fit the surface of a sphere. Geometrically speaking, buckminsterfullerene is a naturally-occurring example of a Goldberg polyhedron. A common, shortened name for buckminsterfullerene is "buckyballs". Theoretical predictions of buckyball molecules appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, but these reports went unnoticed. In the early 1970s, the chemistry of unsaturated carbon configurations was studied by a group at the University of Sussex, led by Harry Kroto and David Walton. In the 1980s, Smalley and Curl at Rice University developed experimental technique to generate these substances, they used laser vaporization of a suitable target to produce clusters of atoms.
Kroto realized. Concurrent but unconnected to the Kroto-Smalley work, astrophysicists were working with spectroscopists to study infrared emissions from giant red carbon stars. Smalley and team were able to use a laser vaporization technique to create carbon clusters which could emit infrared at the same wavelength as had been emitted by the red carbon star. Hence, the inspiration came to Smalley and team to use the laser technique on graphite to generate fullerenes. C60 was discovered in 1985 by Robert Curl, Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley. Using laser evaporation of graphite they found Cn clusters of which the most common were C60 and C70. A solid rotating graphite disk was used as the surface from which carbon was vaporized using a laser beam creating hot plasma, passed through a stream of high-density helium gas; the carbon species were subsequently ionized resulting in the formation of clusters. Clusters ranged in molecular masses, but Kroto and Smalley found predominance in a C60 cluster that could be enhanced further by allowing the plasma to react longer.
They discovered that the C60 molecule formed a cage-like structure, a regular truncated icosahedron. For this discovery Curl and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry; the experimental evidence, a strong peak at 720 atomic mass units, indicated that a carbon molecule with 60 carbon atoms was forming, but provided no structural information. The research group concluded after reactivity experiments, that the most structure was a spheroidal molecule; the idea was rationalized as the basis of an icosahedral symmetry closed cage structure. Kroto mentioned geodesic dome structures of the noted futurist and inventor Buckminster Fuller as influences in the naming of this particular substance as buckminsterfullerene. In 1989 physicists Wolfgang Krätschmer, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Donald R. Huffman observed unusual optical absorptions in thin films of carbon dust; the soot had been generated by an arc-process between two graphite electrodes in a helium atmosphere where the electrode material evaporates and condenses forming soot in the quenching atmosphere.
Among other features, the IR spectra of the soot showed four discrete bands in close agreement to those proposed for C60. Another paper on the characterization and verification of the molecular structure followed on in the same year from their thin film experiments, detailed the extraction of an evaporable as well as benzene soluble material from the arc-generated soot; this extract had TEM and X-ray crystal analysis consistent with arrays of spherical C60 molecules 1.0 nm in van der Waals diameter as well as the expected molecular mass of 720 u for C60 in their mass spectra. The method was simple and efficient to prepare the material in gram amounts per day which has boosted the fullerene research and is today applied for the commercial production of fullerenes; the discovery of practical routes to C60 led to the exploration of a new field of chemistry involving the study of fullerenes. Soot is produced by pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons. Fullerenes are extracted from the soot with organic solvents using a Soxhlet extractor.
This step yields a solution containing up to 75% of C60, as well as other fullerenes. These fractions are separated using chromatography; the fullerenes are dissolved in a hydrocarbon or halogenated hydrocarbon and s
Union Presbyterian Seminary is a Presbyterian seminary in Richmond, Virginia. It has a non-residential campus in Charlotte, North Carolina and an online blended learning program; as a result of efforts undertaken together by the Synod of Virginia and the Synod of North Carolina, Union Theological Seminary was founded in 1812 as the theological department of Hampden–Sydney College, located near Farmville and housed in what is now named Venable Hall. In 1895, Lewis Ginter, a financier and philanthropist in Richmond VA, donated eleven acres of land to the school, relocated to its current campus location on the north side of Richmond in 1898; the General Assembly's Training School for Lay Workers was founded in Richmond in 1914 as a complementary institution intended to train "workers outside of the regular ordained ministry." In 1959 ATS was renamed the Presbyterian School of Christian Education. PSCE offered a master's degree in Christian Education, operated across the street from Union Seminary until 1997, when Union and PSCE were joined in federation, becoming Union-PSCE.
