Allan Huber "Bud" Selig is an American baseball executive who serves as the Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball. He served as the ninth Commissioner of Baseball, he served as the acting commissioner beginning in 1992 before being named the official commissioner in 1998. Selig oversaw baseball through the 1994 strike, the introduction of the wild card, interleague play, the merging of the National and American Leagues under the Office of the Commissioner, he was instrumental in organizing the World Baseball Classic in 2006. Selig introduced revenue sharing, he is credited for the financial turnaround of baseball during his tenure with a 400 percent increase in the revenue of MLB and annual record breaking attendance. During Selig's term of service, the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs became a public issue; the Mitchell Report, commissioned by Selig, concluded that the MLB commissioners, club officials, the Players Association, the players all share "to some extent in the responsibility for the steroid era."
Following the release of the Mitchell Report, Congressman Cliff Stearns called publicly for Selig to step down as commissioner, citing his "glacial response" to the "growing stain on baseball." Selig has pledged on numerous occasions to rid baseball of performance-enhancing drugs, has overseen and instituted many rule changes and penalties to that end. A Milwaukee native, Selig was the owner and team president of the Milwaukee Brewers; the franchise known as the Seattle Pilots, was acquired by Selig in bankruptcy court in 1970, renamed after the minor league team of the same name that he had watched in his youth and had existed until the arrival of the Braves in Milwaukee in 1953. Selig was credited with keeping baseball in Milwaukee; the Brewers went to the 1982 World Series, won seven Organization of the Year awards during his tenure. Selig remains a resident of Milwaukee. On January 17, 2008, Selig's contract was extended through 2012, after which he planned to retire, but he decided to stay as commissioner until the end of the 2014 season, a move approved by the owners on January 12, 2012, which would take his leadership past his 80th birthday.
Selig made $14.5 million in the 12-month period ending October 31, 2005. Selig announced on September 26, 2013, that he would retire in January 2015. On January 22, 2015, MLB announced that Selig would formally step down from the office when his current term expired on January 24, 2015, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2017. Selig was born in Milwaukee, grew up in a Jewish family, his father, Ben Selig, had come to the United States from Romania with his family when he was four years old. Selig graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a B. A. in American history and political science in 1956. He served two years in the U. S. Army before working with his father who owned a car leasing business in Milwaukee. Selig continues to be involved in the automotive industry, serving as president of the Selig Executive Lease Company. Selig's interest in baseball came from his mother. An immigrant from Ukraine, Marie Selig attended college, a rare accomplishment for a woman in the early 20th century, became a school teacher.
When Selig was only three, Marie began taking him and his older brother, Jerry, to Borchert Field, where the minor league Milwaukee Brewers played. When the Boston Braves relocated to Milwaukee in 1953, Selig switched allegiances, became the team's largest public stockholder. Selig was devastated when he learned that the Braves were going to leave Milwaukee in favor of Atlanta. In 1965, when the Braves left Milwaukee, he divested his stock in the team; as a youngster, Selig's favorite player was Hershel Martin. As a minority owner of the Milwaukee Braves, Selig founded the organization Teams, Inc. in an attempt to prevent the majority owners from moving the club to a larger television market. This was challenged on the basis that no prior team relocations left a city without a team. Prior movements had all originated in cities; when his quest to keep the team in Milwaukee failed after the 1965 season, he changed the group's name to Milwaukee Brewers Baseball Club, Inc. after the minor league baseball team he grew up watching, devoted himself to returning Major League Baseball to Milwaukee.
Selig arranged for major league games to be played at Milwaukee County Stadium. The first, a pre-season match-up between the Chicago White Sox and Minnesota Twins, drew more than 51,000 spectators. Selig followed this up by hosting nine White Sox regular-season games in 1968 and eleven in 1969. One of the games played in Milwaukee that year was against the expansion Seattle Pilots, the team that would become the Brewers; those Milwaukee "home" games were phenomenally successful, with the handful of games accounting for about one-third of total White Sox home attendance. To satisfy that fan base, Selig decided to purchase the White Sox in 1969, he entered into an agreement to buy the club, but the American League vetoed the sale, preferring to keep an American League team in Chicago, which at the time was still America's second largest city. Selig turned his attention to other franchises. In 1970, he purchased the bankrupt Seattle Pilots franchise, moving them to his hometown and renaming the team the Brewers.
