Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Governor of Pendennis Castle
The Governor of Pendennis Castle was a military officer who commanded the fortifications at Pendennis Castle, part of the defenses of the River Fal and Carrick Roads, on the south coast of Cornwall near Falmouth. Fortified under Henry VIII, defenses in the area were intermittently maintained through World War II; the office of governor was abolished in 1837, when Gen. Anderson received the colonelcy of the 78th Regiment of Foot; the early Governorship was a quasi-hereditary office, whose holders were as follows: John III Killigrew of Arwenack, first Governor, appointed by King Henry VIII. His monumental brass survives in St Budock's Church, Budock Water, near Falmouth, inscribed as follows:"Heere lyeth John Killigrew, Esquier, of Arwenack and lord of ye manor of Killigrew in Cornewall, Elizabeth Trewinnard his wife, he was the first Captaine of Pendennis Castle, made by King Henry the eight and so continued untill the nynth of Queene Elizabeth at which time God tooke him to his mercye, being the yeare of Our Lord 1567.
Sr John Killigrew, his sone succeeded him in ye same place by the gift of Queene Elizabeth".1567–1583/4: Sir John IV Killigrew of Arwenack, son, 2nd Governor, appointed by Queen Elizabeth I, as stated on his father's brass in St Budock's Church. 1584–1598: John V Killigrew, of Arwennack, son, 3rd Governor. 1598–1603: Sir Nicholas Parker An inscribed slate ledger stone in his memory exists against the south wall of the chancel of St Budock's Church. Sir John Parker 1608 – Sir Nicholas Halse 1628 – April 1635: Sir Robert Killigrew of Hanworth, jointly with his eldest son Sir William Killigrew of Kempton Park, Middlesex, a grandson and great-grandson of John Killigrew of Arwennack, the first Governor. April 1635 – 1643: Sir Nicholas Slanning, a Royalist commander during the Civil War, his widow Gertrude Bagg remarried to Richard Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Trerice, the 2nd son of the next Governor. C. 1643 – 1646: Sir John VII Arundell, of Trerice, nicknamed "Jack-for-the-King". During the Civil War in 1646 he held the castle for King Charles I, withstood a five month long siege by Parliamentarian forces, at the end of which his forces were reduced by hunger to eating their horses.
He obtained an honourable surrender. 1646–1648: Col. Richard Fortescue, for Parliament, his relationship to the prominent Devonshire family of Fortescue of Filleigh and Weare Giffard is unclear. He was seated at Hickfield in the county of Southampton, was Commander-in-Chief in Jamaica, where he died in 1657. 1648-1649: John Fox, for Parliament/Commonwealth. 1649–1658?: Sir Hardres Waller, for Parliament/Commonwealth. 1659–1660: Anthony Rowse, for Parliament/Commonwealth. 1660–1662: Sir Peter Killigrew, 2nd Baronet, appointed at the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, by General George Monck. A grandson of the 3rd Governor John V Killigrew, of Arwennack. 1662: Richard Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Trerice, 2nd son of Governor Sir John VII Arundell, of Trerice, "Jack-for-the-King". 1680–1696: John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath, of Stowe, Cornwall, who played a leading role in the Restoration of the Monarchy of 1660. He was a cousin of the Arundells of Trerice. 1696–1703: Bevil Granville, a nephew of the previous Governor John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath 1703–1714: George Granville, 1st Baron Lansdowne, successor to his brother, Governor Bevil Granville 1714–1725: Richard Munden 1726–1734: John Hobart 1735–1737: James Tyrrell 1737–1749: William Barrell 1749–1753: John Laforey 1753–1774: Arthur Owen 1774–1775: Charles Beauclerk 1775–1793: Lt-Col.
Robert Robinson 1793–1823: Felix Buckley 1823–1832: Sir Martin Hunter 1832–1837: Paul Anderson office abolished? - 1717 Captain Richard Trevanion 1729–1739?: John Folliott?–1747: Daniel Houghton 1747–?: John Waite 1749–1769: Richard Bowles 12 January 1770 – 1776: William Fawcett 1776–1797: Nevinson Poole 1797–1811: Philip Melvill 1811–1814: James Considine 1814–1832: William Fenwick 1832–1835: Loftus Grey office abolished
Alfred Waterhouse was an English architect associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture. He is best known for his design for Manchester Town Hall and the Natural History Museum in London, although he built a wide variety of other buildings throughout the country. Financially speaking, Waterhouse was the most successful of all Victorian architects. Though expert within Neo-Gothic, Renaissance revival and Romanesque revival styles, Waterhouse never limited himself to a single architectural style. Waterhouse was born on 19 July 1830 in Aigburth, Lancashire, the son of wealthy mill-owning Quaker parents, his brothers were accountant Edwin Waterhouse, co-founder of the Price Waterhouse partnership, which now forms part of PriceWaterhouseCoopers, solicitor Theodore Waterhouse, who founded the law firm Waterhouse & Co, now part of Field Fisher Waterhouse LLP in the City of London. Alfred Waterhouse was educated at the Quaker Grove House School in Tottenham, he studied architecture under Richard Lane in Manchester, spent much of his youth travelling in Europe and studying in France and Germany.
