Batting average (baseball)
In baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of.300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement. In this context, a.001 is considered a "point," such that a.235 batter is 5 points higher than a.230 batter. Henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball. In the late 19th century he adapted the concept behind the cricket batting average to devise a similar statistic for baseball. Rather than copy cricket's formulation of runs scored divided by outs, he realized that hits divided by at bats would provide a better measure of individual batting ability; this is because while in cricket, scoring runs is entirely dependent on one's own batting skill, in baseball it is dependent on having other good hitters on one's team.
Chadwick noted that hits are independent of teammates' skills, so used this as the basis for the baseball batting average. His reason for using at bats rather than outs is less obvious, but it leads to the intuitive idea of the batting average being a percentage reflecting how a batter gets on base, whereas hits divided by outs is not as simple to interpret in real terms. In modern times, a season batting average higher than.300 is considered to be excellent, an average higher than.400 a nearly unachievable goal. The last player to do so, with enough plate appearances to qualify for the batting championship, was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who hit.406 in 1941, though the best modern players either threaten to or do achieve it if only for brief periods of time. There have been numerous attempts to explain the disappearance of the.400 hitter, with one of the more rigorous discussions of this question appearing in Stephen Jay Gould's 1996 book Full House. Ty Cobb holds the record for highest career batting average with.366, 9 points higher than Rogers Hornsby who has the second highest average in history at.358.
The record for lowest career batting average for a player with more than 2,500 at-bats belongs to Bill Bergen, a catcher who played from 1901 to 1911 and recorded a.170 average in 3,028 career at-bats. The modern-era record for highest batting average for a season is held by Nap Lajoie, who hit.426 in 1901, the first year of play for the American League. The modern-era record for lowest batting average for a player that qualified for the batting title is held by Chris Davis, who hit.168 in 2018. While finishing six plate appearances short of qualifying for the batting title, Adam Dunn of the Chicago White Sox hit.159 for the 2011 season, nine points lower than the record. The highest batting average for a rookie was.408 in 1911 by Shoeless Joe Jackson. For non-pitchers, a batting average below.230 is considered poor, one below.200 is unacceptable. This latter level is sometimes referred to as "The Mendoza Line", named for Mario Mendoza, a stellar defensive shortstop whose defensive capabilities just made up for his offensive shortcomings.
The league batting average in Major League Baseball for 2016 was.255, the all-time league average is between.260 and.275. In rare instances, MLB players have concluded their careers with a perfect batting average of 1.000. John Paciorek had three hits in all three of his turns at bat. Esteban Yan went two-for-two, including a home run. Hal Deviney's two hits in his only plate appearances included a triple, while Steve Biras, Mike Hopkins, Chet Kehn, Jason Roach and Fred Schemanske went two-for-two. A few dozen others have hit safely in their one and only career at-bat. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball statistics, considers batting average a weak measure of performance because it does not correlate as well as other measures to runs scored, thereby causing it to have little predictive value. Batting average does not take into account walks or power, whereas other statistics such as on-base percentage and slugging percentage have been designed to measure such concepts. Adding these statistics together form a player's On-base plus slugging or "OPS".
This is seen as a much better, though not perfect, indicator of a player's overall batting ability as it is a measure of hitting for average, hitting for power and drawing bases on balls. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; this skyrocketed batting averages, including some near.500, the experiment was abandoned the following season. The Major League Baseball batting averages championships is awarded annually to the player in each league who has the highest batting average. Ty Cobb holds the MLB record for most batting titles winning 11 in his pro career; the National League record of 8 batting titles is shared by Tony Gwynn. Most of Cobb's career and all of Wagner's career took place in what is known as the Dead-Ball Era, characterized by higher batting averages and much less power, whereas Gwynn's career took place in the Live-Ball Era. To determine which players are eligible to win the batting title, the following conditions have been used over the sport's history: Pre-1920 – A player is required to appear in at least 100 or more games when the schedule was 154 games, 90 games when the schedule was 140 games.
