South African Border War
The South African Border War known as the Namibian War of Independence, sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia and Angola from 26 August 1966 to 21 March 1990. It was fought between the South African Defence Force and the People's Liberation Army of Namibia, an armed wing of the South West African People's Organisation; the South African Border War resulted in some of the largest battles on the African continent since World War II and was intertwined with the Angolan Civil War. Following several decades of unsuccessful petitioning through the United Nations and the International Court of Justice for Namibian independence, SWAPO formed the PLAN in 1962 with material assistance from the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, sympathetic African states such as Tanzania and Algeria. Fighting broke out between PLAN and the South African authorities in August 1966. Between 1975 and 1988 the SADF staged massive conventional raids into Angola and Zambia to eliminate PLAN's forward operating bases.
It deployed specialist counter-insurgency units such as Koevoet and 32 Battalion trained to carry out external reconnaissance and track guerrilla movements. South African tactics became aggressive as the conflict progressed; the SADF's incursions produced Angolan casualties and resulted in severe collateral damage to economic installations regarded as vital to the Angolan economy. Ostensibly to stop these raids, but to disrupt the growing alliance between the SADF and the National Union for the Total Independence for Angola, which the former was arming with captured PLAN equipment, the Soviet Union backed the People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola through a large contingent of military advisers and up to four billion dollars' worth of modern defence technology in the 1980s. Beginning in 1984, regular Angolan units under Soviet command were confident enough to confront the SADF, their positions were bolstered by thousands of Cuban troops. The state of war between South Africa and Angola ended with the short-lived Lusaka Accords, but resumed in August 1985 as both PLAN and UNITA took advantage of the ceasefire to intensify their own guerrilla activity, leading to a renewed phase of FAPLA combat operations culminating in the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale.
The South African Border War was ended by the Tripartite Accord, mediated by the United States, which committed to a withdrawal of Cuban and South African military personnel from Angola and South West Africa, respectively. PLAN launched its final guerrilla campaign in late March 1989. South West Africa received formal independence as the Republic of Namibia a year on 21 March 1990. Despite being fought in neighbouring states, the South African Border War had a phenomenal cultural and political impact on South African society; the country's apartheid government devoted considerable effort towards presenting the war as part of a containment programme against regional Soviet expansionism and used it to stoke public anti-communist sentiment. It remains an integral theme in contemporary South African literature at large and Afrikaans-language works in particular, having given rise to a unique genre known as grensliteratuur. Various names have been applied to the undeclared conflict waged by South Africa in Angola and Namibia from the mid 1960s to the late 1980s.
The term "South African Border War" has denoted the military campaign launched by the People's Liberation Army of Namibia, which took the form of sabotage and rural insurgency, as well as the external raids launched by South African troops on suspected PLAN bases inside Angola or Zambia, sometimes involving major conventional warfare against the People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola and its Cuban allies. The strategic situation was further complicated by the fact that South Africa occupied large swathes of Angola for extended periods in support of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, making the "Border War" an inseparable conflict from the parallel Angolan Civil War."Border War" entered public discourse in South Africa during the late 1970s, was adopted thereafter by the country's ruling National Party. Due to the covert nature of most South African Defence Force operations inside Angola, the term was favoured as a means of omitting any reference to clashes on foreign soil.
Where tactical aspects of various engagements were discussed, military historians identified the conflict as the "bush war". The South West African People's Organisation has described the South African Border War as the Namibian War of National Liberation and the Namibian Liberation Struggle. In the Namibian context it is commonly referred to as the Namibian War of Independence. However, these terms have been criticised for ignoring the wider regional implications of the war and the fact that PLAN was based in, did most of its fighting from, countries other than Namibia. Namibia was governed as German South West Africa, a colony of the German Empire, until World War I, when it was invaded and occupied by Allied forces under General Louis Botha. Following the Armistice of 11 November 1918, a mandate system was imposed by the League of Nations to govern African and Asian territories held by Germany and the Ottoman Empire prior to the war; the mandate system was formed as a compromise between those who advocated an Allied annexation of former German and Turkish territories, another proposition put forward by those who wished to grant them to an international trusteeship until they could govern themsel
The Casspir is a Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle, in use in South Africa for over 30 years. It is a four-wheel drive vehicle, used for transport of troops, it can hold 12 additional soldiers and associated equipment. The Casspir was unique in design; the main armoured steel body of the vehicle is raised high above the ground, so when a mine is detonated, the explosion is less to damage the crew compartment and kill the occupants. The cross-section of the hull is V-shaped, directing the force of the explosion outwards, further protecting the occupants; the vehicle offers crew protection from small arms fire. The capabilities of the Casspir were the basis of the outline capabilities required by the U. S. Marines' for their Mine Resistant Ambush MRAP vehicle project; the name'Casspir' is an anagram of the abbreviations of the customer, the South African Police, the design authority, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Although the Casspir was deployed in townships during the apartheid era, it was designed for conditions encountered in the South African Border War.