During Selig's tenure as club president, the Brewers participated in postseason play in 1981, when the team finished first in the American League East during the second half of the season, in 1982
This is a list of women writers who were born in Indonesia or whose writings are associated with that country. Nukila Amal, short story writer Asmirandah, short story writer Sekar Ayu Asmara, screenwriter, film director Boni Avibus, poet, actress Djenar Maesa Ayu, short story writer, filmmaker Fira Basuki, novelist Linda Christanty, short story writer, journalist Leila Chudori, short story writer, scriptwriter Rain Chudori, short story writer, actress Herawati Diah, journalist Abidah El Khalieqy, short story writer, poet Alberthiene Endah, novelist, journalist Lily Yulianti Farid, short story writer, journalist Ratih Hardjono, non-fiction writer Toeti Heraty, academic Stefani Hid, short story writer, columnist Marianne Katoppo, theologian Rohana Kudus, first female Indonesian journalist Dewi Lestari, singer, songwriter Okky Madasari, novelist Clara Ng, short story writer, children's writer Laksmi Pamuntjak, novelist, food writer Intan Paramaditha, short story writer, academic Hanna Rambe, novelist, biographer Helvy Tiana Rosa, short story writer Siti Rukiah, novelist Prima Rusdi, short story writer Oka Rusmini, novelist Titie Said, journalist, editor Ratna Sarumpaet, dramatist Sariamin Ismail and educator active under the penname Selasih Myra Sidharta, literary scholar, autobiographer Julia Suryakusuma, non-fiction writer Astrid Susanto, non-fiction writer, educator Madelon Szekely-Lulofs, journalist Marga T, romance writer, children's writer Totilawati Tjitrawasita, short story writer S. K. Trimurti, political activist Ucu Agustin, documentary filmmaker Ayu Utami, short story writer Mira W. novelist, screenwriter
The Sealdah–Ranaghat line connects Sealdah and Ranaghat in the Indian state of West Bengal. It includes Kolkata Railway Station, the Calcutta chord link to Dankuni on the Howrah-Bardhaman Chord, the link to Bandel on the Howrah-Bardhaman Main Line, the Kalyani Simanta link; this line has change-over facilities to Kolkata Circular Railway. It is under the jurisdiction of Eastern Railway; the main line of the Eastern Bengal Railway from Sealdah to Ranaghat, was opened in 1862 and extended to Kushtia, now in Bangladesh, within two months. The Calcutta terminus of the Railway was opened the same year in a tin-roofed shed at Sealdah; the line was extended to Goalundo Ghat in 1864, although it was opened in 1871. The Eastern Bengal Railway, which operated east of the Hooghly, was linked with the East Indian Railway, which operated west of the river, when Jubilee Bridge, linking Bandel and Naihati was opened in 1887; the Calcutta Chord Railway constructed the line from Dum Dum to Dankuni over the Willingdon Bridge in 1932.
The bridge was renamed Vivekananda Setu. The original station at Sealdah, designed by Walter Glanville, was built in 1869, it was called the Calcutta Station. It was renamed Sealdah Station only after the partition of India in 1947. There is a vivid description of the railway system of Nadia district, in which Ranaghat lies, about a century ago, in the District Gazetteer; the district included areas now part of Bangladesh. "The district is now well served with railways. About 170 miles of the Eastern Bengal State Railway, all broad gauge, lie within its borders; the main line from Calcutta to Siliguri passes through the district from south to north. The Lal Gola branch takes off from Ranaghat junction; this branch traverses the Kalantar, the tract, most liable to famine in the district and contains the lowest stock of food grains. In the 1896-97 famine the supply of food gave out in this tract, and, in the absence of the railway, which had not been constructed, the greatest difficulty was experienced in importing enough grain to prevent deaths from starvation.
If another famine should occur, this line will save the District Officer much of the anxiety which his predecessors had to bear. The central branch of the Eastern Bengal State Railway takes off from Ranaghat junction; the Goalundo branch takes off from Poradah." The Sealdah-Ranaghat Line presently has two tracks. It is expected that the proposal for a third line will be part of the budget proposals in 2012; the Sealdah - Dumdum - Naihati - Kalyani - Ranaghat – Krishnanagar track is classified as a C-class track, not a speed classification but one used for suburban sections of metropolitan areas. The Sealdah-Ranaghat Line was electrified in 1963. Dum Dum-Dankuni, Dum Dum-Chitpore Yard, Bandel-Naihati sections were electrified in 1965. Line-wise or route-wise passenger data is not available, but Sealdah Station handles 1.5 million passengers arriving or departing in 704 trains daily and a good proportion of that uses this line as it is the main line out of that station. Among the important trains from Sealdah using this track are: Maitree Express to Dhaka, Rajdhani Express to New Delhi, Duronto Express to New Delhi, Annanya Express to Udaipur, Akal Takht Express to Amritsar, Darjeeling Mail to Haldibari, Bhagirathi Express to Lalgola, Gour Express to Balurghat, Uttar Banga Express to New Cooch Behar.
The Sealdah-Puri Duronto Express, introduced in February 2012 is the first train from Sealdah to South Eastern Railway bypassing Howrah Station. It runs over a part of this track; the railway stations on this route are
The Lötschberg Base Tunnel is a 34.57-kilometre railway base tunnel on the BLS AG's Lötschberg line cutting through the Bernese Alps of Switzerland some 400 m below the existing Lötschberg Tunnel. It runs between Frutigen and Raron, was built as one of the two centrepieces of the NRLA project. Breakthrough was in April 2005 and construction ended in 2006; the opening ceremony was in June 2007. Full scale operation began in December 2007, the link is saturated because a 21 km single-track section reduces its capacity. Built to ease lorry traffic on Swiss roads, the LBT allows an increased number of lorries and trailers to be loaded onto trains in Germany, pass through Switzerland on rail and be unloaded in Italy, it cuts down travel time for German tourists going to Swiss ski resorts and puts the Valais into commuting distance to Bern by reducing travel time by 50%. The total cost was SFr 4.3 billion. This and the Gotthard Base Tunnel are the two centerpieces of the Swiss NRLA project. Track construction in the LBT was completed in July 2006.
Extensive testing took place, including more than 1,000 test runs, which focused among other things on the use of the ETCS Level 2 system. For the second half of 2007, only regular freight used the LBT, plus some international and InterCity passenger trains. Since February 2008, the LBT has been used for normal InterCity routes. Travel time between Visp and Spiez is about 28 minutes. Due to the soaring costs of the overall NRLA project, funds were diverted from the Lötschberg tunnel to the Gotthard Base Tunnel; the complete LBT will consist of two single track bores side by side from portal to portal, connected about every 300 m with cross cuts, enabling the other tunnel to be used for escape. From South to North a third of the tunnel is double track, a third is single track with the second bore in place but not equipped, a third is only a single track tunnel with the parallel exploration adit providing the emergency egress; the construction was divided into 3 phases with only phase 1 completed to date: Phase 1: construction of about 75% of the length of the West tube and the complete East tube of the main tunnel, the Engstlige tunnel, the two bridges across the Rhône, the branch bore from Steg.
Tracks are laid in the Eastern tubes of the LBT and Engstlige tunnels, for some 12 km in the western tube of LBT, starting from the South. Phase 2: laying of tracks in the bored but not equipped part of the western tube of LBT, in the western tube of Engstlige tunnel. Phase 3: construction of the remaining 8 km of the western tube, laying tracks on the Steg branch, connection of this branch to the main line Brig-Lausanne, but towards Lausanne. Phases 2 and 3 may be done together. Completing the LBT is estimated to cost 1 billion Swiss francs; the project includes two parallel bridges over the river Rhône in canton Valais, the 2.6 km Engstlige tunnel. A planning contract for phases 2 and 3 was awarded in 2016, the resulting plan was presented in Spring 2019. About 110 trains per day use the LBT, 66 have to use the old mountain tunnel because the single track section limits the capacity of the base tunnel. Of the 110, 30 are passenger and 80 are freight, including both intermodal freight transport and long-distance heavy freight trains.
Heavy freight trains up to a maximum weight of 4,000 tons and a maximum length of 1,500 metres have to use the LBT, as they cannot use the existing mountain track. The 21 km of single track without passing loops complicate operations, trains are scheduled by batches in each direction separated by long intervals. Regular freight trains: 100 km/h Qualified freight trains: 160 km/h Passenger trains: 200 km/h Tilting passenger trains: 250 km/h The warmth of the water flowing out of the tunnel is used to heat the Tropenhaus Frutigen, a tropical greenhouse producing exotic fruit, sturgeon meat and caviar. Lötschberg Lötschberg Tunnel Simplon Tunnel NRLA List of longest tunnels List of tunnels by location Official project site Official site of the "ARGE Bahntechnik Lötschberg" the general contractor for the railway technology Alptransit Portal of the Swiss Federal Archives Site with a movie documentation about the engineering and the works MSNBC report on the tunnel breakthrough, 28 April 2005 Rail Technology in the Lötschberg Base Tunnel Image Gallery on a contractors site
Second World War at Sea is a game series produced by Avalanche Press covering naval combat during World War II. The series is based on Avalanche Press' Great War at Sea; the two series share many features although they are separate both from a rules standpoint and a scale standpoint. The SWWAS series simulates World War II naval combat using a dual operational/tactical system with the following characteristics: Each major surface unit are represented with a single 1"/.5" rectangular counter containing the ship's statistics. Minor surface warships as well as auxiliaries and merchant ships, are portrayed via 1/2" square counters with the associated statistics. Aircraft squadrons, as well as the game's various status markers, are 1/2" square counters; the game provides abstracted statistics on the various counters for the following: For ships: Surface gunnery factors, divided into "Primary", "Secondary" and "Tertiary" ratings. Armour Torpedoes or mines Anti-aircraft factors SpeedFor air units: Air-to-air combat factors Air-to-surface combat factors Land-bombardment factors RangeEach game is played on an operational map divided into a grid of squares, each representing a 36-mile-wide area.
Unit counters do not move directly on the operational map, but rather are represented by fleet markers. Players plot their unit's moves, track damage and fuel consumption, on separate data sheets for their associated fleets; each provided operational scenario will task each player with specific objectives - run a convoy to a port, prevent that convoy passing, bring the opposing fleet to battle, so on. When two opposing fleets come into contact on the operational map, combat switches to the tactical map; the tactical map is a grid of. When units come within range of each other, their gunnery and other factors are translated into numbers of dice rolled to attempt to hit enemy targets; these die rolls are subject to various modifiers for environmental and other factors. Hits those which penetrate armour, will erode the ability of a ship to fight, can sink it. Once play on the tactical map terminates it resumes on the operational map until the next time two fleets come into contact. SOPAC was the first Second World War at Sea game and extended the Great War at Sea series to World War II.
SOPAC was released in 2000 and sold out in 2004. The game had 1 operational map and 20 + scenarios. SOPAC's scale was different from that of the Great War at Sea series because the area on the map could not fit using the earlier scale on the available map size; this means. Eastern Fleet was the second game in the series and covered the British Eastern Fleet's operations in the Indian Ocean; the game has 210 counters, 1 operational map and 10 scenarios. Midway covers the Battle of Midway as well as other scenarios in that period of the war; the game has 490 counters, 1 operational map and 11 scenarios. Bomb Alley was the fourth game and according to Avalanche Press, "the most ambitious", it covered the entire naval campaign in the Mediterranean including the Malta convoys. The game had 840 counters, 2 operational maps and 50 scenarios; the game is out of print. Leyte Gulf was the first game produced through Avalanche Press's Classic Wargames program; the game had 2,170 counters, 3 operational maps and 22 scenarios.
Leyte Gulf is now out of print. Strike South covers Japanese operations in 1941 and early 1942, including the invasions of Malaya, the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies; the game has 420 counters, 2 operational maps and 15 scenarios. Bismarck is the first game in this series set in the Atlantic Ocean and covers the operations of German commerce raiders from 1939 to 1941; the game includes the German battleships Bismarck, Tirpitz and Gneisenau as well as the aircraft carriers Graf Zeppelin. The game has 490 counters, 2 operational maps and 12 scenarios. Cone of Fire contains both Great War at Sea and Second World War at Sea pieces for South American nations; the game had 6 operational maps and 42 scenarios. It is now out of print. Arctic Convoy covers the Arctic Convoy operations as Allied British, convoys tried to fight their way to northern Soviet ports against German opposition; the game has 2 operational maps and 24 scenarios. Coral Sea is the introductory game for the Second World War at Sea series and covers the Battle of the Coral Sea.
It uses a small box size and comes with a new edition of the series rules and shares a sheet of counters with Pacific Crossroads. The game has 1 operational map and 4 scenarios. Horn of Africa covers operations in the area of the Horn of Africa and Red Sea between the Royal Navy and Italian Regia Marina, it comes with one operational map and 25 scenarios. Sea of Iron covers operations in the Baltic in World War II, covering the German, Russian and Polish fleets, it comes with 560 counters, one operational map and 30 scenarios Like Great War at Sea, Second World War at Sea has spawned several supplements. Now out of print, Distant Oceans added scenarios to the existing games at the time it was p
Cape Hardy is a 20 m high, dune-capped granite headland on the eastern coast of Eyre Peninsula and which protrudes into Spencer Gulf in South Australia. It is located between Tumby Bay, 10 km north-northeast of Lipson Cove; the cape is barren of vegetation other than low scrub. To the north and south of the cape are a series of low headland-bound white sandy beaches, backed by low dunes and farmland. Public access is limited to the Cape Hardy track and there are no facilities present; the surrounding beaches tend to face east to southeast and receive low swell and wind waves less than 1 m high. Cape Hardy is named after surveyor Alfred Hardy; the first European to explore this coastline, in 1802, was the British navigator Matthew Flinders, although he named many features, he did not name this cape. In 1802 the French navigator Nicolas Baudin sailed past, giving it the name Cap Portalis, honouring the French jurist Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis, but that name was not used; the first land-based exploration by Europeans was in April 1840, at which time the cape was named after Alfred Hardy being the aide-de-camp to Governor George Gawler.
Gawler was leading an expedition along this coast accompanied by explorer John Hill and Deputy Surveyor General Thomas Burr. The vice-regal party was supported at sea by the brig Porter and the government cutter Water Witch, both under the command of Thomas Lipson. In 1898, A. Poynton and William Tennant Mortlock, the members for the South Australian electorate of Flinders presented a petition to the Commissioner of Crown Lands requesting the consideration of the establishment of a dog fence running west across Eyre Peninsula from Cape Hardy to Mount Misery; the petition was drafted in response to pastoralists' struggles to manage vermin in the Lower Eyre Peninsula region. In April 1932, a piece of flotsam believed to be a hatch-cover from the missing ketch Vivid was found near Cape Hardy by Captain E. S. Hipkins of the ketch Nelcebee. Vivid was last seen departing Tumby Bay on 9 April 1932; as of 2014, the ship's fate and that of its crew remain a mystery. In December 2012, Cape Hardy was announced as the location for a prospective deep water port development.
The port is planned to serve the export interests of mining company Iron Road Ltd and the development of the Central Eyre Iron Project. It received Major Project Status from the Government of South Australia in August 2013. In November 2015, Iron Road announced that an Environmental Impact Statement and Mining Lease application had been lodged with the South Australian Department of Planning and Infrastructure, which includes the port proposal; as of 2018, the project has received environmental and planning approval but construction is yet to commence. Iron Road Ltd remains committed to the project. Another prospective iron ore mining company, Centrex Metals Ltd, proposed to construct an alternative port known as Port Spencer, its site was located 9 km southwest of Cape Hardy, adjacent to Lipson Cove. That proposal was sunk in 2016