An exception to the rule was made for Ty Cobb in 1914, who appeared in 98 games but had a big lead and was a favorite of League President Ban Johnson. 1920–1949 – A player had to appear in 100 games to qualify in the National League.
In baseball, the field manager is the equivalent of a head coach, responsible for overseeing and making final decisions on all aspects of on-field team strategy, lineup selection and instruction. Managers are assisted by a staff of assistant coaches whose responsibilities are specialized. Field managers are not involved in off-field personnel decisions or long-term club planning, responsibilities that are instead held by a team's general manager; the manager chooses the batting order and starting pitcher before each game, makes substitutions throughout the game – among the most significant being those decisions regarding when to bring in a relief pitcher. How much control a manager takes in a game's strategy varies from manager to manager and from game to game; some managers control pitch selection, defensive positioning, decisions to bunt, pitch out, etc. while others designate an assistant coach or a player to make some or all of these decisions. Some managers choose to act as their team's first base or third base coach while their team is batting in order to more communicate with baserunners, but most managers delegate this responsibility to an assistant.
Managers are assisted by two or more coaches. In many cases, a manager is a former professional, college player. A high proportion of current and former managers played the central position of catcher during their playing days, including Yogi Berra, Bruce Bochy, Joe Girardi, Mike Scioscia, Joe Torre, Ned Yost; the manager's responsibilities are limited to in-game decisions, with off-field roster management and personnel decisions falling to the team's general manager. The term manager used without qualification always refers to the field manager, while the general manager is called the GM; this usage dates back to the early days of professional baseball when it was common practice for teams to have just one "manager" on their staff, where GM duties were performed either by the field manager or by the owner of the team. Some owners carried out both GM and field managerial duties themselves. Major League Baseball managers differ from the head coaches of most other professional sports in that they dress in the same uniform as the players and are assigned a jersey number.
The wearing of a matching uniform is practiced at other levels of play, as well. The manager may be called "skipper" or "skip" informally by his players. List of Major League Baseball managers List of Major League Baseball managers by wins List of Major League Baseball player–managers Major League Baseball Manager of the Year Award The Sporting News Manager of the Year Award This Year in Baseball Awards Sporting News Manager of the Decade Honor Rolls of Baseball American Baseball Coaches Association
1977 World Series
The 1977 World Series was the 74th edition of Major League Baseball's championship series. The best-of-seven playoff was contested between the New York Yankees, champions of the American League and defending American League champions, the Los Angeles Dodgers, champions of the National League; the Yankees defeated the Dodgers, four games to two, to win the franchise's 21st World Series championship, their first since 1962, the first under the ownership of George Steinbrenner. The Series was played between October 11 and 18, broadcast on ABC. During this Series, Reggie Jackson earned his nickname "Mr. October" for his heroics. Billy Martin won what would be his only World Series title as a manager after guiding the Yankees to a second straight pennant; the New York Yankees returned to the Fall Classic after being swept by the Cincinnati Reds the previous year. In free agency, the Yankees signed slugging right fielder Reggie Jackson for US$2.96 million over five years and Cincinnati Reds ace pitcher Don Gullett for $2 million over six years.
Two other key players were acquired by the Yankees through trades. Shortstop Bucky Dent was picked up from the Chicago White Sox for outfielder Oscar Gamble, pitcher LaMarr Hoyt, $200,000, and after only one year with the Oakland Athletics, pitcher Mike Torrez was acquired in exchange for pitcher Dock Ellis and utilitymen Marty Perez and Larry Murray. After a lackluster first half, the Yankees finished strong, winning 38 of their last 51 games edging both the Boston Red Sox and the Baltimore Orioles by 2 1⁄2 games. In amongst the star-laden lineup was an emerging superstar in the left arm of Ron Guidry. Early in the season Guidry was moved from the bullpen into the starting rotation, finishing 16-7 with a 2.82 ERA. The Yankees advanced to the World Series after beating the Kansas City Royals in an exciting fifth and final 1977 American League Championship Series game, winning it with three runs in the top of the ninth on a string of singles and a costly error by George Brett; the National League champion Los Angeles Dodgers were skippered by Tommy Lasorda, in his first full season as manager.