On his return to Britain, Alfred set up his own architectural practice in 1854 in Manchester. Waterhouse continued to practise in Manchester for 12 years, until moving his practice to London in 1865, his earliest commissions were for domestic buildings. In executing the commission for the cemetery buildings at Warrington Road, Lower Ince, he began his move towards designing public buildings in his developing Neo-Gothic style, building a lodge for the registrar, two chapels, one Church of England, one Non-conformist, his success as a designer of public buildings was assured in 1859 when he won the open competition for the Manchester Assize Courts. This work not only showed his ability to plan a complicated building on a large scale, but marked him out as a champion of the Gothic cause. In 1860 he married Elizabeth Hodgkin, daughter of John Hodgkin and sister of the historian Thomas Hodgkin. Elizabeth was herself the author of several books, including a collection of verse and some anthologies.
Her best known work was The Island of Anarchy, a Utopian story set in the late 20th century, first published in 1887 and more re-published by the Reading-based Two Rivers Press. Waterhouse had connections with wealthy Quaker industrialists through schooling and religious affiliations, many of which commissioned him to design and build country houses in the areas near Darlington. Several were built for members of the Backhouse family, founders of Backhouse's Bank, a forerunner of Barclays Bank. For Alfred Backhouse, Waterhouse built Pilmore Hall, now known as Rockliffe Hall, in Hurworth-on-Tees. In the same village he built the Grange, now the Hurworth Grange Community Centre, which Alfred Backhouse had commissioned as a wedding gift for his nephew, James E. Backhouse. Another Backhouse family mansion designed and built by Waterhouse was Dryderdale Hall, near Hamsterley, used for the home of Cyril Kinnear in the film Get Carter, he designed Baron's Craig a country house in Rockcliffe in Kirkcudbright shire in 1879 for Christopher Morris.
In 1865, Waterhouse was one of the architects selected to compete for the Royal Courts of Justice. The University Club of New York was undertaken in 1866. In 1868 and nine years after his work on the Manchester Assize Courts, another competition secured for Waterhouse the design of Manchester Town Hall where he showed a firmer and more original handling of the Gothic style; the same year he was involved in rebuilding Caius College, Cambridge. At Caius, out of deference to the Renaissance treatment of the older parts of the college, this Gothic element was intentionally mingled with classic detail, while Balliol and Pembroke College, which followed in 1871, are typical of the style of his mid career with Gothic tradition tempered by individual taste and by adaptation to modern needs. Girton College, Cambridge, a building of simpler type, dates from the same period, but has been periodically enlarged by further buildings. Two important domestic works were undertaken in 1870 and 1871 — Eaton Hall in Cheshire for the Duke of Westminster, Heythrop Hall, the latter a restoration of a strict classic type.
Waterhouse received, without competition, the commission to build the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, a design which marks an epoch in the modern use of architectural terracotta and, to become his best-known work. Waterhouse's other works in London included the National Liberal Club, University College London's Cruciform Building, the former site of University College Hospital, the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors in London's Great George Street, the Jenner Institute of Preventive Medicine in Chelsea. From the late 1860s, Waterhouse lived in Reading and was responsible for several significant buildings there; these included his own residences of Foxhill House and Yattendon Court, together with Reading Town Hall, Grove House, a boarding house at Leighton Park School and Reading School. Foxhill House is still in use by the University of Reading, as are his Whiteknights House and East Thorpe House. For the Prudential Assurance Company, Waterhouse designed many offices, including their Holborn Bars head office in Holborn and branch offices in Southam
United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget
St Budeaux is an area and ward in the north west of Plymouth in the English county of Devon. The name St Budeaux comes from the Bishop of Dol. Around 480, Budoc is said to have built a small church; the church gave way to a permanent stone one, dedicated to Saint Budoc, erected shortly before the Norman conquest of England. The village is documented in William the Conqueror's Domesday Book of 1086. Known as Bucheside, it was valued at 30 shillings. Over the course of the next few hundred years, Bucheside became Bodekishide and Bottockishide and Butshead, the latter form being recorded on the Trevill monuments in the church; the modern name, St Budeaux, is itself a Frenchified "elegant" form. St Budeaux became a separate parish in 1482 by the decision of the Bishop of Exeter. During the early Tudor period, demand grew for a larger church, completed in 1563; the church was described in 1804 as "a simple edifice, though devoid of architectural embellishment, possesses much picturesque beauty." On 4 July 1569, Sir Francis Drake married local woman Mary Newman.
