World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Harold "Shorty" Baker was a jazz trumpeter. Baker switched to trumpet during his teens, he played with Don Redman in the mid-1930s. He worked with Teddy Wilson and Andy Kirk before joining Duke Ellington, he married Kirk's pianist Mary Lou Williams and though the two separated shortly thereafter, they never divorced. Baker worked on and off in Duke Ellington's Orchestra from 1942 to 1962, he worked with Johnny Hodges's group in the early 1950s during the period when Hodges was not a member of Ellington's orchestra. With Johnny Hodges The Blues Used to Be Duke The Big Sound With Billy Strayhorn Cue for Saxophone Shorty Baker at AllMusic Jazz trumpet site
Harmony Records was a record label owned by Columbia Records that debuted in 1925. It began as a label for low-priced 78 rpm records in the 1930s, it was revived for budget albums of reissued tracks in 1957. The revived label was most active during the 1960s, Columbia continued to issue repackages on the label into the mid-1970s. Harmony's records were acoustically recorded until 1929, although electrical recording dominated the industry, it has been stated that Columbia redesigned its acoustic recording process before electrical recording took over, so the Harmony sound was better than most acoustic recordings. In 1931 into 1932, Columbia instituted a couple of short-lived series: a handful of double tracked records and another series of longer playing records. In 1957 Columbia revived the Harmony label for its budget album line; these albums consisted of older material recorded by former Columbia recording artists. The albums sold for $1.99-2.99. By the late 1960s these bargain-priced discs to be so popular Columbia acquired the rights to some recordings from ABC, Warner Bros. and Reprise to keep up with the demand for more releases.
The final new compilations on Harmony were issued in 1974 but a number of titles remained in print until 1979. Every major recording artist, under Columbia had at some point had at least one Harmony compilation. Among the most popular artists for Harmony compilations were Doris Day, Frank Sinatra, The Carter Family, Roy Acuff, Tony Bennett, The Everly Brothers, Dinah Shore, Aretha Franklin, Judy Garland, Johnny Cash, Lynn Anderson, Billie Holiday. Grigsby-Grunow, the company that bought Columbia, discontinued Harmony, Velvet Tone Records, Clarion Records. Harmony Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project Illustrated discography of the 1957-69 Harmony budget album releases
Thomas Francis Dorsey Jr. was an American jazz trombonist, composer and bandleader of the big band era. He was known as the "Sentimental Gentleman of Swing" because of his smooth-toned trombone playing, his technical skill on the trombone gave him renown among other musicians. He was the younger brother of bandleader Jimmy Dorsey. After Dorsey broke with his brother in the mid-1930s, he led an popular and successful band from the late 1930s into the 1950s, he is best remembered for standards such as "Opus One", "Song of India", "Marie", "On Treasure Island", his biggest hit single, "I'll Never Smile Again". Born in Mahanoy Plane, Thomas Francis Dorsey Jr. was the second of four children born to Thomas Francis Dorsey Sr. a bandleader, Theresa Dorsey. He and Jimmy, his older brother by less than two years, would become famous as the Dorsey Brothers; the two younger siblings were Edward, who died young. Tommy Dorsey studied the trumpet with his father but switched to trombone. At age 15, Jimmy recommended Tommy to replace Russ Morgan in The Scranton Sirens, a territory band in the 1920s.
Tommy and Jimmy worked in bands led by Tal Henry, Rudy Vallee, Vincent Lopez, Nathaniel Shilkret. In 1923, Dorsey followed Jimmy to Detroit to play in Jean Goldkette's band and returned to New York in 1925 to play with the California Ramblers. In 1927 he joined Paul Whiteman. In 1929, the Dorsey Brothers had their first hit with "Coquette" for OKeh Records. In 1934, the Dorsey Brothers band signed with Decca, having a hit with "I Believe in Miracles". Glenn Miller was a member of the Dorsey Brothers Orchestra in 1934 and 1935, composing "Annie's Cousin Fanny", "Tomorrow's Another Day", "Harlem Chapel Chimes", "Dese Dem Dose", all recorded for Decca, for the band. Acrimony between the brothers led to Tommy Dorsey's walking out to form his own band in 1935 as the orchestra was having a hit with "Every Little Moment". Dorsey's orchestra was known for its renderings of ballads at dance tempos with singers such as Jack Leonard and Frank Sinatra. Tommy Dorsey's first band was formed out of the remains of the Joe Haymes band, so began Dorsey's long-running practice of raiding other bands for talent.