The 1977 Dodgers became the first team to have four players hit 30 or more home runs in one season, as Steve Garvey hit 33, Reggie Smith hit 32, Ron Cey hit 30, Dusty Baker hit 30. The pitching staff, which led the National League in ERA, 3.22, were led by 20-game winner, Tommy John and closer Charlie Hough with 22 saves. The Dodgers won 22 of their first 26 games, winning the Western Division by 10 games over the Cincinnati Reds eliminated the Philadelphia Phillies in the 1977 National League Championship Series in four games; the matchup of the Yankees and the Dodgers hearkened back to the World Series matchups between the two teams of the 1950s. SummaryAL New York Yankees vs. NL Los Angeles Dodgers Composite box scoreThis World Series is notable for being one of the few six-game series in which the winning team was outscored, it happened in 1918 and 1959 and in 1992, 1996, 2003. Seven-game series winners were outscored in 1957, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1991, 1997, 2002; the Dodgers scored twice in the top of the first inning, when Davey Lopes walked and scored on a Bill Russell triple off Don Gullett.
Ron Cey made it 2–0 on a sacrifice fly. In the bottom of the inning, the Yankees responded with consecutive two-out singles by Thurman Munson, Reggie Jackson, Chris Chambliss, scoring Munson. In the top of the sixth, Steve Garvey beat out a bunt and, with one out, attempted to score from first on a hit-and-run single to center field by Glenn Burke. Mickey Rivers, who did not possess a strong throwing arm, threw home. Replays showed Garvey beat the tag but he was called out at the plate; the Yankees tied it in their half of the sixth. The Yankees took the lead in the eighth. In the inning, the Yankees loaded the bases with one out, but Dodger reliever Elías Sosa struck out Lou Piniella and retired Bucky Dent on a forceout to end the threat; the Dodgers tied it at 3–3 in the ninth. Dusty Baker led off with a single and was picked off first when pinch-hitter Manny Mota failed on a bunt attempt. Mota flied out. In extra innings, the Yankees got their leadoff hitters on in both the tenth and eleventh innings, but did not score due to failure to lay down sacrifice bunts.
In the twelfth, Randolph led off and doubled and Munson was walked intentionally. Yankee manager Billy Martin at first wanted Paul Blair, the next hitter, to try to sacrifice again, but after two failed attempts, Martin had Blair hit away and Blair singled home Randolph with the game-winner. 1977 AL Cy Young award winner Sparky Lyle took the win in Game 1 and, coupled with his wins in Games 4 and 5 of the 1977 ALCS, to this day is the only pitcher to win three consecutive decisions in a single postseason. With aces Ron Guidry and Mike Torrez having both pitched in Game 5 of the ALCS, Billy Martin was forced to use a sore-shouldered Catfish Hunter in Game 2; the Dodgers hit three homers in the first three innings off Hunter, as Ron Cey hit a two-run home run in the first, Steve Yeager a home run in the second, Reggie Smith a two-run home run in the third. Steve Garvey hit a home run in the ninth off of Sparky Lyle. Burt Hooton pitched a five-hit complete game, allowing only run one in the fourth on Reggie Jackson's ground ball double play after Willie Randolph and Thurman Munson led off the inning with back-to-back singles.
Hooton made amends for his meltdown in Game 3 of the 197
Kansas City Royals
The Kansas City Royals are an American professional baseball team based in Kansas City, Missouri. The Royals compete in Major League Baseball as a member team of the American League Central division; the team was founded as an expansion franchise in 1969, has participated in four World Series, winning in 1985 and 2015, losing in 1980 and 2014. The name Royals pays homage to the American Royal, a livestock show, horse show and championship barbeque competition held annually in Kansas City since 1899 as well as the identical names of two former negro league baseball teams that played in the first half of the 20th century; the Los Angeles team could not use the Monarchs name. The name fits into something of a theme for other professional sports franchises in the city, including the Kansas City Chiefs of the NFL, the former Kansas City Kings of the NBA, the former Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro National League. In 1968, the team held a name-the-team contest. Sanford Porte, a bridge engineer from the suburb of Overland Park, Kansas was named the winner for his “Royals” entry.
