Buddhist cuisine is an Asian cuisine, followed by monks and many believers from areas influenced by Chinese Buddhism. It is vegetarian or vegan, it is based on the Dharmic concept of ahimsa. Vegetarianism is common in other Dharmic faiths such as Hinduism and Sikhism, as well as East Asian religions like Taoism. While monks and a minority of believers are vegetarian year-round, many believers follow the Buddhist vegetarian diet for celebrations; the origin of "Buddhist food" as a distinct sub-style of cuisine is tied to monasteries, where one member of the community would have the duty of being the head cook and supplying meals that paid respect to the strictures of Buddhist precepts. Temples that were open to visitors from the general public might serve meals to them and a few temples run functioning restaurants on the premises. In Japan, this practice is known as shōjin ryōri, served at many temples in Kyoto. A more recent version, more Chinese in style, is prepared by the Ōbaku school of zen, known as fucha ryōri.
In modern times, commercial restaurants have latched on to the style, catering both to practicing and non-practicing lay people. Most of the dishes considered to be uniquely Buddhist are vegetarian, but not all Buddhist traditions require vegetarianism of lay followers or clergy. Vegetarian eating is associated with the East Asian tradition in China, Vietnam and Korea where it is practiced by clergy and may be observed by laity on holidays or as a devotional practice. Theravada Monks and nuns traditionally feed themselves by gathering alms, must eat whatever foods are given to them, including meat; the exception to this alms rule is when monks and nuns have seen, heard or known that animal have been killed to feed the alms-seeker, in which case consumption of such meat would be karmically negative, as well as meat from certain animals, such as dogs and snakes, that were regarded as impure in ancient India. The same restriction is followed by some lay Buddhists and is known as the consumption of "triply clean meat".
The Pali Sutras describe the Buddha as refusing a suggestion by his student Devadatta to mandate vegetarianism in the monastic precepts. In the Mahayana tradition, by contrast, several sutras of the Mahayana canon contain explicit prohibitions against consuming meat, including sections of the Lankavatara Sutra and Surangama Sutra. Japanese Buddhist sects believe that Buddha ate meat. All Japanese Kamakura sects of Buddhism have relaxed Mahayana vinaya, as a consequence, vegetarianism is optional; the monastic community in Chinese Buddhism, Vietnamese Buddhism and most of Korean Buddhism adhere to vegetarianism. Tibetan Buddhism has long accepted that the practical difficulties in obtaining vegetables and grains within most of Tibet make it impossible to insist upon vegetarianism. Both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhists consider that one may practice vegetarianism as part of cultivating Bodhisattvas's paramita. In addition to the ban on garlic all Mahayana monastics in China, Korea and Japan avoid eating strong-smelling plants, traditionally asafoetida, mountain leek and Allium chinense, which together with garlic are referred to as wǔ hūn or wǔ xīn as they tend to excite senses.
This is based on teachings found in the Brahamajala Sutra, the Surangama Sutra and the Lankavatara Sutra. In modern times this rule is interpreted to include other vegetables of the onion genus, as well as coriander; the origin of this additional restriction is from the Indic region and can still be found among some believers of Hinduism and Jainism. Some Taoists have this additional restriction but the list of restricted plants differs from the Buddhist list; the food that a strict Buddhist takes, if not a vegetarian, is specific. For many Chinese Buddhists beef and the consumption of large animals and exotic species is avoided. There would be the aforementioned "triply clean meat" rule. One restriction on food, not known to many is the abstinence from eating animal innards and organs; this is known as xiàshui. Alcohol and other drugs are avoided by many Buddhists because of their effects on the mind and "mindfulness", it is part of the Five Precepts which dictate that one is not to consume "addictive materials".
The definition of "addictive" depends on each individual but most Buddhists consider alcohol and drugs other than medicine to be addictive. Although caffeine is now known to be addictive, caffeinated drinks and tea are not included under this restriction. There are many legends about tea. Among meditators it is awake without overexcitement. In theory and practice, many regional styles of cooking may be adopted to be "Buddhist" as long as the cook, with the above restrictions in mind, prepares the food in simple preparations, with expert attention to its quality and flavor. Working on a tight budget, the monastery cook would have to make the most of whatever ingredients were available. In Tenzo kyokun, Soto Zen founder Eihei Dogen wrote the following about the Zen attitude toward food
Dahegam is a city and a municipality in Gandhinagar district in the state of Gujarat, India. Dahegam has 800 years of history. During 1257 AD, Gujarat was under the Khilji dynasty. Jafar Khan of the Tughlak dynasty had overpowered King Ram Ray Rathod of Idar; the Mughals took control of a majority of the Gujarat during this period. The Marathas administered the region during 1753 AD. Damaji Gaikwad is considered to be most significant ruler. Dahegam taluka was founded in 1875 AD during Gaekwad rule and it soon become a major political center in the area, it was conferred nagarpalika status in 1987 as a part of Ahmedabad district. When Ahmedabad district was halved in 1998, Dahegam became a part of Gandhinagar district. Dahegam is located at 23.17°N 72.82°E / 23.17. It has an average elevation of 73 metres; as of 2001 India census, Dahegam had a population of 38,083. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Dahegam has an average literacy rate of 65%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 73% and, female literacy is 58%.
In Dahegam, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. There are more than 100 small towns included in the whole Dehgam taluka; the taluka has different kinds of communities and religious people and all people lives with great harmony. Thakor community is the majority in the Dehgam taluka. Though the Dahegam has different religious communities, all are living in unity and, the reason why dahegam is not divided into many parts. There are two big statues in this town, one of Babasaheb Ambedkar at Bus Depot and other Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel at Nehru Cross Roads
Karl Yngve Sköld was a Swedish composer and organist. As well as writing orchestral and chamber music and giving public concerts, he worked for the Swedish Film industry, he was born in Södermanland County, Sweden. His father, a cantor and college teacher, died, he studied piano with Richard Andersson and attended the Royal College of Music, Stockholm from 1915 to 1918 where he learnt composition and counterpoint with Harald Fryklöf. During his teens, his musical talent both as composer and pianist became apparent, he passed the organists' examination in 1919. He studied abroad from 1920 to 1922, first at the Brno Conservatory, where he won first prize in a piano competition for his performance of Beethoven's fifth piano concerto, at the Prague Conservatory's Meisterschule, where he performed his Concert Fantasy for piano and orchestra. In 1933, after returning to Stockholm, he passed the advanced examination in choir direction and music teaching. During his career he went on to compose many orchestral works, including three more symphonies and ten concerti.
He wrote piano and organ pieces, chamber music and choral music, music for several films. His music is late Romantic and technically impressive, with some national influences; the second symphony is worthy of note. The unusual number of his compositions featuring the viola may be related to the fact that his brother, an engineer, was a lifelong enthusiastic player of the instrument. Sköld continued to perform, including employment as pianist and composer by the Swedish Film Industry from 1923 appearing in two films: Bara en trumpetare in 1938, as a theatre piano player in the 1940 film Kyss henne!. He gave annual new year organ concerts in Stockholm City Hall during the thirties, he was music librarian to the Society of Swedish Composers from 1938 to 1964 and was secretary and treasurer of the Swedish Occidental Association from 1936 to 1964. He retired in 1964. Sköld was the author of the first original music composed in the auxiliary language Occidental; the two songs were entitled Alaude, canta! and Ne abandona me.
Sköld died in 1992 in Ingarö, Värmdö municipality, leaving his widow Olga, his son Gunnar and daughter-in-law Solveig, his grandson. Sköld's works include: His music was used in the 2000 film Skönheten skall rädda världen. Several commercial recordings have featured or included Sköld's works: 1999 – Marteau: His Swedish Colleagues | includes Sköld's Melody for Violin and Piano 2001 – Svensk Pianomusik, Vol. 1: Skärgårdsskisser | includes Sköld's Preludio e Fuga quasi una fantasia op. 20 2002 – Symfoni Nr 2 Op 36 / Violinkonsert Op 40 | Sköld 2006 – Swedish Romance for Meditation | includes Sköld's Berceuse 2008 – Poem for Cello & Piano, Cello Sonata, Suite for Horn & Piano | Sköld 2009 – The Symphonic Swedish Organ | includes Sköld's Adagio 2010 – Svenska tangenter Svenska pianister före 1950 | includes the second movement of Sköld's second piano sonata, played by the composer 2011 – Den Bästa Stunden | includes Sköld's Berceuse "The music by Yngve Sköld". YouTube. Retrieved 2017-10-15