If he admired a vocalist, musician or arranger, he would think nothing of taking over their contracts and careers. Dorsey had a reputation for being a perfectionist, he was known to hire and fire and sometimes rehire musicians based on his mood. The new band was popular from the moment it signed with RCA Victor with "On Treasure Island", the first of four hits in 1935. After his 1935 recording, Dorsey's manager dropped the "hot jazz" that Dorsey had mixed with his own lyrical style and instead had Dorsey play pop and vocal tunes. Dorsey would keep his Clambake Seven as a Dixieland group; the Dorsey band had a national radio presence in 1936, first from Dallas and from Los Angeles. Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra took over comedian Jack Pearl's radio show in 1937. By 1939, Dorsey was aware of criticism, he hired arranger Sy Oliver away from the Jimmie Lunceford band. Sy Oliver's arrangements include "On The Sunny Side of the Street" and "T. D.'s Boogie Woogie". In 1940, Dorsey hired singer Frank Sinatra from bandleader Harry James.
Frank Sinatra made eighty recordings from 1940 to 1942 with the Dorsey band. Two of those eighty songs are "In the Blue of Evening" and "This Love of Mine". Frank Sinatra achieved his first great success as a vocalist in the Dorsey band and claimed he learned breath control from watching Dorsey play trombone. In turn, Dorsey said his trombone style was influenced by that of Jack Teagarden. Among Dorsey's staff of arrangers was Axel Stordahl who arranged for Frank Sinatra in his Columbia and Capitol years. Another member of the Dorsey band was trombonist Nelson Riddle, who had a partnership as one of Sinatra's arrangers and conductors in the 1950s and afterwards. Another noted Dorsey arranger, who, in the 1950s, married and was professionally associated with Dorsey veteran Jo Stafford, was Paul Weston. Bill Finegan, an arranger who left Glenn Miller's civilian band, arranged for the Tommy Dorsey band from 1942 to 1950; the band featured a number of instrumentalists and arrangers in the 1930s and'40s, including trumpeters Zeke Zarchy, Bunny Berigan, Ziggy Elman, Doc Severinsen, Charlie Shavers, pianists Milt Raskin, Jess Stacy, clarinetists Buddy DeFranco, Johnny Mince, Peanuts Hucko.
Others who played with Dorsey were drummers Buddy Rich, Louie Bellson, Dave Tough saxophonist Tommy Reed, singers Frank Sinatra, Jack Leonard, Edythe Wright, Jo Stafford with The Pied Pipers, Dick Haymes, Connie Haines. In 1944, Dorsey hired the Sentimentalists. Dorsey performed with singer Connee Boswell He hired ex-bandleader and drummer Gene Krupa after Krupa's arrest for marijuana possession in 1943. In 1942 Artie Shaw broke up his band, Dorsey hired the Shaw string section; as George Simon in Metronome magazine noted at the time, "They're used in the foreground and background for vocal effects and for Tommy's trombone."As Dorsey became successful, he made further business decisions in the music industry. He loaned Glenn Miller money to launch Miller's successful band of 1938, but Dorsey saw the loan as an investment, entitling him to a percentage of Miller's income; when Miller balked at this, the angry Dorsey got by sponsoring a new band led by Bob Chester, hiring arrangers who deliberately copied Miller's style and sound.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
Albert Edwin Condon was an American jazz banjoist and bandleader. A leading figure in Chicago jazz, he played piano and sang. Condon was born in Goodland, the son of John and Margaret Condon, he grew up in Momence and Chicago Heights, where he attended St. Agnes and Bloom High School. After playing ukulele, he switched to banjo and was a professional musician by 1921; when he was 15 years old, he received his first union card in Iowa. He was based in Chicago for most of the 1920s, played with such jazz notables as Bix Beiderbecke, Jack Teagarden, Frank Teschemacher, he and Red McKenzie formed the Chicago Rhythm Kings in 1925. In 1928, Condon moved to New York City, he arranged jazz sessions for various record labels, sometimes playing with the artists he brought to the recording studios, including Louis Armstrong and Fats Waller. He organised racially integrated recording sessions—when these were still rare—with Waller and Henry'Red' Allen, he played with the band of Red Nichols for a time. From 1938 he had a long association with Milt Gabler's Commodore Records.