During the Civil War and its surrounding villages swore an oath to die for the Parliamentarian cause. They were besieged by the Royalist Cornwall just across the water, which took control of St Budeaux and used the church as a garrison; the church was destroyed by the war's end and was not restored until 1655. In 1805, a Gunpowder Works was established alongside Kinterbury Creek for the purpose of restoring damp or damaged gunpowder offloaded from ships; this hazardous process involved unpacking the powder from its barrels and sieving it, "restoving" it after which it would be stored in a magazine once more ready for use. At the time the main magazine lcomplex for Plymouth was at Keyham, but when land there was required for development of the Dockyard a new location was needed. RNAD Bull Point remains in MoD ownership. In 1860, the War Department purchased a sizable amount of land in the area due to Prime Minister Lord Palmerston's fear of the French ruled by Napoleon III, his fear was exaggerated, the line of military forts encircling Plymouth became known as "Palmerston's Follies."
However, the upheaval contributed to an increase in the local population and a subsequent change in the area's character. Agaton Fort was only 480 yards to the north of St Budeaux and was completed in 1871. In the 1890s, the parish became a self-contained village with significant development in Lower St Budeaux. Much of the development was incited by General John Trelawney John Jago, who inherited a great deal of St Budeaux's land from his uncle in 1883. In 1890, the village was growing due to the construction of the Royal Albert Bridge and the improvement of area roads, as well as a new London and South Western Railway station, St Budeaux Victoria Road. There was a Great Western Railway station at Ferry Road. In the following decade, Trelawney built houses and roads and sold to Joseph Stribling the land that would become the Trelawny Hotel in 1895; the hotel included two bars, a bar parlour, a club room, a coach house, outbuildings and yards, was the first building in St Budeaux to be lit by electricity.
Many new shops opened in the area during the same time period. In 1899, St Budeaux merged with the town of Devonport, resulting in many improvements to local roads and communications availability. Improvements included the construction of a new railway bridge enabling the Devonport and District Tramway Company to provide efficient service from Devonport, through St Budeaux, to Saltash Passage, linking Plymouth to Cornwall. In 1918, following World War I, St Budeaux and the other towns and villages in the treatment were amalgamated into the city of Plymouth. Amid the heavy demolition and construction of this period, six more churches were built in the parish. Much of this activity was initiated by the Plymouth Corporation, which made a habit of buying up the estates of principal landowners and destroying them in order to develop new amenities on the land; the vicar of St Budeaux church at the time, the Reverend T. A. Hancock, was appalled by the Corporation's actions and protested in the 1930s, but to no avail.
Many homes in the region were bombed during World War II, subsequent rebuilding resulted in a housing explosion. Today, St Budeaux includes a Catholic church, a Methodist church, a Baptist church and two Church of England churches, it has a public library, three pubs, four primary schools and two railway stations, although the village does not have its own secondary school. Most of the main shops including a KFC outlet, are situated in St Budeaux Square, adjacent to Wolseley Road. Most children of secondary school age in the area attend Marine Academy Plymouth in the nearby ward of King's Tamerton or bus to one of the residual grammar schools or one of the many other community colleges. While the official boundaries of the ward itself cover 5 square kilometres, St Budeaux is considered to include the neighbouring wards of Barne Barton and Kings Tamerton; the St Budeaux area, in particular Barne Barton, is one of the poorest areas of the city of Plymouth, is known for high levels of crime. It is proximate to the ward of North Prospect, considered by some to be a more impoverished and disruptive area o
Hyacinthoides non-scripta is a bulbous perennial plant, found in Atlantic areas from north-western Spain to the British Isles, frequently used as a garden plant. It is known in English as the common bluebell or bluebell, a name, used in Scotland to refer to the harebell, Campanula rotundifolia. In spring, H. non-scripta produces a nodding, one-sided inflorescence of 5–12 tubular, sweet-scented violet–blue flowers, with recurved tepals, 3–6 long, basal leaves. H. non-scripta is associated with ancient woodland where it may dominate the understorey to produce carpets of violet–blue flowers in "bluebell woods", but occurs in more open habitats in western regions. It is protected under UK law, in some other parts of its range. A related species, H. hispanica has been introduced to the British Isles and hybridises with H. non-scripta to produce intermediates known as H. × massartiana. Hyacinthoides non-scripta was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his seminal 1753 work Species Plantarum, as a species in the genus Hyacinthus.