His reason had nothing to do with royalty. “Kansas City’s new baseball team should be called the Royals because of Missouri’s billion-dollar livestock income, Kansas City’s position as the nation’s leading stocker and feeder market and the nationally known American Royal parade and pageant,” Porte wrote. The team's board voted 6-1 on the name, with the only opposition coming from team owner Ewing Kauffman, who changed his vote and said the name had grown on him. Entering the American League in 1969 along with the Seattle Pilots, the club was founded by Kansas City businessman Ewing Kauffman; the franchise was established following the actions of Stuart Symington, then-United States Senator from Missouri, who demanded a new franchise for the city after the Athletics moved to Oakland, California in 1968. Since April 10, 1973, the Royals have played at Kauffman Stadium known as Royals Stadium; the new team became a powerhouse, appearing in the playoffs seven times from 1976 to 1985, winning one World Series championship and another AL pennant, led by stars such as Amos Otis, Hal McRae, John Mayberry, George Brett, Frank White, Willie Wilson, Bret Saberhagen.
The team remained competitive throughout the early 1990s, but had only one winning season from 1995 to 2012. For 28 consecutive seasons, the Royals did not qualify to play in the MLB postseason, one of the longest postseason droughts during baseball's current wild-card era; the team broke this streak in 2014 by securing the franchise's first wild card berth and advancing to the World Series. The Royals followed this up by winning the team's first Central Division title in 2015 and defeating the New York Mets for their first World Series title in 30 years; the Royals began play in 1969 in Missouri. In their inaugural game, on April 8, 1969, the Royals defeated the Minnesota Twins 4–3 in 12 innings; the team was built through a number of trades engineered by its first General Manager, Cedric Tallis, including a trade for Lou Piniella, who won the Rookie of the Year during the Royals' inaugural season, center fielder Amos Otis, who became the team's first great star, first baseman John Mayberry, who provided power, second baseman Cookie Rojas, shortstop Fred Patek, designated hitter Hal McRae, others.
The Royals invested in a strong farm system and soon developed such future stars as pitchers Paul Splittorff, Dennis Leonard, Steve Busby, infielders George Brett and Frank White, outfielder Al Cowens. In 1971, the Royals had their first winning season, with manager Bob Lemon leading them to a second-place finish. In 1973, under manager Jack McKeon, the Royals adopted their iconic "powder blue" road uniforms and moved from Municipal Stadium to the brand-new Royals Stadium; the 1973 All-Star Game was hosted at Royals Stadium, with Otis and Mayberry in the AL starting lineup. The event was held at Municipal Stadium in 1960, when the Athletics were based in Kansas City. Manager Whitey Herzog replaced McKeon in 1975, the Royals became the dominant franchise in the American League's Western Division, winning three straight division championships from 1976 to 1978. However, the Royals lost to the New York Yankees in three straight American League Championship Series encounters. After the Royals finished in second place in 1979, Herzog was replaced by Jim Frey.
Under Frey, the Royals rebounded in 1980 and advanced to the ALCS, where they again faced the Yankees. The Royals vanquished the Yankees in a three-game sweep punctuated by a George Brett home run off of Yankees' star relief pitcher Goose Gossage. After reaching their first World Series, the Royals fell to the Philadelphia Phillies in six games. Game 6 was significant because it remains the most-watched game in World Series history with a television audience of 54.9 million viewers. In July 1983, while the Royals were headed for a second-place finish behind the Chicago White Sox another chapter in the team's rivalry with the New York Yankees occurred. In what has come to be known as "the Pine Tar Incident", umpires discovered illegal placement of pine tar on third baseman George Brett's bat after he had hit a two-run home run off Gossage that put the Royals up 5–4 in the top of the 9th. After Y
Hialeah is a city in Miami-Dade County, United States. With the population of 239,673 at the 2018 United States Census, Hialeah is the sixth-largest city in Florida, it is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. It is located west-northwest of Miami, is the only place in the county, other than Homestead, Florida, to have its own street grid numbered separately from the rest of the county. Hialeah has the highest percentage of Cuban and Cuban American residents of any city in the United States, at 73.37% of the population, making them a typical and prominent feature of the city's culture. All Hispanics make up 94.7% of the city's population, the second-highest percentage of a Hispanic population in a U. S. city with over 100,000 citizens. Hialeah has one of the largest Spanish-speaking communities in the country. In 2016, 96.3% of residents reported speaking Spanish at home, the language is an important part of daily life in the city.
