José Buenaventura Durruti Dumange was a Spanish insurrectionary, anarcho-syndicalist militant involved with the CNT, FAI and other anarchist organisations during the period leading up to and including the Spanish Civil War. Durruti played an influential role during the Spanish Revolution and is remembered as a hero in the anarchist movement. Durruti was born in León, son of Anastasia Dumange and Santiago Durruti, a railway worker in the yard at León who described himself as a libertarian socialist. Buenaventura was the second of eight brothers. In 1910, aged 14, Durruti left school to become a trainee mechanic in the railway yard in León. Like his father, he joined the socialist Unión General de Trabajadores, he took an active part in the strike of August 1917 called by the UGT when the government overturned an agreement between the union and the employers. The government brought in the Spanish Army to suppress the strike. 2,000 of the strikers were imprisoned without legal process. Durruti managed to escape, but had to flee abroad to France where he came into contact with exiled anarchists.
The brutality of the Spanish State against anarchism had a profound and lasting effect on the young Durruti. From the autumn of 1917 until the beginning of 1920, Durruti worked in Paris as a mechanic, he decided to return to Spain and arrived at San Sebastian, Basque Country, just across the border. Here, he was introduced to local anarchists such as Suberviola, Aldabatrecu or Marcelino del Campo, with whom he formed the anarchist paramilitary group Los Justicieros. In 1921, during the inauguration of the Great Kursaal in San Sebastian, members of this group attempted unsuccessfully to assassinate King Alfonso XIII. Shortly after Buenasca, the president of the formed anarchist controlled Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo, persuaded Durruti to go to Barcelona to organise the workers there where the anarchist movement, as well as the syndicalists, was being brutally suppressed and most of its members jailed or executed. Here, with Juan García Oliver, Francisco Ascaso, other members of Los Justicieros, he founded Los Solidarios.
In 1923 the group was implicated in the assassination of Cardinal Juan Soldevilla y Romero, as a reprisal for the killing of an anarcho-syndicalist union activist Salvador Seguí. After Miguel Primo de Rivera seized power in Spain in 1923, Durruti and his comrades organised attacks on the military barracks in Barcelona and on the border stations near France; these attacks were unsuccessful and quite a few anarchists were killed. Following these defeats, Durruti and Oliver fled to Latin America, they subsequently travelled visiting Cuba and carrying out bank robberies in Chile and Argentina. Durruti and his companions returned to Spain and Barcelona, becoming an influential militant group within two of the largest anarchist organisations in Spain at the time, the Federación Anarquista Ibérica, of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo; the influence Durruti's group gained inside the CNT caused a split, with a reformist faction under Ángel Pestaña leaving in 1931 and subsequently forming the Syndicalist Party.
Working with his comrades in the FAI and CNT Durruti helped to co-ordinate armed resistance to the military rising of the Nationalist faction, an effort, to prove vital in preventing General Goded's attempt to seize control of Barcelona. During the battle for the Atarazanas Barracks, Durruti's long-time comrade and closest friend Ascaso was shot dead. Less than a week on 24 July 1936 Durruti led over 3,000 armed anarchists from Barcelona to Zaragoza. After a brief and bloody battle at Caspe, they halted at Bujaraloz and at'Venta de santa Lucia', Pina de Ebro, on the advice of a regular army officer, postponing an assault on Zaragoza; the presence of Simone Weil in this region, following the Anarchist columns in this time is known. Durruti's most famous quote was "We renounce everything except victory" with the undertone that the socialist revolution had to be stopped in advance of the war efforts. Buenaventura Durruti family had roots in Ondarroa, where they got the aka'Los negros','The black', he was shot in Madrid, shortly after a filmed interview for the USSR movie news.
On 12 November, having been persuaded to leave Aragón by the anarchist leader Federica Montseny on behalf of the government, Durruti led his militia to Madrid to aid in the defence of the city. On 19 November, he was shot while leading a counterattack in the Casa de Campo area. Durruti's death is given in Antony Beevor. Beevor maintains, he assessed that, at the time, the anarchists lied and claimed he had been hit by an enemy sniper's bullet "for reasons of morale and propaganda". The first rumour of his death was. However, according to anarchist author Abel Paz, Durruti was hit by distant gunfire coming from the area around the Clinical Hospital in the University City, as he laid out in his 1976 book Durruti: The People Armed. Durruti died on 20 November 1936, at the age of 40, in a makeshift operating theatre set up in what was the Ritz Hotel; the bullet was lodged in the heart. In his book Durruti in
Sir Colin Murray Campbell is a Scottish academic lawyer. He was the Vice Chancellor of the University of Nottingham and served until 2006 as Her Majesty's First Commissioner of Judicial Appointments. Campbell retired as vice chancellor of the University of Nottingham in September 2008, he was appointed in 1988 as the country's youngest vice chancellor at the age of 43. In 1999, he caused much cachinnation in the HE sector by proposing the effective privatisation of universities, saying that what was good for telephone companies and airlines must be good for academia, too, he was long a loud advocate of controversial plans to introduce tuition fees. He was criticised for the university's decision to accept, in 2001, a £3.8M endowment from tobacco multinational British American Tobacco aimed at establishing an International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility at Nottingham University Business School. Many current and prospective staff at the university felt that such a relationship with a tobacco company, accused, amongst other things, of illegal smuggling.
This belief lead to resignations, including that of Richard Smith, editor of the British Medical Journal, the loss of at least one grant for £1.5m from the Cancer Research Campaign, the decision of the director of the Gene Targeted Drug Design Research Group to take his 15-strong team to the University of London. Further controversy came in 2008 when Campbell issued a statement in response to the recent arrests under the 2000 Terrorism Act, of a student, Rizwaan Sabir, member of staff, Hicham Yezza, at the university, they had been held for six days before being released without charge after downloading documents relating to terrorism from a US government website for research purposes. Appearing to reject the notion of academic freedom, ¿Campbell said in his statement that "There is no'right' to access and research terrorist materials; those who do so run the risk of being prosecuted on terrorism charges. There is no'prohibition' on accessing terrorist materials for the purpose of research.
Those who do so are to be able to offer a defence to charges." Many academic staff in the institution found this legal formalism an unacceptable abdication of managerial responsibility, which demonstrated to some that Campbell, to the end, had always been more interested in cutting a figure as a businessman in tune with the establishment zeitgeist than defending and extending academic values. Rod Thornton asserts that Campbell appeared to have lied in a public statement to Times Higher Education about the case, when he claimed that the university had conducted a full risk assessment before reporting the matter to the police. Thornton asserts that this was contradicted by several other sources, including Campbell's own version of events in his account to the Minister for Further and Higher Education; these sources suggest. Just prior to retirement, Campbell received a 90% pay increase, which saw him receive a salary and benefits package worth £585,000; this made him the highest earning vice chancellor in the UK.
Upon his retirement The Sunday Times called him "The Sir Alex Ferguson of Vice Chancellors": no one knew if, a compliment. Campbell graduated with First Class Honours in Law from the University of Aberdeen, he subsequently held appointments at the University of Dundee and the University of Edinburgh before becoming Professor of Jurisprudence at Queen's University of Belfast, where he was Dean of the law faculty and a Pro Vice Chancellor as well as Chairman of QUBIS Ltd. He was a member of the Standing Advisory Commission on Human Rights for Northern Ireland, the Legal Aid Advisory Committee, the Mental Health Legislation Review Committee, he has served on the University Grants Committee as Vice Chairman of the Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals and as a member of the Board of the Higher Education Funding Council for England. He was chairman of the Northern Ireland Economic Council from 1987–94, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority from 1990–94, the Human Genetics Advisory Commission from 1996–99, the Medical Workforce Standing Advisory Committee from 1991 to 2001.
He was a member of the Sheehy Inquiry Team into Police Responsibilities and Rewards and a member of the Trent Regional Health Authority from 1993-96. He was Chairman of the Food Advisory Committee from 1994 to 2001. In 1999, he was appointed to the Board of Swiss Re, he was knighted in 1994 and was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire in 1996. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and was elected a member of the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences in 2000, he was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws by the University of Aberdeen in 2001. In September 2004, he was named an Honorary Citizen of Ningbo Municipality by the Standing Committee of the Ningbo Municipal People's Congress, in recognition of his contribution to the construction and development of Ningbo, where The University of Nottingham became the first foreign university to establish a campus in China. In April 2006, he received an Honorary Doctorate of Law from Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Mars 1M No.2, designated Mars 1960B by NASA analysts and dubbed Marsnik 2 by the Western media, was a spacecraft launched as part of the Soviet Union's Mars programme, lost in a launch failure in 1960. 1M No.2, intended to explore Mars from flyby trajectory, was destroyed after its Molniya carrier rocket failed to achieve orbit. Mars 1M No.2 was the second Mars 1M spacecraft to be launched, lifting off four days after its sister craft, Mars 1M No.1, had been lost during the Molniya 8K78 rocket's maiden flight. 1M No.2 was carried by another Molniya, which had the serial number L1-5M. The launch took place from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, with liftoff occurring at 13:51:03 UTC on 14 October 1960. During preparations for the launch, an oxidiser leak in the second stage caused liquid oxygen, at cryogenic temperature, to spill around the engine's fuel inlet valve; this froze the stage's RP-1 propellant. As a result, the spacecraft failed to achieve Earth orbit; the spacecraft carried three scientific instruments.