It was at first extensively used by the infamous "Koevoet" police counterinsurgency unit in northern Namibia during the apartheid era and also by the South-West Africa Territorial Force's 101 Battalion and the SA Army's 5 Reconnaissance Regiment. The chief criteria for the design was good off-road mobility, armour protection against small arms fire and anti-personnel mines, ease and speed of repair by a light workshop crew in the field after detonating an anti-tank mine; these requirements led to a wheeled chassis. The Casspir was designed by the Defence Research Unit of CSIR to protect vehicle occupants against landmines, it is certified to protect its occupants against a triple TM-57 mine blast under a wheel, or a double blast under the hull. The Casspir has V-bottomed armoured monocoque hull, designed to deflect the force of an explosion outwards, to which a leaf-spring suspension is attached. After two years of field testing, the South African Police were satisfied they had a good vehicle and in March 1980 placed an order for an initial 140 Casspirs.
Some 190 Mk1 Casspirs were manufactured by Henred Fruehauf. In 1981 production was taken over by TFM, which improved the design to the Mk 2. TFM was subsequently taken over by Reumech OMC. Reumech in turn was taken over by Vickers Defence Systems of the UK and renamed Vickers OMC; when Alvis purchased Vickers Defence Systems to become Alvis Vickers, Vickers OMC became Alvis OMC. In 2004 BAE Systems acquired Alvis Vickers and Alvis OMC was renamed Land Systems OMC. Land Systems OMC was 75 per cent acquired by Denel in 2015. An estimated 2800 Casspirs of all types have been built. In 2018 the ADE 352 engines, shock absorbers and other parts are still being supplied by ADE in South Africa as well as the model Casspir NG2000; the South African Police Service auctioned off some of their surplus Casspirs to the public at a 2008 auction. A new Casspir known as Casspir NG 2000 is being manufactured by Denel Mechem; the vehicle was launched in April 2013. Casspir Mk 1. Made extensive use of Mercedes-Benz truck components.
First use in combat: Koevoet, South West African Police Casspir Mk 2 First user: 101 Battalion, South West African Territorial Force Casspir Mk 2C Casspir Mk 3 - 170 hp ADE-352T 6-cylinder turbo-diesel Casspir 2000 & NG2000A Casspir 2000B Casspir 2000C The Casspir was built in different configurations: APC - armoured personnel carrier Artillery Fire Control vehicle Ambulance Blesbok Freighter - with drop side cargo area for up to 5 tons. Can be used as a weapon platform. Duiker Tanker - 5000 litre tank. Did not enter production Sesspir - In 1984-85 the CSIR developed a prototype Casspir with six wheels. An additional non-driven axle was fitted in front of the front drive axle, this to be sacrificed in the event of a landmine detonation, it steered along with the regular driven front wheels and was equipped with winch cables to hoist either side of the axle clear off the ground in the event of the loss of a wheel. The theory being the vehicle would remain mobile; the idea was shelved as one of numerous problems was a lack of power from the engine to push the undriven axle along through bush and soft sand.