Hialeah is served by the Miami Metrorail at Okeechobee and Tri-Rail/Metrorail Transfer stations. The Okeechobee and Hialeah stations serve as park-and-ride commuter stations to commuters and residents going into Downtown Miami, Tri-Rail station to Miami International Airport and north to West Palm Beach; the city's name is most attributed to Muskogee origin, "Haiyakpo" and "hili" combining in "Hialeah" to mean "pretty prairie". Alternatively, the word is of Seminole origin meaning "Upland Prairie"; the city is located upon a large prairie between the Everglades. The Seminole interpretation of its name, "High Prairie", evokes a picture of the grassy plains used by the native Indians coming from the everglades to dock their canoes and display their wares for the newcomers of Miami; this "high prairie" caught the eye of pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss and Missouri cattleman James H. Bright in 1921. Together, they developed not only the town of Hialeah but Hialeah Park Race Track. In the early "Roaring'20s", Hialeah produced significant entertainment contributions.
Sporting included the Spanish sport of jai alai and greyhound racing, media included silent movies like D. W. Griffith's The White Rose, made at the Miami Movie Studios located in Hialeah. However, the 1926 Miami hurricane brought many of these things to an end. In the years since its incorporation in 1925, many historical events and people have been associated with Hialeah; the opening of the horse racing course at Hialeah Park Race Track in 1925 received more coverage in the Miami media than any other sporting event in the history of Dade County up to that time and since there have been countless horse racing histories played out at the world-famous 220-acre park. It was considered one of the most grand of thoroughbred horse racing parks with its majestic Mediterranean style architecture and was considered the Jewel of Hialeah at the time; the park's grandeur has attracted millions, included among them are names known around the world such as the Kennedy family, Harry Truman, General Omar Bradley, Winston Churchill, J.
P. Morgan; the Hialeah Park Race Track holds the dual distinction of being an Audubon Bird Sanctuary due to its famous pink flamingos and being listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The famous aviator Amelia Earhart in 1937 said her final good-byes to the continental U. S. from Hialeah as she left on her ill-fated flight around the world in 1937. While Hialeah was once envisioned as a playground for the elite, Cuban exiles, fleeing Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution as well as World War II veterans and city planners transformed the city into a working-class community. Hialeah historian Patricia Fernández-Kelly explained "It became an affordable Eden." She further describes the city as "a place where different groups have left their imprint while trying to create a sample of what life should be like." Several waves of Cuban exiles, starting after the Cuban Revolution in 1959 and continuing through to the Freedom Flights from 1965 to 1973, the Mariel boatlift in 1980, the Balseros or boat people of the late 1990s, created what at least one expert has considered the most economically successful immigrant enclave in U.
S. history as Hialeah is the only American industrial city. From a population of 1,500 in 1925, Hialeah has grown at a rate faster than most of the 10 larger cities in the state of Florida since the 1960s and holds the rank of Florida's fifth-largest city, with more than 224,000 residents; the city is one of the largest employers in Dade County. In January 2009, Forbes magazine listed Hialeah as one of the most boring cities in the United States citing the city's large population and anonymity in the national media. Hialeah is located at 25°51′38″N 80°17′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.7 square miles. 19.2 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it is water. Unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Miami Lakes, Opa-locka Unincorporated Miami-Dade County Westview Hialeah Gardens, Miami Springs Westview, West Little River, Brownsville, Miami Miami Springs Miami Hialeah Gardens, Miami Springs Hialeah is the tenth-largest city in the United States among cities with a population density of more than 10,000 people per square mile.
