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Mukhi is the title used for a head of community or village elites and their local government in Western India and the Sindh. It is derived from the word "mukhiya" meaning "foremost" and prior to Indian Independence, they were the most power person in each community imbued with both civil and judicial powers. Mukhi headmen came from the wealthiest or most prominent families within their community and acted as the president of the local panchayats. According to local traditions, the mukhi could be a hereditary position inherited by the eldest son or an elected position, as were the panchayats. Decisions made by the panchayat did not require enforcement. In developed areas, many held high positions in business; the tradition of mukhis and panchayat raj is thought to be thousands of years old but decreasing in influence due to the growth of government and democratic decentralisation. Since at least the 16th Century, the roles carried out by mukhis included those relating to local revenue gathering and expenditure and justice.

By the 19th, under the British rule of India, they became government appointed agents. They acted as local representative of the rulers. In 1876, according to the Village Police Act, the mukhis were given central roles in the criminal justice system and required to carry out surveillance about suspicious activities and reporting to district level officials, they had powers to resolve conflicts within their community those relating to marriages, give consent over the building of properties and officiate over daily events or rituals. In Hyderabad, the position was always held by a member of the Bhaibund community who presided over the collection of fines for the violation of duties and obligations. In the Ismaili Nizari tradition, the term is used for the guardian of each Jama'at Khana where the Mukhi acts as the tangible symbol of the Imam's authority. Officiating over daily rituals, Mukhi is a common name within Sindhi denoting a hereditary relationship to a mukhi and, from a separate root, in other Indian communities as meaning "beautiful".

Fouzdar Zamindar Talati Sarpanch Panchayats Local self-government in India Bherumal Mahirchand Advani, "Amilan-jo-Ahwal" - published in Sindhi, 1919 Amilan-jo-Ahwal - translated into English in 2016 at sindhis

On-Device Portal

On-Device Portals allow mobile phone users to browse and use mobile content and services. An ODP platform enables operators to provide a consistent and branded on-device experience across their broadening portfolio of services and provides on-device catalogs of content for purchase, deep links to WAP portals, customer care functionality and rich media services such as full track music, TV and video. A key benefit of on-device portals is the ability to target the user rather than the device itself; this personalized service delivery, coupled with the ability to be updated on a frequent basis by the operator – refining services or adding new content – makes ODPs an attractive proposition that has proven successful in encouraging users to access mobile content. By enhancing the user experience, ODPs improve customer satisfaction, reduce churn and in turn, drive higher data revenues. On-Device Portals offer the following applications: Offline portal, store front, home-screen replacement and reporting function: Offline Portal - An application that allows the user to browse content categories and preview content free of charge through pre-cached content that does not require a WAP connection and creates a mobile environment that blurs offline and online experiences.

Store Front - A client-server application enabling the user to discover and select cached content offline, before accessing it via a WAP link. Home-Screen Replacement - A dashboard function of the ODP client that replaces the handset's home screen to provide zero click access to customized mobile content and services. Reporting Function - User analytics that allow operators to measure and improve the delivery of data services by providing visibility into the way subscribers use and interact with their mobile devices. On-Device Portals can be targeted to a specific mobile operating system or provide multi-platform support allowing operators to achieve a consistent, branded experience across of all devices whether they run on Symbian, Microsoft, BREW, Java or Research in Motion platforms; some vendors have server-side components to their On-Device Portal offerings which are tied into operator billing systems that deliver features such as usage tracking and lifecycle management. On-Device Portals are not intended to replace the operating system or other aspects of the phone's interface.

The term On-Device Portal was coined by the London-based ARCchart Research in 2001. In 2005, ARCchart estimated. On-Device Portal technology emerged in 2000, as operating systems and Java were beginning to be deployed on mobile handsets. One. Tel launched smart on device applications using a combination of Java and SIMtoolkit technology in May 2000. In 2002, four vendors — ActiveSky, SurfKitchen, Action Engine and Trigenix - began developing ODP offerings. In March 2003 at CeBIT O2 demonstrated an ActiveSky powered O2 branded On-Device portal, both user and operator reconfigurable, that same year KDDI deployed an ActiveSky based solution. In 2003, operators including O2, Sonofon and ONE began to deploy ODP solutions. From 2001 to 2005, it was central to many MVNO solutions, as a more cost effective and customer-centric alternative to handset software variants or SIM toolkits, Virtuser developed many trials of these, including a pre-blackberry email service that used Bluetooth in buildings. Since 2003, On-Device Portal technology has been embraced by mobile operators across the world to complement WAP-based mobile data services and help operators deliver on the promise of mobile data services.

Carriers expected the launch of High-Speed Downlink Packet Access, in which they had invested to drive robust average revenue per user growth. But despite this investment, the mobile data services market still only represented 19% of global mobile service revenue in 2007. Several factors have been cited for the slow uptake in data services, but poor user experience, based on older browser-based WAP technology, is acknowledged as one of the leading reasons; the browser-based mobile experience is considered difficult and complex requiring a user to click multiple times in order to navigate from browsing to downloading or purchasing content. Separately, WAP's structure, which differs from HTML, has made it difficult for content developers to build efficient content channels; the On-device portal is not without complications, supporting wide handset lists is a lot harder to manage than mobile web content, updating major components is not just a case of re-publishing, but of redistributing applications.

At the same time, while it is easy to test web content on a handful of browsers, portals need to be tested on nearly every handset which will be expected to use the on-device portal. As the market for mobile services has emerged, it has focused on technology until early 2008, but handset vendors and operators are moving from technology to focus on the user experience as the best way to improve market penetration. “When done properly, these experiences understand the task, the environment, the audience.”Data is still being collected as companies analyze how effective greater emphasis on user experience proves to be for operators. Orange Group, for example, doubled its download data ARPU after deploying a portal on its Signature devices. On-Device Portals target four main user categories: Consumers, who demand an improved interface for their mobile experience Operators, who want to improve ARPU with richer media content Content and media providers who want to monetize their offerings in the mobile world Handset manufacturers, who want technology frameworks to help customize handsets for

Perumizhalai Kurumba Nayanar

Perumizhalai Kurumba Nayanar is the 22nd of 63 Nayanar saints of Hinduism. Traditional hagiographies like Periya Puranam and Thiruthondar Thogai describe him as a great devotee of the Hindu god Shiva, he was a follower of another Sundarar. Perumizhalai Kurumba Nayanar was born in Perumizhalai village in a Kurumba family. Sundarar has casually mentioned about Perumizhalai, in his Vaippu Sthalangal i.e. places that were mentioned casually in the devotional songs, in Tevaram. The guru Pooja of Perumizhalai Kurumba Nayanar is celebrated every year in his home town. Perumizhalai Kurumba Nayanar was a servant of Sivaperuman, a chieftain who governed the Perumizhalai region; the saint used to pack sufficient food and other articles in a woolen cloth and forward them from the border of the region. The Nayanar was noted for his simple austerity by the people; the saint spent his life with great faith. Perumizhalai Kurumba Nayanar was a contemporary with Sundarar, the Chera King Cheraman Perumal and Kotpuli Nayanar who figure in the 63 Nayanars.

Kurumba Nayanar accepted him as his guru. The saint enjoyed in chanting Panchakshara as well as the hymns of Thiruthonda Pathikam. Thiruthonda Pathikam is part of Thiruthonda Thogai composed by Sundarar in praise of 63 Nayanars at Tiruvarur temple. Over a period time Kurumba Nayanar attained eight yogic powers. Sundarar proceeded to the sacred land Thiruvanchikulam as a spiritual journey. Kurumba Nayanar came to know using his siddhis that Shiva has decided to recall Sundarar to His divine abode, granting Sundarar salvation; as the troubled Kurumba Nayanar felt that he could not live without his beloved guru, he left his mortal body with his powers and attained the abode of Shiva, before his guru. Tamil month Adi – Chithirai star is celebrated as Guru Puja Day of Kurumba Nayanar

Changsha High-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Changsha High-Tech Industrial Development Zone is a national high-tech industrial zone in Changsha City, Hunan Province, China. It is the original Changsha Technology Development Experimental Zone founded in July, 1988, it was renamed to the present name, meanwhile the zone was upgraded to one of first batch of national HTZs In March 1991, became a national innovative technology pilot zone approved by the Ministry of Science & Technology in 2009. Its core area is situated in the west of Changsha on the west shore of the Xiang River, the north side of Yuelu Mountain Scenic Area. In 2016, the total planned area of CSHTZ is 140 km2; the CSHTZ consists of Yuelu Mountain Hi-Tech Park, Xingsha Industrial Hi-Tech Park, Longping High-Tech Park, Broad Hi-Tech Park and City Proper Policy District, of which the Yuelu Mountain Hi-Tech Park is its core industrial park directly managed by CSHTZ. Yuelu Mountain Hi-Tech Park is called "Luvalley"; the controlled overall plan area of Luvalley is 80 km2 and up to now 15 km2 are of development scale.

The pillar industries in CSHTZ are service outsourcing, environmental protection, new materials, new energy, electronic information and advanced manufacturing. As of 2015, the total business income of enterprises in the zone reaches 425.1 billion yuan, the gross output value of industry is 379.2 billion yuan. of which the total business income in Luvalley is 250 billion yuan, its added value of scale-sized industries is 36.78 billion yuan

Robbinsville High School (North Carolina)

Robbinsville High School is a public, co-educational secondary school located in Robbinsville, North Carolina. It is the only high school in the Graham County Schools system. For the 2011-2012 school year, Robbinsville High School had a total population of 372 students and 29.8 teachers on a basis. The student population had a gender ratio of 192 male to 180 female; the demographic group makeup of the student population was: White, 310 American Indian, 52. For the same school year, 204 of the students received reduced-cost lunches; the origins of Robbinsville High School begin in the early 1900s. In 1924, the school was relocated into; the school building housed all grades including high school grades until the 1966–67 school year when it was split into separate high and elementary schools. In 1987, Stecoah High School in the eastern part of Graham County, closed; the high school portion was merged into Robbinsville High. According to the North Carolina High School Athletic Association, for the 2012–2013 school year, Robbinsville High is a 1A school in the Smoky Mountain Conference.

The Robbinsville mascot is the Black Knights, wearing the school colors of white. Prior to becoming the Black Knights the Robbinsville High School mascot was the Blue Devil; the school offers teams in a variety of sports: baseball, boys' and girls' basketball, cross country, softball and field, wrestling. The Black Knights' football team has won 13 state championships in the A/1A classes, the last being in 2014; the Black Knights defeated Plymouth 21-18 to win the 2014 1A state championship. This was the first championship for head coach Dee Walsh. David Matheson has been principal of Robbinsville High since March 2010, he succeeded Scott Perkins. The assistant principal is Cullin Buchanan. Angie Knight is the superintendent of Graham County Schools. Official website