SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Buddhism and Hinduism

Buddhism and Hinduism have common origins in the Ganges culture of northern India during the so - called "second urbanisation" around 500 BCE. They have shared parallel beliefs that have existed side by side, but pronounced differences. Buddhism attained prominence in the Indian subcontinent as it was supported by royal courts, but started to decline after the Gupta era and disappeared from India in the 11th century CE, except in some pockets, it has continued to exist outside of India and has become the major religion in several Asian countries. Certain Buddhist teachings appear to have been formulated in response to ideas presented in the early Upanishads – in some cases concurring with them, in other cases criticizing or re-interpreting them; the influence of Upanishads, the earliest philosophical texts of Hindus, on Buddhism has been a subject of debate among scholars. While Radhakrishnan and Neumann were convinced of Upanishadic influence on the Buddhist canon and Thomas highlighted the points where Buddhism was opposed to Upanishads.

Buddhism may have been influenced by some Upanishadic ideas, it however discarded their orthodox tendencies. In Buddhist texts he is presented as rejecting avenues of salvation as "pernicious views". Schools of Indian religious thought were influenced by this interpretation and novel ideas of the Buddhist tradition of beliefs. In years, there is significant evidence that both Buddhism and Hinduism were supported by Indian rulers, regardless of the rulers' own religious identities. Buddhist kings continued to revere Hindu deities and teachers and many Buddhist temples were built under the patronage of Hindu rulers; this was because Buddhism has never been considered an alien religion to that of Hinduism in India but as only one of the many strains of Hinduism. Kalidas' work shows the ascension of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism. By the eighth century and Vishnu had replaced Buddha in pujas of royalty; the Buddha approved many of the terms used in philosophical discussions of his era. For example, in the Samaññaphala Sutta, the Buddha is depicted presenting a notion of the "three knowledges" – a term used in the Vedic tradition to describe knowledge of the Vedas – as being not texts, but things that he had experienced.

The true "three knowledges" are said to be constituted by the process of achieving enlightenment, what the Buddha is said to have achieved in the three watches of the night of his enlightenment. Karma is a word meaning action or activity and implies its subsequent results, it is understood as a term to denote the entire cycle of cause and effect as described in the philosophies of a number of cosmologies, including those of Buddhism and Hinduism. Karma is a central part of Buddhist teachings. In Buddha's teaching, karma is a direct intentional result of a person's word, thought and/or action in life. In Buddhism a person's words, thoughts and/or actions form the basis for good and bad karma: sila goes hand in hand with the development of meditation and wisdom. Buddhist teachings carry a markedly different meaning from pre-Buddhist conceptions of karma. Dharma means Natural Law, Reality or Duty, with respect to its significance for spirituality and religion might be considered the Way of the Higher Truths.

A Hindu appellation for Hinduism itself is Sanātana Dharma, which translates as "the eternal dharma." Buddhadharma is an appellation for Buddhism. The general concept of dharma forms a basis for philosophies and practices originating in India; the four main ones are Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism, all of whom retain the centrality of dharma in their teachings. In these traditions, beings that live in harmony with dharma proceed more toward, according to the tradition, Dharma Yukam, Moksha, or Nirvana. Dharma can refer to religious duty, mean social order, right conduct, or virtue; the term "Buddha" too has appeared in Hindu scriptures before the birth of Gautama Buddha. In the Vayu Purana, sage Daksha calls Lord Shiva as Buddha. Mudra: This is a symbolic hand-gesture expressing an emotion. Images of the Buddha always depict him performing some mudra. Dharma Chakra: The Dharma Chakra, which appears on the national flag of India and the flag of the Thai royal family, is a Buddhist symbol, used by members of both religions.

Rudraksha: These are beads that devotees monks, use for praying. Tilak: Many Hindu devotees mark their heads with a tilak, interpreted as a third eye. A similar mark is one of the characteristic physical characteristics of the Buddha. Swastika and Sauwastika: both are sacred symbols, it can be either clockwise or counter-clockwise and both are seen in Hinduism and Buddhism. The Buddha is sometimes depicted with the palms of his hands. A mantra is a religious syllable or poem from the Sanskrit language, their use varies according to the philosophy associated with the mantra. They are used as spiritual conduits, words or vibrations that instill one-pointed concentration in the devotee. Other purposes have included religious ceremonies to accumulate wealth, avoid danger, or eliminate enemies. Mantras existed in the historical Vedic religion and the Shramanic traditions, thus they remain important in Buddhism and Jainism as well as other faiths of Indian origin such as Sikhism; the practice of Yoga is intimately connected to the religiou

Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act

The Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. During the 1970s, the American trade surplus diminished and morphed into an increasing deficit; as the deficit increased through the 1980s, some of the blame fell on the tariffs placed on American products by foreign countries, the lack of similar tariffs on imports into the United States. Workers and industry management all called for government action against countries with an unfair advantage; the Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act started as an amendment proposed by Rep. Dick Gephardt to order the Executive branch to examine trade with countries that have large trade surpluses with the United States. If the trade surpluses continued, the offending country would be faced with a bilateral surplus-reduction requirement of 10%; because of its style of zero-sum game thought, it is considered by economists to be a modern form of mercantilism.

The act was signed into law by President Reagan less strict than proposed, as the Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988. It was not renewed until 1994 by President Bill Clinton, it again expired in 1997 and was renewed once more by Clinton in 1999. It was followed by the Trade Act of 2002. Trade Act of 2002 Currency manipulator Exon-Florio Amendment

Army Group East (France)

Army Group East was a grouping of French field armies during World War I, created on June 22, 1915 from the Groupe provisoire de l'Est, formed in January 1915. The army group covered the Western Front from the Swiss border to east of Verdun. From North to South: 3rd Army Détachement d'armée de Lorraine 7th Army From West to East: 8th Army 7th Army From West to East: 2nd Army 8th Army 7th Army Général Augustin Dubail Général Louis Franchet d'Espèrey Général Édouard de Castelnau The French Army and the First World War by Elizabeth Greenhalgh Philippe Pétain et Marc Ferro, La Guerre mondiale: 1914–1918, Toulouse, Éditions Privat, 2014, 372 p. Victor Giraud, Histoire de la Grande Guerre, Librairie Hachette, 1920, 777 p