The specific epithet non-scriptus means "unlettered" or "unmarked" and was intended to distinguish this plant from the classical hyacinth of Greek mythology. This mythical flower, certainly not the modern hyacinth, sprang up from the blood of the dying prince Hyacinthus, his lover, the god Apollo, shed tears that marked the new flower's petals with the letters "AIAI" as a sign of his grief. In 1803, Johann Centurius von Hoffmannsegg and Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link transferred the species to the genus Scilla, in 1849 Christian August Friedrich Garcke transferred it to the genus Endymion. In 1934, Pierre Chouard transferred the species to its current placement in the genus Hyacinthoides. Scilla was the original Greek name for Drimia maritima; the type species of Hyacinthoides is H. hispanica, while that of Endymion is "Scilla nutans", described by James Edward Smith in English Botany in 1797, but now treated as a synonym of H. non-scripta. Smith had argued that nutans is a more fitting epithet than non-scriptus, which makes no sense once separated from Hyacinthus, but the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants requires the oldest name to be used, regardless of meaning.
Common names for Hyacinthoides non-scripta include bluebell, common bluebell, English bluebell, British bluebell, wild hyacinth, wood bell, fairy flower and bell bottle. In Scotland, the term "bluebell" is used for Campanula rotundifolia. Hyacinthoides non-scripta forms a clade with three other species – H. hispanica, H. paivae and H. cedretorum – centred on the Iberian Peninsula. H. paivae is restricted to a small area of north-western Iberia, while H. cedretorum is found in mountainous areas of western North Africa. Within Iberia, H. non-scripta and H. hispanica are geographically separated by the Duero river. The genus contains seven further species distributed further east in the Mediterranean Basin. Hyacinthoides non-scripta is a perennial plant, it produces 3–6 linear leaves, all growing from the base of the plant, each 7–16 millimetres wide. An inflorescence of 5–12 flowers is borne on a stem up to 500 mm tall, which droops towards the tip; each flower is 14–20 mm long, with two bracts at the base, the six tepals are recurved at their tips.
The tepals are violet–blue. The three stamens in the outer whorl are fused to the perianth for more than 75% of their length, bear cream-coloured pollen; the flowers are and sweetly scented. The seeds are black, germinate on the soil surface; the bulbs produce contractile roots. This may explain the absence of H. non-scripta from some thin soils over chalk in South East England, since the bulbs are unable to penetrate into sufficiently deep soils. H. Non-scripta differs from H. hispanica, which occurs as an introduced species in the British Isles, in a number of ways. H. hispanica has paler flowers. The outer stamens are fused with the tepals for less than 75% of their length, the anthers are the same colour as the tepals; these two species are thought to have diverged 8000 years ago. The two species hybridise to produce fertile offspring known as Hyacinthoides × massartiana. Hyacinthoides non-scripta is native to the western parts of Atlantic Europe, from north-western Spain to the Netherlands and the British Isles.
It is found in Belgium, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands and Spain, occurs as a naturalized species in Germany and Romania. It has been introduced into various parts of North America, in both the Pacific Northwest, the Great Lakes region and other parts of the United States. Despite the wide distribution of H. non-scripta, it reaches its greatest densities in the British Isles, where
South West England
South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, consists of the counties of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Cornwall, as well as the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England; the region includes much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The largest city is Bristol. Other major urban centres include Plymouth, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath and the South East Dorset conurbation which includes Bournemouth and Christchurch. There are eight cities: Salisbury, Wells, Gloucester, Exeter and Truro, it includes two entire national parks and Exmoor. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall; the region has by far the longest coastline of any English region. The region is at the first level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes. Key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, local government co-ordination across the region is now undertaken by South West Councils.
The region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language and some regard it as a Celtic nation; the South West is known for Cheddar cheese. It is home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, trip hop music and Cornwall's surfing beaches; the region has been home to some of Britain's most renowned writers, including Daphne du Maurier and Agatha Christie, both of whom set many of their works here, the South West is the location of Thomas Hardy's Wessex, the setting for many of his best-known novels. Most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel, it has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles. Much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region's attractiveness to tourists and residents.
Geologically the region is divided into the igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, the dividing line to the west of the River Exe. Cornwall and West Devon's landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor; these are due to the slate that underlie the area. The highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park; the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the county's name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by limestone downland; the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the region's dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardy's "Vale of the Little Dairies"; the Southern England Chalk Formation extends into the region, creating a series of high, sparsely populated and archaeologically rich downs, most famously Salisbury Plain, but Cranborne Chase, the Dorset Downs and the Purbeck Hills.
These downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, where they support sheep farming. All of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east; the climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west, it is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the region to rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation.
They experience the highest summer maxima temperatures. Snowfalls are less so in comparison to higher ground, it experiences the lowest wind speeds and sunshine total in between that of the moors. The climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures in winter, it experiences lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is the lowest at the coast and snowfall is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine; the general coastal climate is more typical the further south-west into the region. Areas of moorland inland such as: Bodmin Moor and Exmoor experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of the south west (approxima