A handful of records were issued under his own name: a July 28, 1928 two-song session was recorded for OKeh, but only issued in England. On October 30, 1928, an OKeh was issued as "Eddie Condon and his Footwarmers", featuring Jack Teagarden. A further session on February 8, 1929 yielded a record issued under the name "Eddie Hot Shots" and issued on Victor's hot dance series. In 1933, a further two sessions were recorded for Brunswick consisting of 6 recordings, only 2 of which were released in the US. From 1938 on, Condon recorded for one session for Decca. From the late 1930s on he was a regular at the Manhattan jazz club Nick's; the sophisticated variation on Dixieland music which Condon and his colleagues created there came to be nicknamed "Nicksieland." By this time, his regular circle of musical associates included Wild Bill Davison, Bobby Hackett, George Brunies, Edmond Hall, Pee Wee Russell. In 1939, he appeared with "Bobby Hacket and Band" in the Warner Brothers & Vitaphone film musical short-subject, On the Air.
Condon did a series of jazz radio broadcasts, Eddie Condon's Jazz Concerts, from New York's Town Hall during 1944–45 which were nationally popular. These recordings survive, have been issued on the Jazzology label. From 1945 through 1967 he ran his own New York jazz club, Eddie Condon's, first located on West 3rd Street in Greenwich Village 52nd Street near Sixth Avenue, on the present site of the CBS headquarters building. In the 1950s Condon recorded a sequence of classic albums for Columbia Records; the musicians involved in these albums, at Condon's club, included Wild Bill Davison, Bobby Hackett, Billy Butterfield, Edmond Hall, Peanuts Hucko, Pee Wee Russell, Bob Wilber, Cutty Cutshall, Lou McGarity, George Brunies, Bud Freeman, Gene Schroeder, Dick Cary, Ralph Sutton, Bob Casey, Walter Page, Jack Lesberg, Al Hall, George Wettling, Buzzy Drootin, Cliff Leeman. Condon toured Britain in 1957 with a band including Wild Bill Davison, Cutty Cutshall, Gene Schroeder and George Wettling, his last tour was in 1964, when he took a band to Japan.
Condon's men, on that tour, were top mainstream jazz musicians: Buck Clayton, Pee Wee Russell, Vic Dickenson, Bud Freeman, Dick Cary, Jack Lesberg, Cliff Leeman, Jimmy Rushing. Billy Banks, a vocalist who had recorded with Condon and Pee Wee Russell in 1932, had lived in obscurity in Japan for many years, turned up at one of the 1964 concerts: Pee Wee asked him "have you got any more gigs?". In 1948, Condon's autobiography We Called It Music was published. Eddie Condon's Treasury of Jazz was a collection of articles co-edited by Richard Gehman. A latter-day collaborator, clarinetist Kenny Davern, described a Condon gig: "It was always a thrill to get a call from Eddie and with a gig involved more so. I remember eating beforehand with everyone being in good spirits. There was a buzz on, we'd all had a taste and there was a great feel to the music."Condon toured and appeared at jazz festivals until 1971. Condon married fashion copywriter Phyllis Smith in 1942, they had two daughters. On August 4, 1973, Condon died of a bone disease at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York.
He was 67. He was survived by two daughters. Ringside at Condon's Eddie Condon is Uptown Now! Dixieland Dance Party Chicago and All That Jazz Eddie Condon in Japan Ballin' the Jack The Definitive Eddie Condon and His Jazz Concert All-Stars Vol. 1 A Night With Eddie Condon Kenny Davern with Eddie Condon Eddie Condon & Bud Freeman: Complete Commodore and Decca Sessions We Called It Music by Eddie Condon Condon at redhotjazz.com Eddie Condon papers, 1905–1973, The New York Public Library
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate