Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa. It thrives in wet locations where its association with the bacterium Frankia alni enables it to grow in poor quality soils, it is short-lived tree growing to a height of up to 30 metres. It has separate male and female flower in the form of catkins; the small, rounded fruits are cone-like and the seeds are dispersed by wind and water. The common alder provides food and shelter to wildlife, with a number of insects and fungi being dependent on the tree, it is a pioneer species, colonising vacant land and forming mixed forests as other trees appear in its wake. Common alder dies out of woodlands because the seedlings need more light than is available on the forest floor, its more usual habitat is forest edges and riverside corridors. The timber has been used in underwater foundations and for manufacture into paper and fibreboard, for smoking foods, for joinery and carving.
Products of the tree have been used in ethnobotany, providing folk remedies for various ailments, research has shown that extracts of the seeds are active against pathogenic bacteria. In the Midwest, Alnus glutinosa is an invasive terrestrial plant soon to be banned in Indiana. Alnus glutinosa is a tree that thrives in moist soils, grows under favourable circumstances to a height of 20 to 30 metres and exceptionally up to 37 metres. Young trees have an upright habit of growth with a main axial stem but older trees develop an arched crown with crooked branches; the base of the trunk produces adventitious roots which grow down to the soil and may appear to be propping the trunk up. The bark of young trees is smooth and greenish-brown while in older trees it is dark grey and fissured; the branches are somewhat sticky, being scattered with resinous warts. The buds have short stalks. Both male and female catkins remain dormant during the winter; the leaves of the common alder are short-stalked, rounded, up to 10 cm long with a wedge-shaped base and a wavy, serrated margin.
They have a glossy dark green upper surface and paler green underside with rusty-brown hairs in the angles of the veins. As with some other trees growing near water, the common alder keeps its leaves longer than do trees in drier situations, the leaves remain green late into the autumn; as the Latin name glutinosa implies, the buds and young leaves are sticky with a resinous gum. The species is monoecious and the flowers are wind-pollinated. During the autumn they become dark brown to black in colour, somewhat woody, superficially similar to small conifer cones, they last through the winter and the small winged seeds are scattered the following spring. The seeds are flattened; this enables them to float for about a month. Unlike some other species of tree, common alders do not produce shade leaves; the respiration rate of shaded foliage is the same as well-lit leaves but the rate of assimilation is lower. This means that as a tree in woodland grows taller, the lower branches die and soon decay, leaving a small crown and unbranched trunk.
Alnus glutinosa was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, as one of two varieties of alder, which he regarded as a single species Betula alnus. In 1785, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck treated it as a full species under the name Betula glutinosa, its present scientific name is due to Joseph Gaertner, who in 1791 accepted the separation of alders from birches, transferred the species to Alnus. The epithet glutinosa means "sticky", referring to the young shoots. Within the genus Alnus, the common alder is placed in subgenus Alnus as part of a related group of species including the grey alder, Alnus incana, with which it hybridizes to form the hybrid A. × hybrida. The common alder is native to the whole of continental Europe as well as the United Kingdom and Ireland. In Asia its range includes Turkey and Kazakhstan, in Africa it is found in Tunisia and Morocco, it is naturalised in the Azores. It has been introduced, either by accident or by intent, to Canada, the United States, South Africa and New Zealand.
Its natural habitat is in moist ground near rivers and lakes but it can grow in drier locations and sometimes occurs in mixed woodland and on forest edges. It tolerates a range of soil types and grows best at a pH of between 5.5 and 7.2. Because of its association with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Frankia alni, it can grow in nutrient-poor soils where few other trees thrive; the common alder is most noted for its symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Frankia alni, which forms nodules on the tree's roots. This bacterium fixes it in a form available to the tree. In return, the bacterium receives; this relationship, which improves the fertility of the soil, has established the common alder as an important pioneer species in ecological succession. The common alder is susceptible to Phytophthora alni, a evolved species of oomycete plant pathogen of hybrid origin; this is the causal agent of phytophthora disease of alder, causing extensive mortality of the trees in som
The genus Aesculus, with varieties called buckeye and horse chestnut, comprises 13–19 species of flowering plants in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. They are trees and shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with six species native to North America and seven to 13 species native to Eurasia. Several hybrids occur. Aesculus exhibits a classical arcto-Tertiary distribution. Linnaeus named the genus Aesculus after the Roman name for an edible acorn. Common names for these trees include "buckeye" and "horse chestnut", though they are not in the same order as chestnut trees; some are called white chestnut or red chestnut. In Britain, they are sometimes called conker trees because of their link with the game of conkers, played with the seeds called conkers. Aesculus species have stout shoots with resinous sticky, buds. Species are evergreen. Flowers are showy, insect- or bird-pollinated, with four or five petals fused into a lobed corolla tube, arranged in a panicle inflorescence.
Flowering starts after 80–110 growing degree days. The fruit matures to a capsule known as a catjacket, 2–5 cm diameter globose, containing one to three seeds per capsule. Capsules containing more than one seed result in flatness on one side of the seeds; the point of attachment of the seed in the capsule shows as a large circular whitish scar. The capsule epidermis has "spines" in some species, while other capsules are smooth. At maturity, the capsule splits into three sections to release the seeds. Aesculus seeds were traditionally eaten, after leaching, by the Jōmon people of Japan over about four millennia, until 300 AD. All parts of the buckeye or horse chestnut tree are moderately toxic, including the nut-like seeds; the toxin affects the gastrointestinal system. The USDA notes that the toxicity is due to saponin aescin and glucoside aesculin, with alkaloids contributing. Native Americans used to crush the seeds and the resulting mash was thrown into still or sluggish waterbodies to stun or kill fish.
They boiled and drained the fish at least three times to dilute the toxin's effects. New shoots from the seeds have been known to kill grazing cattle; the genus has traditionally been treated in the ditypic family Hippocastanaceae along with Billia, but recent phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data has caused this family, along with the Aceraceae, to be included in the soapberry family. The species of Aesculus include: The most familiar member of the genus worldwide is the common horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum; the yellow buckeye, Aesculus flava, is a valuable ornamental tree with yellow flowers, but is less planted. Among the smaller species is the bottlebrush buckeye, Aesculus parviflora, a flowering shrub. Several other members of the genus are used as ornamentals, several horticultural hybrids have been developed, most notably the red horse chestnut Aesculus × carnea, a hybrid between A. hippocastanum and A. pavia. Interpretations of the tree leaves can be seen in architectural details in the Reims Cathedral.
Leaf of Aesculus was the official symbol of the Kiev City during the Soviet Russia control of Ukraine, reflecting the consistent policy of cultivating the tree in the city since the late 20th century. In the 1840 U. S. Presidential Campaign, candidate William Henry Harrison called himself the "log cabin and hard cider candidate", portraying himself sitting in a log cabin made of buckeye logs and drinking hard cider, causing Ohio to become known as "the Buckeye State". Media related to Aesculus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Aesculus at Wikispecies Germplasm Resources Information Network: Aesculus Forest, F. Drouin, J. N. Charest, R. Brouillet, L. & Bruneau A.. A morphological phylogenetic analysis of Aesculus L. and Billia Peyr.. Can. J. Bot. 79: 154–169. Abstract. Aesculus glabra King's American Dispensatory Winter ID pictures
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig. It is the source of the fruit called the fig and as such is an important crop in those areas where it is grown commercially. Native to the Middle East and western Asia, it has been sought out and cultivated since ancient times and is now grown throughout the world, both for its fruit and as an ornamental plant; the species has become naturalized in scattered locations in North America. The term fig, first recorded in English in the 13th century, is borrowed from French figue, itself from Occitan figa, from Romance *fica for Classical Latin ficus "fig, fig-tree". Italian has fico, directly inherited from Latin ficus; the name of the caprifig is derived both from Latin capro referring to billygoat and from English fig. Ficus carica is a gynodioecious, deciduous tree or large shrub, growing to a height of 7–10 metres, with smooth white bark, its fragrant leaves are 12–25 centimetres long and 10–18 centimetres across, lobed with three or five lobes.
The complex inflorescence consists of a hollow fleshy structure called the syconium, lined with numerous unisexual flowers. The flowers themselves are not visible from outside the syconium, as they bloom inside the infructescence. Although referred to as a fruit, the fig is the infructescence or scion of the tree, known as a false fruit or multiple fruit, in which the flowers and seeds are borne, it is a hollow-ended stem containing many flowers. The small orifice visible on the middle of the fruit is a narrow passage, which allows the specialized fig wasp Blastophaga psenes to enter the fruit and pollinate the flower, whereafter the fruit grows seeds. See Ficus: Fig fruit and reproduction system; the edible fruit consists of the mature syconium containing numerous one-seeded fruits. The fruit is 3 -- 5 centimetres long, with a green skin, sometimes ripening towards brown. Ficus carica has milky sap; the sap of the fig's green parts is an irritant to human skin. The common fig tree has been cultivated since ancient times and grows wild in dry and sunny areas, with deep and fresh soil.
It prefers light free-draining soils, can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Unlike other fig species, Ficus carica does not always require pollination by a wasp or from another tree, but can be pollinated by the fig wasp, Blastophaga psenes to produce seeds. Fig wasps are not present to pollinate in colder countries like the United Kingdom; the plant can tolerate seasonal drought, the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean climate is suitable for the plant. Situated in a favorable habitat, old specimens when mature can reach a considerable size and form a large dense shade tree, its aggressive root system precludes its use in many urban areas of cities, but in nature helps the plant to take root in the most inhospitable areas. The common fig tree is a phreatophyte that lives in areas with standing or running water, it grows well in the valleys of the rivers and ravines saving no water, having strong need of water, extracted from the ground. The deep-rooted plant searches groundwater, in ravines, or cracks in the rocks.
The fig tree, with the water, cools the environment in hot places, creating a fresh and pleasant habitat for many animals that take shelter in its shade in the times of intense heat. The mountain or rock fig is a wild variety, tolerant of cold dry climates, of the semi-arid rocky mountainous regions of Iran in the Kohestan Mountains of Khorasan. There is a practice among the Italian diaspora living in cold-winter climates of burying fig trees to overwinter them and protect the fruit-producing hard wood from cold; this is a common practice introduced by Italian immigrants in the 19th century in cities such as New York, Philadelphia and Toronto, where winters are too cold to leave the tree exposed. A trench is dug appropriate to the size of the tree, part of the root ball is severed, the tree is bent into the hole, it is wrapped in waterproof material to discourage mould and fungus from developing covered with a heavy layer of soil and fallen leaves. Sometimes plywood or corrugated metal is placed on top to secure the tree in place.
In borderline climates like New York City burying the trees is no longer a requirement as winter lows have become milder. They are wrapped in plastic and other insulating material, or not protected at all if planted in a sheltered spot against a sun-reflecting wall. Ficus carica is dispersed by mammals that scatter their seeds in droppings. Fig fruit is an important food source for much of the fauna in some areas, the tree owes its expansion to those that feed on its fruit; the common fig tree sprouts from the root and stolon tissues. The infructescence is pollinated by a symbiosis with a kind of fig wasp; the fertilized female wasp enters the fig through the scion. She pollinates some of the female flowers, she dies. After weeks of development in their galls, the male wasps emerge before females through holes they produce by chewing the galls; the male wasps fertilize the females by depositing semen in the hole in the gall. The males return to the females and enlarge the holes to enable the females to emerge.
Some males enlarge holes in the scion, which enables female
Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers. Members are called lotus, though "lotus" is a name applied to various other plants and plant groups, including the unrelated genus Lotus. Members outwardly resemble those in the family Nymphaeaceae, but Nelumbo is very distant to Nymphaeaceae. "Nelumbo" is derived from the Sinhalese word Sinhala: නෙළුම් neḷum, the name for the lotus Nelumbo nucifera. There are only two known living species of lotus, it is cultivated. This species is the floral emblem of both Vietnam; the other lotus is native to North America and the Caribbean. Horticultural hybrids have been produced between these two allopatric species. There are several fossil species known from Cretaceous and Neogene aged strata throughout Eurasia and North America. Nelumbo lutea Willd. – American lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. – sacred or Indian lotus known as the Rose of India and the sacred water lily of Hinduism and Buddhism. It is the national flower of Vietnam, its roots and seeds are used in Asian cooking.
†Nelumbo aureavallis Hickey – Eocene, described from leaves found in the Golden Valley Formation in North Dakota, USA. †Nelumbo changchangensis Eocene, described from several fossils of leaves and rhizomes from the Eocene-aged strata in the Changchang Basin, of Hainan Island. †Nelumbo minima Pliocene, described from leaves and seedpods that suggest a small plant. Described as a member of the genus Nelumbites, as "Nelumbites minimus." †Nelumbo nipponica Eocene-Miocene, fossil leaves are known from Eocene-aged strata in Japan, Miocene-aged strata in Russia. †Nelumbo orientalis Cretaceous, one of the oldest known species, fossils are found in Cretaceous-aged strata of Japan. †Nelumbo protolutea Eocene, fossils of leaves suggest a plant similar in form to the American lotus. There is residual disagreement. Traditional classification systems recognized Nelumbo as part of the Nymphaeaceae, but traditional taxonomists were misled by convergent evolution associated with an evolutionary shift from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle.
In the older classification systems it was recognized under the biological order Nymphaeales or Nelumbonales. Nelumbo is recognized as a only living genus in Nelumbonaceae, one of several distinctive families in the eudicot order of the Proteales, its closest living relatives, are shrubs or trees. The leaves of Nelumbo can be distinguished from those of genera in the Nymphaeaceae as they are peltate, they have circular leaves. Nymphaea, on the other hand, has a single characteristic notch from the edge in to the center of the lily pad; the seedpod of Nelumbo is distinctive. The APG IV system of 2016, recognizes Nelumbonaceae as a distinct family and places it in the order Proteales in the eudicot clade, as do the earlier APG III and APG II systems; the Cronquist system of 1981 recognizes the family but places it in the water lily order Nymphaeales. The Dahlgren system of 1985 and Thorne system of 1992 both recognize the family and place it in its own order, Nelumbonales; the USDA still classifies the lotus family within the water lily order.
The leaves of nelumbo are water-repellent and have given the name to what is called the lotus effect. Ultrahydrophobicity involves two criteria: a high water contact angle between the droplet of water and the leaf surface, a low roll-off angle; this means that the water must contact the leaf surface at one, miniscule point, any manipulation of the leaf by changing its angle will result in the water droplet rolling off of the leaf. Ultrahydrophobicity is conferred by the dense layer of papillae on the surface of the Nelumbo leaves, the small, waxy tubules that protrude off each papillae; this helps reduce the area of contact between the leaf. Ultrahydrophobicity is said to confer a important evolutionary advantage; as an aquatic plant with leaves that rest on the water's surface, the genus Nelumbo is characterized by its concentration of stomata on the upper epidermis of its leaves, unlike most other plants which concentrate their stomata on the lower epidermis, underneath the leaf. The collection of water on the upper epidermis, whether that be by rain, mist, or the nearby disturbance of water, is detrimental to the leaf's ability to perform gas exchange through its stomata.
Thus, Nelumbo's ultrahydrophobicity allows the water droplets to accumulate together quickly, roll off of the leaf easily at the slightest disturbance of the leaf, a process which allows its stomata to function without restriction due to blockage by water droplets. A unique property of the genus Nelumbo is. Which it does by using the alternative oxidase pathway; this pathway involves a different, alternative exchange of electrons from the usual pathway that electrons follow when generating energy in mitochondria, known as the AOX, or alternative oxidase pathway. The typical pathway in plant mitochondria involves cytochrome complexes; the pathway used to generate heat in Nelumbo involves cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase, a different electron acceptor than the usual cytochrome complexes. The plant reduces ubiquitin concentrations while in thermogenesis, which allows the AOX in the plant to function without degrada
Paleobotany spelled as palaeobotany, is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, their use for the biological reconstruction of past environments, both the evolutionary history of plants, with a bearing upon the evolution of life in general. A synonym is paleophytology. Paleobotany includes the study of terrestrial plant fossils, as well as the study of prehistoric marine photoautotrophs, such as photosynthetic algae, seaweeds or kelp. A related field is palynology, the study of fossilized and extant spores and pollen. Paleobotany is important in the reconstruction of ancient ecological systems and climate, known as paleoecology and paleoclimatology respectively. Paleobotany has become important to the field of archaeology for the use of phytoliths in relative dating and in paleoethnobotany; the emergence of paleobotany as a scientific discipline can be seen in the early 19th century in the works of the German palaeontologist Ernst Friedrich von Schlotheim, the Czech nobleman and scholar Kaspar Maria von Sternberg, the French botanist Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart.
Macroscopic remains of true vascular plants are first found in the fossil record during the Silurian Period of the Paleozoic era. Some dispersed, fragmentary fossils of disputed affinity spores and cuticles, have been found in rocks from the Ordovician Period in Oman, are thought to derive from liverwort- or moss-grade fossil plants. An important early land plant fossil locality is the Rhynie Chert, found outside the village of Rhynie in Scotland; the Rhynie chert is an Early Devonian sinter deposit composed of silica. It is exceptional due to its preservation of several different clades of plants, from mosses and lycopods to more unusual, problematic forms. Many fossil animals, including arthropods and arachnids, are found in the Rhynie Chert, it offers a unique window on the history of early terrestrial life. Plant-derived macrofossils become abundant in the Late Devonian and include tree trunks and roots; the earliest tree was thought to be Archaeopteris, which bears simple, fern-like leaves spirally arranged on branches atop a conifer-like trunk, though it is now known to be the discovered Wattieza.
Widespread coal swamp deposits across North America and Europe during the Carboniferous Period contain a wealth of fossils containing arborescent lycopods up to 30 meters tall, abundant seed plants, such as conifers and seed ferns, countless smaller, herbaceous plants. Angiosperms evolved during the Mesozoic, flowering plant pollen and leaves first appear during the Early Cretaceous 130 million years ago. A plant fossil is any preserved part of a plant; such fossils may be prehistoric impressions that are many millions of years old, or bits of charcoal that are only a few hundred years old. Prehistoric plants are various groups of plants. Plant fossils can be preserved in a variety of ways, each of which can give different types of information about the original parent plant; these modes of preservation are discussed in the general pages on fossils but may be summarised in a palaeobotanical context as follows. Adpressions; these are the most found type of plant fossil. They provide good morphological detail of dorsiventral plant parts such as leaves.
If the cuticle is preserved, they can yield fine anatomical detail of the epidermis. Little other detail of cellular anatomy is preserved. Petrifactions; these provide fine detail of the cell anatomy of the plant tissue. Morphological detail can be determined by serial sectioning, but this is both time consuming and difficult. Moulds and casts; these only tend to preserve the more robust plant parts such as seeds or woody stems. They can provide information about the three-dimensional form of the plant, in the case of casts of tree stumps can provide evidence of the density of the original vegetation. However, they preserve any fine morphological detail or cell anatomy. A subset of such fossils are pith casts, where the centre of a stem is either hollow or has delicate pith. After death, sediment forms a cast of the central cavity of the stem; the best known examples of pith casts are in cordaites. Authigenic mineralisations; these can provide fine, three-dimensional morphological detail, have proved important in the study of reproductive structures that can be distorted in adpressions.