Only one prototype was built. Casspir NG Series or Casspir 2000 is known as the new generation hence Casspir NG 2000. Available in various models 2000, 2000A; the NG design allow a common Hull to fit either manual or automatic drive. The latest in the NG series is a design that is
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai. It is a subsidiary of an Indian conglomerate, its products include passenger cars, vans, buses, sports cars, construction equipment and military vehicles. Tata Motors has auto manufacturing and assembly plants in Jamshedpur, Lucknow, Sanand and Pune in India, as well as in Argentina, South Africa, Great Britain and Thailand, it has research and development centres in Pune, Jamshedpur and Dharwad, India and in South Korea, Great Britain and Spain. Tata Motors' principal subsidiaries purchased the English premium car maker Jaguar Land Rover and the South Korean commercial vehicle manufacturer Tata Daewoo. Tata Motors has a bus-manufacturing joint venture with Marcopolo S. A. a construction-equipment manufacturing joint venture with Hitachi, a joint venture with Fiat Chrysler which manufactures automotive components and Fiat Chrysler and Tata branded vehicles. Founded in 1945 as a manufacturer of locomotives, the company manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in a collaboration with Daimler-Benz AG, which ended in 1969.
Tata Motors entered the passenger vehicle market in 1988 with the launch of the TataMobile followed by the Tata Sierra in 1991, becoming the first Indian manufacturer to achieve the capability of developing a competitive indigenous automobile. In 1998, Tata launched the first indigenous Indian passenger car, the Indica, in 2008 launched the Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car. Tata Motors acquired the South Korean truck manufacturer Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company in 2004 and purchased Jaguar Land Rover from Ford in 2008. Tata Motors is listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index, the National Stock Exchange of India, the New York Stock Exchange; the company is ranked 226th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2016. On 17 January 2017, Natarajan Chandrasekaran was appointed chairman of the company Tata Group. Tata Group entered the commercial vehicle sector in 1954 after forming a joint venture with Daimler-Benz of Germany.
After years of dominating the commercial vehicle market in India, Tata Motors entered the passenger vehicle market in 1991 by launching the Tata Sierra, a sport utility vehicle based on the Tata Mobile platform. Tata subsequently launched the Tata Sumo and the Tata Safari. Tata launched the Indica in 1998, the first indigenous Indian passenger car. Although criticized by auto analysts, its excellent fuel economy, powerful engine, an aggressive marketing strategy made it one of the best-selling cars in the history of the Indian automobile industries. A newer version of the car, named Indica V2, was a major improvement over the previous version and became a mass favourite. Tata Motors successfully exported large numbers of the car to South Africa; the success of the Indica played a key role in the growth of Tata Motors. In 2004, Tata Motors acquired Daewoo's South Korea-based truck manufacturing unit, Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company renamed Tata Daewoo. On 27 September 2004, Tata Motors rang the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange to mark the listing of Tata Motors.
In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% controlling stake in the Spanish bus and coach manufacturer Hispano Carrocera. Tata Motors continued its market area expansion through the introduction of new products such as buses and trucks. In 2006, Tata formed a joint venture with the Brazil-based Marcopolo, Tata Marcopolo Bus, to manufacture built buses and coaches. In 2008, Tata Motors acquired the English car maker Jaguar Land Rover, manufacturer of the Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor Company. In May 2009, Tata unveiled the Tata World Truck range jointly developed with Tata Daewoo. Tata acquired full ownership of Hispano Carrocera in 2009. In 2009, its Lucknow plant was awarded the "Best of All" Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award. In 2010, Tata Motors acquired an 80% stake in the Italian design and engineering company Trilix for €1.85 million. The acquisition formed part of the company's plan to enhance its design capabilities. In 2012, Tata Motors announced it would invest around ₹6 billion in the development of Futuristic Infantry Combat Vehicles in collaboration with DRDO.
