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Buenos Aires Province

Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentine province. It takes its name from the city of Buenos Aires, the capital of the country, which used to be part of the province and the province's capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include Buenos Aires proper, though it does include all other parts of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only one within all of Argentina to be divided into partidos and further into localidades, it borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast, Santa Fe to the north, Córdoba to the northwest, La Pampa to the west, Río Negro to the south and west and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires to the northeast. Uruguay is just across the Rio de la Plata to the northeast, both are on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region.

The province has a population of about 15.6 million people, 39% of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the province covers an area of 307,571 km2, about 11% of Argentina's total area and makes it the country's largest province. The inhabitants of the province before the 16th-century advent of Spanish colonization were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes, their culture was lost over the next 350 years. They were subjected to Eurasian plagues from; the survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de Los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the center of the economy of the territory.

Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region. Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities.

The province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires. Concessions gained in 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.

The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address wors

NASA Research Park

NASA Research Park is a research park run by NASA, developing a world-class, shared-use research and development campus in association with government entities, academia and non-profit organisations. It is situated near California. NASA Research Park was approved by NASA HQ in the fall of 2002 and over the past decade has grown into the research park it is today with 61 tenants and partners; the U. S. Congress established Ames Research Center in 1939 as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory under the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Ames grew to occupy 500 acres at Moffett Field adjacent to the Naval Air Station Moffett Field in Santa Clara County, California, in the center of the region that would, in the 1990s, become known worldwide as Silicon Valley. In 1958, Congress created NASA with the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, 42 U. S. C. § 2451 et seq. The Ames Aeronautical Laboratory became a NASA field center. Ames is nearing 70 years of age, which it calls "Seven Decades of Innovation," highlighted with major accomplishments in aeronautics and space.

From the 1940s through the 1990s, Ames scientists and engineers demonstrated excellence in flight research in many areas including variable stability aircraft and control displays, boundary-layer control and short takeoff and landing aircraft, rotorcraft. Ames developed the swept wing design and the conical camber, now considered in the design of every supersonic aircraft. Ames developed and operated critical facilities including flight simulators and wind tunnels, pushing the frontiers of computers and the arcjets facility to test materials at high temperatures, which were critical to high-speed aircraft development and space vehicle re-entry. Ames largest contribution to the early space program for human missions was solving the problem of getting astronauts safely back to Earth, through the development of the blunt body design for re-entry vehicles. Ames assisted the development of Apollo and operated the Pioneer Missions, developed the tiltrotor aircraft; the diversity of accomplishments led to the focus in the 1990s on Ames becoming the high-tech center of NASA.

In those days in NASA parlance, Ames became the Center of Excellence for Information Technologies, taking the lead in human centered computing, a major interdisciplinary effort to develop means of optimizing the performance of mixed human and computer systems. These new technologies were critical for both aeronautics and space operations with ground-based operators and robots functioning collaboratively to maximize mission science return and safety; this human centered computing focus developed the expertise for Ames to become the lead for all supercomputing in NASA, in 2005 Ames operated the world's fastest supercomputer, partnered with SGI and Intel. In the 1990s, following its historic excellence in life and space sciences, Ames developed a focused new program called Astrobiology to search for the origins of life in the universe. Ames leads NASA's Kepler Mission, a spacecraft designed to find Earth-sized planets in other galaxies that may be in or near habitable zones, distances from a star where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface.

Ames developed SOFIA, the new Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, using a Boeing 747 aircraft that will study the universe for the next twenty years in the infrared spectrum. Concurrent with the outstanding innovations in science and technology, Ames has become the leader in NASA for innovative partnerships with universities and industry, both onsite and in distance collaborations; the opportunity for this new partnering became available in the early 1990s, with the potential for R&D partners to move into the property obtained from the transfer of Navy Moffett Field land to NASA. From its establishment in 1939, Ames shared the land known as Moffett Field with the United States Navy, jointly using the major airfield on the property. In the 1930s the Navy developed Moffett Field for the home of the famous "Lighter than Air Era of American Military History," housing and operating large-scale airships. Through the years a number of different military organizations, including the United States Air Force, used the Moffett Field facilities, in the late 1980s the Navy operated the base.

With the enactment of the Base Realignment and Closure Act in 1991, Congress directed the Navy to close and vacate the Naval Air Station at Moffett Field. Under the framework of the Federal Property Administrative Services Act of 1949, 40 U. S. C. §471, NASA negotiated custody of most of the Navy property, with the strong support of the local governments surrounding Moffett Field and the U. S. Congressmen from the area Rep. Norman Mineta; the decision was properly approved through the federal government process to transfer the property to NASA and disestablish the Naval Air Station Moffett Field. The United States Department of Defense decided to retain control of 57 hectares of military housing at Moffett Field. In 1994, the Department of the Navy transferred 600 hectares to NASA; this transfer created a unique opportunity for NASA to provide stewardship for the entire 800-hectare site, except the military housing. Prior to obtaining control of Moffett Field, NASA prepared the Moffett Field Comprehensive Use Plan to implement its management program for the newly expanded Ames.

An Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact accompanied the plan. The EA

Reinhold Tiling

Reinhold Tiling was a German engineer, pilot and a rocket pioneer. Tiling was born as the son of a pastor. Shortly after he began the study of mechanical engineering and electro-technology he found himself in war service at the beginning of the First World War. In 1915 he volunteered as a fighter pilot in the newly created German Luftstreitkräfte. In 1926 Tiling became flight controller of Osnabrück airport, he began to explore rocket technology during this period inspired by Hermann Oberth's book "Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen". Tiling developed re-usable rocket planes which start as a land with swinging-out wings; this principle was used by NASA for flights of the Space Shuttle. His innovation allowed him to develop rockets which had the necessary thrust and burning duration for flight. In 1929 Gisbert Freiherr von Ledebur allowed Tiling the use of a workshop in Ahrenshorst. In June 1929 some successful demonstrations were completed during which missiles reached a height of 1,000 metres. On 13 March 1931 Tiling and his co-worker Karl Poggensee succeeded in the launch of a solid-propellant rocket.

The rocket reached a height of 1,800 metres. Further rocket launches were undertaken in the following weeks; the break-through experiment occurred on 15 April 1931, when Tiling demonstrated a post office rocket which carried 188 postcards reliably. Further tests showed the reliability of his rockets; the rockets attracted large public interest. This attracted the attention of the Reichsmarine, developing rockets for military use since 1929. Despite the support of friends and sponsors, Tiling's work was beset by financial difficulties. On 10 October 1933, the overheating of the powder needed to power the rocket created an explosion in Tiling's workshop in Ahrenshorst, they succumbed to these injuries on the following day with Tiling dying in Osnabrück. A crater on the backside of the moon is named after Reinhold Tiling, located at coordinates 53° 06' S 132° 36' W. Rocket mail9783862251063 ISBN Reinhold Tiling: ǂb Flieger und Forscher, Erfinder der Kammerrakete / ǂc Klaus Tiling, Martin Frauenheim.

Reinhold Tiling – Pionier der Raketentechnik