However, as they are formed in mineral nodules, such fossils can be of large size. Fusain. Fire destroys plant tissue but sometimes charcoalified remains can preserve fine morphological detail, lost in other modes of preservation. Fusain fossils are delicate and small, but because of their buoyancy can drift for long distances and can thus provide evidence of vegetation away from areas of sedimentation. Plant fossils always represent disarticulated parts of plants; those few examples of plant fossils that appear to be the remains of whole plants in fact are incomplete as the internal cellular tis
Plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues. Thus, a living plant always has embryonic tissues. By contrast, an animal embryo will early produce all of the body parts that it will have in its life; when the animal is born, it has all its body parts and from that point will only grow larger and more mature. The properties of organization seen in a plant are emergent properties which are more than the sum of the individual parts. "The assembly of these tissues and functions into an integrated multicellular organism yields not only the characteristics of the separate parts and processes but quite a new set of characteristics which would not have been predictable on the basis of examination of the separate parts." A vascular plant begins from a single celled zygote, formed by fertilisation of an egg cell by a sperm cell. From that point, it begins to divide to form a plant embryo through the process of embryogenesis.
As this happens, the resulting cells will organize so that one end becomes the first root while the other end forms the tip of the shoot. In seed plants, the embryo will develop one or more "seed leaves". By the end of embryogenesis, the young plant will have all the parts necessary to begin in its life. Once the embryo germinates from its seed or parent plant, it begins to produce additional organs through the process of organogenesis. New roots grow from root meristems located at the tip of the root, new stems and leaves grow from shoot meristems located at the tip of the shoot. Branching occurs when small clumps of cells left behind by the meristem, which have not yet undergone cellular differentiation to form a specialized tissue, begin to grow as the tip of a new root or shoot. Growth from any such meristem at the tip of a root or shoot is termed primary growth and results in the lengthening of that root or shoot. Secondary growth results in widening of a root or shoot from divisions of cells in a cambium.
In addition to growth by cell division, a plant may grow through cell elongation. This occurs when individual groups of cells grow longer. Not all plant cells grow to the same length; when cells on one side of a stem grow longer and faster than cells on the other side, the stem bends to the side of the slower growing cells as a result. This directional growth can occur via a plant's response to a particular stimulus, such as light, gravity and physical contact. Plant growth and development are mediated by specific plant hormones and plant growth regulators. Endogenous hormone levels are influenced by plant age, cold hardiness and other metabolic conditions. Plants exhibit natural variation in their structure. While all organisms vary from individual to individual, plants exhibit an additional type of variation. Within a single individual, parts are repeated which may differ in form and structure from other similar parts; this variation is most seen in the leaves of a plant, though other organs such as stems and flowers may show similar variation.
There are three primary causes of this variation: positional effects, environmental effects, juvenility. There is variation among the parts of a mature plant resulting from the relative position where the organ is produced. For example, along a new branch the leaves may vary in a consistent pattern along the branch; the form of leaves produced near the base of the branch differs from leaves produced at the tip of the plant, this difference is consistent from branch to branch on a given plant and in a given species. The way in which new structures mature as they are produced may be affected by the point in the plants life when they begin to develop, as well as by the environment to which the structures are exposed. Temperature has a multiplicity of effects on plants depending on a variety of factors, including the size and condition of the plant and the temperature and duration of exposure; the smaller and more succulent the plant, the greater the susceptibility to damage or death from temperatures that are too high or too low.
Temperature affects the rate of biochemical and physiological processes, rates increasing with temperature. Juvenility or heteroblasty is when the organs and tissues produced by a young plant, such as a seedling, are different from those that are produced by the same plant when it is older. For example, young trees will produce longer, leaner branches that grow upwards more than the branches they will produce as a grown tree. In addition, leaves produced during early growth tend to be larger and more irregular than leaves on the adult plant. Specimens of juvenile plants may look so different from adult plants of the same species that egg-laying insects do not recognize the plant as food for their young; the transition from early to late growth forms is referred to as'vegetative phase change', but there is some disagreement about terminology. Plant structures, roots and shoots, that develop in unusual locations are called adventitious; such structures are common in vascular plants. Adventitious roots and buds develop near the existing vascular tissues so they can connect to the xylem and phloem.
However, the exact location varies greatly. In young stems, adventitious roots form from parenchyma between the vascular bundles. In stems with secondary growth, adventitious roots originate in phloem parenchyma near the vascular