In 2002, a commuter campus in Charlotte, North Carolina, began on the campus of Queens University of Charlotte, offering both M. Div. and M. A. C. E. Degrees to part-time students; the Charlotte campus for Union Presbyterian was relocated to its new facility on 5141 Sharon Road in 2012. In 2009, Union's Board of Trustees voted to change the name of the institution to Union Presbyterian Seminary as a means of distinguishing it from Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York. In his address announcing the new name, seminary president Brian Blount emphasized the school's unique heritage of several "unions," as well as the school's Presbyterian identity. For many years, the seminary operated an FM radio station at 106.5 MHz. WRFK was sold to commercial interests in 1988. Union has a faculty of scholars in the fields of Bible, Christian education, ethics, worship, church history, Christian leadership, pastoral care. Faculty come from a range of denominational backgrounds, including Baptist and Methodist.
Notable faculty include president of Brian Blount. Retired faculty include Bible scholar James L. Mays. Union's student body is made up of about 180 students, with 90 students at the Richmond campus and another 84 students at the Charlotte campus; the majority of Union's students come from the Presbyterian tradition, but the seminary draws students from more than 20 Christian denominations, including Baptist, Methodist and Reformed. There are a number of international students as well from Ghana, Korea and other nations. Students at Union take part in a number of student activities and seminary initiatives, such as mission and service activities to Shalom Farms in the city of Richmond. Union's Richmond campus includes two chapels: the historic Watts Chapel, located in Watts Hall, which serves as a classroom and administration building, the state of the art Lake Chapel, located in the campus's Early Center, a classroom and office building completed in 2008; the Richmond campus includes the Belk student center, student apartments and guest housing, as well as recreation fields, community gardens and tennis courts.
Union's William Smith Morton Library was completed in 1996, includes over 900,000 volumes and grows at a rate of about 5,500 volumes per year. The seminary's Charlotte campus is located on 5141 Sharon Road; this facility opened in 2012 houses a chapel, classrooms, a regional Christian Education Resource Center, office facilities. The seminary only offers graduate degrees: Master of Arts In Christian Education Master of Arts in Christian Education in Global Format Master of Divinity Dual Degree Program—Master of Divinity/Master of Arts in Christian Education Master of Theology Doctor of Ministry John M. P. Atkinson: minister. Crainshaw: professor of religion, Vice Dean of the Faculty at Wake Forest University Kathy Dawson, Associate Professor of Christian Education and Director of M. A. P. T. Program at Columbia Theological Seminary.
Joseph "Josef or Sepp" Benz is a Swiss bobsledder who competed from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s. Competing in two Winter Olympics, he won four medals with one gold, two silvers, one bronze. Benz won eight medals at the FIBT World Championships with three golds, two silvers, three bronzes. In 2008, he was named chairman of the Sport Commission for artificial track luge for the International Luge Federation. Benz was a postal clerk in his native Switzerland, he served as chairman of the FIL Youth Commission before serving his current FIL position. Bobsleigh two-man Olympic medalists 1932-56 and since 1964 Bobsleigh four-man Olympic medalists for 1924, 1932-56, since 1964 Bobsleigh two-man world championship medalists since 1931 Bobsleigh four-man world championship medalists since 1930 DatabaseOlympics.com profile FIL-Luge.org June 20, 2008 article on Benz's selection as FIL chairman of the artificial track sport commission - accessed June 27, 2008
Anouk Vetter is a Dutch athlete who specialises in the heptathlon. She holds the Dutch record in heptathlon of 6636 points. In 2016, she won a gold medal at the heptathlon at the 2016 European Athletics Championships. Anouk Vetter was on born 4 February 1993 in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. Anouk was exposed to athletics at a young age, her father, Ronald Vetter, is a long-standing athletics coach and her mother, Gerda Vetter-Blokziel a two-time Dutch javelin champion. “I grew up on the track, running around from the age of four and five playing on the high jump mat,” she recalls. Her passion became the heptathlon. However, her frail body was susceptible to injury, she failed to finish a heptathlon at either the 2011 European Athletics Junior Championships, 2012 World Junior Championships in Athletics and the 2013 European Athletics U23 Championships. After replacing her coach in 2012 with her father, he decreased her training to 80 per cent compared to the other women in the combined event group to protect her fragile body.
She won the Multistars Firenze Trofeo Zerneri Acciai, the opening meeting of the 2013 IAAF Combined Events Challenge with 5872 points. Her breakthrough came in 2014 when she improved her previous personal best by a massive 444 points to 6316 points at that year's prestigious Hypo Meeting in Gotzis to place 9th. "Gotzis was special," she remembered. "It is always fantastic to compete there because the crowd is so close to the track." That year she finished 7th at the 2014 European Championships in Zurich. In 2015 she finished 6th at that in Gotzis with a new personal best with 6458 points, won the heptathlon at the Mehrkampf-Meeting in Ratingen. Despite an injury, Vetter competed in the heptathlon event at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics in Beijing, where she reached the 12th place with 6267 points. “Bearing in mind I didn’t think I could start the competition, mentally it was a big step for me,” she reflected later. She started the 2016 season with an 8th place in Gotzis. In July 2016, she won a surprise victory at the 2016 European Athletics Championships heptathlon in her home town Amsterdam, with a score of 6626 points, an improvement of the national record of Dafne Schippers.
"To win that European title was amazing," she remembered. "Suddenly I was out of the shadow of the big girls." At the 2016 Summer Olympics, she finished on a disappointing 10th place. She started the 2017 outdoor season with a 7th place in Gotzis. In August 2017, she set a new national heptathlon record of 6636 points at the World Championships in London, where she won the bronze medal, behind 2016 Olympic champion Nafissatou Thiam and Carolin Schäfer, she concluded the season with a win at the heptathlon at the Décastar in Talence. For the second year in a row she finished 2nd in the IAAF Combined Events Challenge. At the 2018 Hypo Meeting in Gotzis she finished 4th behind Nafissatou Thiam, Yorgelis Rodriguez and Erica Bougard. Anouk Vetter at World Athletics Anouk Vetter, homepage
Gmina Pruchnik is an urban-rural gmina in Jarosław County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland. Its seat is the town of Pruchnik, which lies 17 kilometres south-west of Jarosław and 39 km east of the regional capital Rzeszów; the gmina covers an area of 78.26 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 9,551. It was classified as a rural gmina, becoming urban-rural when Pruchnik became a town on 1 January 2011. Apart from the town of Pruchnik, Gmina Pruchnik contains the villages and settlements of Hawłowice, Jodłówka, Kramarzówka, Rozbórz Długi, Rozbórz Okrągły, Rzeplin and Świebodna. Gmina Pruchnik is bordered by the gminas of Kańczuga, Krzywcza, Roźwienica and Zarzecze. Polish official population figures 2006
Ajlan Büyükburç was a Turkish singer. Ajlan Büyükburç in 1970 to Türkan Türker, her parents had a younger daughter named Jeyan. At the age of eight, Büyükburç started learning guitar from her father. Having an archive of her father's three thousand records, Büyükburç had said that she started playing jazz music thanks to him. At the age of 17, she began performing Turkish songs and became a backing vocalist for Fatih Erkoç. While studying at Nişantaşı Anadolu Lisesi, she participated in the High School Music Competition organized by Milliyet and was chosen as the "Best Female Teenage Soloist", she had her debut at the Aziz Üstel's TV program Gecenin Konukları. Through this program she met Mine Çağlıyan; the two released their first album Aşkolsun in December 1993. The album was successful, however and Mine parted ways a year later. In the morning of 22 July 1999, she died at the age of 28 as a result of a traffic accident in Fethiye, Muğla. According to the witnesses' testimony Ajlan Büyükburç, who had received her driver's licence three days prior to the accident, was driving fast and after reaching a sharp turn had tried to stop the car while in panic.
The car after three roll-overs hit a parked tractor. Ajlan Büyükburç lost her life in the shattered car. Fethiye State Hospital autopsy report after the incident showed that there were three fractures in her neck and arm, she had suffered from lung hemorrhage, head trauma, neck fracture, it was reported that 4 more accidents occurred due had occurred in the same area due to the newly poured stone chips on the road and the family of two of those victims sued the municipality for causing the accidents. Büyükburç, planning to collect her favorite jazz songs in an album, had started to work on this project, she had started working on a pop album, for which she had received a song from Aysel Gürel titled "Vursalar Ölmem". Aşk Olsun Tutunup Kendime