As of 2010, there were 74,067 households, with 3.9% being vacant. As of 2000, 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no hus
Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball or softball fielding position between second and third base, considered to be among the most demanding defensive positions. The position was assigned to defensive specialists who were poor at batting and were placed at the bottom of the batting order. Today shortstops are able to hit well and many are placed at the top of the lineup. In the numbering system used by scorers to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6. More hit balls go to the shortstop than to any other position, as there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly. Like a second baseman, a shortstop must be agile, for example. Like a third baseman, the shortstop fields balls hit to the left side of the infield, where a strong arm is needed to throw out a batter-runner before they reach the safety of first base. Doc Adams of the Knickerbockers created the concept of the shortstop position, according to baseball historian John Thorn and Baseball Hall of Fame researcher Freddy Berowski.
In the first five years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded anywhere from eight to eleven players. The only infielders were the players covering each of the bases; the outfielders had difficulty throwing baseballs into the infield, because of the balls' light weight. Adams' shortstop position, which he started playing at some time from 1849 to 1850, was used to field throws from the outfielders and throw to the three infielders. With the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to the infield, since the distance the balls could travel increased. Adams had a long playing career with the Knickerbockers: he remained a player with the team until 1860. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the shortstop and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once the play begins; the shortstop ordinarily is positioned near second base on the third-base side. Because right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball more toward third base, a shortstop will move closer to third base if the batter is batting right-handed, more toward first base if the batter is batting left-handed.
A shortstop has a strong throwing arm, because he has a long throw to first base, has less time in which to make a throw, given that the ground balls he fields have traveled far. A shortstop must be agile, because balls hit to or near the shortstop position are hit harder than to other infield positions. Shortstops are required to cover second base in double play situations when the ball is hit to the second baseman or first baseman, they cover second when a runner is attempting a stolen base, but only when a left-handed hitter is batting. This is because the infield will respond to a left-handed batter by shifting toward first base, resulting in the shortstop being the infielder, closest to second base. Shortstops must cover third at various times, including the rotation play. Shortstops are given precedence on catching pop-ups in the infield as well, so they end up calling off other players many times, although on deep pop-ups they fall back when called off by an outfielder, they become the cutoff man on balls to any part of the outfield that are being directed towards third base and all balls to left and center field that are destined for second base.
Depending on the system the shortstop may cut balls from left field heading home. The emphasis on defense makes the position unusually difficult to fill. A strong shortstop did not have to be a good hitter; some of the weakest hitters in Major League Baseball have played the position, including Mario Mendoza, for whom George Brett popularized the eponymous Mendoza Line to describe a batting average below.200. Since the 1960s, such mediocre hitting has become rarer as teams demand players with ability to both field and hit. In practice, a marginal fielder as a shortstop who hits well can be moved to any other position second base or third base, whether early in their careers or due to diminished fielding range, slower reflexes, weaker throwing arms, increased risk of injury, or co-existence with another dominant shortstop, as with Ernie Banks, Cal Ripken Jr. Alex Rodríguez, Michael Young, or Miguel Tejada; the year in which the player was inducted is given in brackets after his name. John Henry Lloyd and Willie Wells were elected for their play in the Negro Leagues.
George Wright was elected as a pioneer, but starred as a shortstop in the 1860s and 1870s. Robin Yount started his career as a shortstop, moved to the outfield where he played his last nine seasons. Ernie Banks played shortstop for the first half of first base for the remainder. Ozzie Smith: 621 Glenn Wright: 601 Dave Bancroft: 598 (Philadelphia Phillies/New York Gia
Chicago White Sox
The Chicago White Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The White Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League Central division; the White Sox are owned by Jerry Reinsdorf, play their home games at Guaranteed Rate Field, located on the city's South Side. They are one of two major league clubs in Chicago. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the franchise was established as a major league baseball club in 1901; the club was called the Chicago White Stockings, but this was soon shortened to Chicago White Sox. The team played home games at South Side Park before moving to Comiskey Park in 1910, where they played until Guaranteed Rate Field opened in 1991; the White Sox won the 1906 World Series with a defense-oriented team dubbed "the Hitless Wonders", the 1917 World Series led by Eddie Cicotte, Eddie Collins, Shoeless Joe Jackson. The 1919 World Series was marred by the Black Sox Scandal, in which several members of the White Sox were accused of conspiring with gamblers to fix games.
In response, Major League Baseball's new Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned the players from Major League Baseball for life. In 1959, led by Early Wynn, Nellie Fox, Luis Aparicio and manager Al López, the White Sox won the American League pennant, they won the AL pennant in 2005, went on to win the World Series, led by World Series MVP Jermaine Dye, Paul Konerko, Mark Buehrle, catcher A. J. Pierzynski, the first Latino manager to win the World Series, Ozzie Guillén. For 1901-2018, the White Sox have an overall record of 9211-9126; the White Sox originated as the Sioux City Cornhuskers of the Western League, a minor league under the parameters of the National Agreement with the National League. In 1894, Charles Comiskey bought the Cornhuskers and moved them to St. Paul, where they became the St. Paul Saints. In 1900, with the approval of Western League president Ban Johnson, Charles Comiskey moved the Saints into his hometown neighborhood of Armour Square, where they became known as the White Stockings, the former name of Chicago's National League team, the Orphans.
In 1901, the Western League broke the National Agreement and became the new major league American League. The first season in the American League ended with a White Stockings championship. However, that would be the end of the season as the World Series did not begin until 1903; the franchise, now known as the Chicago White Sox, made its first World Series appearance in 1906, beating the crosstown Cubs in six games. The White Sox would win a third pennant and second World Series in 1917, beating the New York Giants in six games with help from stars Eddie Cicotte and "Shoeless" Joe Jackson; the Sox were favored in the 1919 World Series, but lost to the Cincinnati Reds in 8 games. Huge bets on the Reds fueled speculation. A criminal investigation went on in the 1920 season, though all players were acquitted, commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned eight of the White Sox players for life, in what was known as the Black Sox Scandal; this set the franchise back. The White Sox did not finish in the upper half of the American League again until after club founder Charles Comiskey died and passed ownership of the club to his son, J. Louis Comiskey.
They finished in the upper half most years between 1936–1946 under the leadership of manager Jimmy Dykes, with star shortstop Luke Appling, known as Ol' Aches and Pains, pitcher Ted Lyons. Appling and Lyons have their numbers 16 retired. After J. Louis Comiskey died in 1939, ownership of the club was passed down to his widow, Grace Comiskey; the club was passed down to Grace's children Dorothy and Chuck in 1956, with Dorothy selling a majority share to a group led by Bill Veeck after the 1958 season. Veeck was notorious for his promotional stunts, attracting fans to Comiskey Park with the new "exploding scoreboard" and outfield shower. In 1961, Arthur Allyn, Jr. owned the club before selling to his brother John Allyn. From 1951 to 1967, the White Sox had their longest period of sustained success, scoring a winning record for 17 straight seasons. Known as the "Go-Go White Sox" for their tendency to focus on speed and getting on base versus power hitting, they featured stars such as Minnie Miñoso, Nellie Fox, Luis Aparicio, Billy Pierce, Sherm Lollar.
From 1957 to 1965, the Sox were managed by Al López. The Sox finished in the upper half of the American League in eight of his nine seasons, including six years in the top two of the league. In 1959, the White Sox ended the New York Yankees dominance over the American League, won their first pennant since the ill-fated 1919 campaign. Despite winning game one of the 1959 World Series 11-0, they fell to the Los Angeles Dodgers in six games; the late 1960s and 70s were a tumultuous time for the Sox, as they struggled to win games and attract fans. Allyn and Bud Selig agreed to a handshake deal that would give Selig control of the club and move them to Milwaukee. Selig instead bought the Seattle Pilots and moved them to Milwaukee, putting enormous pressure on the American League to place a team in Seattle. A plan was in place for the Sox to move to Seattle and for Charlie Finley to move his Oakland A's to Chicago. However, Chicago had a renewed interest in the Sox after the 1972 season, the American League instead added the expansion Seattle Mariners.
The 1972 White Sox were one of the lone successful sea