In 2013, Tata Motors announced it will sell in India, the first vehicle in the world to run on compressed air and dubbed "Mini CAT". In 2014, Tata Motors introduced first Truck Racing championship in India "T1 Prima Truck Racing Championship". On 26 January 2014, the Managing Director Karl Slym was found dead, he fell from the 22nd floor to the fourth floor of the Shangri-La Hotel in Bangkok, where he was to attend a meeting of Tata Motors Thailand. On 2 November 2015, Tata Motors announced Lionel Messi as global brand ambassador at New Delhi, to promote and endorse passenger vehicles globally. On 27 December 2016, Tata Motors announced the Bollywood actor Akshay Kumar as brand ambassador for its commercial vehicles range. On 8 March 2017, Tata Motors announced that it has signed a memorandum of understanding with Volkswagen to develop vehicles for India's domestic market. On 3 May 2018, Tata Motors announced that it sold its aerospace and
Air Force Base Swartkop
Air Force Base Swartkop is South Africa's oldest air force base and houses the South African Air Force Museum. It is managed as part of AFB Waterkloof and houses one of the three branches of the South African Air Force Museum; the name of the air force base, Swartkop means Black hill in Afrikaans. AFB Swartkop is located in the town Centurion in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, between Pretoria and Midrand, a part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. Air Force Station Zwartkop was established in April 1921 after a private farm named Zwartkop was acquired by the Government in 1920; the Dutch spelling of Zwartkop was retained for the Air Force Station, subsequently established there. On 1 April 1949, the Dutch spelling was dropped in favour of the Afrikaans spelling and resulted in Air Force Station Swartkop; the Air Force Station was upgraded to an Air Force Base on 1 February 1968. The name of the base reverted to the original "Zwartkop" in 2012; the SAAF claims Swartkop is the second oldest air station in the world and the oldest operational air station in the world.
Over the years many distinguished Squadrons have been based at Swartkop. This includes 26 Squadron SAAF, formed there on 24 August 1942; the Chief of the South African Air Force opened the relocated South African Air Force Museum at AFB Swartkop in 1993. The Air Force Base reverted to Air Force Station status in 1999; this decision was made by the South African Air Force to vacate the base and leave behind the South African Air Force Museum located there and to keep the Airfield as an extension of Air Force Base Waterkloof. The SAAF Museum Historic Flight has moved to the airfield; as of December 2013 the South African Air Force still hasn't vacated all operational units on the base. The South African Air Force Museum occupies the northern side of the base while active SAAF units occupy the southern side of the base; the South African Air Force Memorial is located at Swartkop. It contains a roll of honour of SAAF personnel who have been killed on duty as well as a memorial to personnel of all nations that died during the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan in South Africa.
South African Air Force South African Air Force Museum AFB Swartkop on saairforce.co.za Swartkop SAAF Museum website
The Unibuffel is a mine-protected wheeled MRAP used by the Sri Lankan military. It can be seen at the Sri Lankan Armoured Corps Museum. Although similar to the South African Buffel, it is built by the Sri Lanka Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. Used often by the Sri Lankan forces both as an armoured fighting vehicle and for protection against mines and IEDs and so played a major role in the Sri Lanka civil war; the Unibuffel is the improved version of the Unicorn, built by the SLEME. More than 53 Unibuffels had been manufactured as of 2006; the vehicle is powered by a TATA engine which can deal with rough terrain. Various small arms can be mounted on the Unibuffel, including machine guns and the Typhoon 25mm cannon as a port defense weapon. In 2019 SLEME began to upgrade Unibuffels with better protection; the Unibuffel proved quite successful in the Sri Lankan civil war, it could transport troops through rough terrain with ease, had good protection, it participated in all Sri Lankan Army operations 2005 onwards.
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Army Sri Lanka Navy Sri Lanka Air Force Special Task Force Buffel Avalon MPV Surviving the Ride: A Pictorial History of South African-Manufactured Mine-Protected Vehicles by Steve Camp & Helmoed Römer Heitman The evolution of the indigenous armoured vehicle: From Unicorn to Unibuffel
Rhodesia was a country in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe. Rhodesia was the de facto successor state to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia, self-governing since achieving responsible government in 1923. A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, Mozambique to the east. In the late 19th century, the territory north of the Transvaal was chartered to the British South Africa Company, led by Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes and his Pioneer Column marched north in 1890, acquiring a huge bloc of territory that the Company would rule until the early 1920s. In 1923, the Company's charter was revoked, Southern Rhodesia attained self-government and established a legislature. Between 1953 and 1963, Southern Rhodesia was joined with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the decolonisation of Africa in the early 1960s alarmed a significant proportion of Rhodesia's white population.
In an effort to delay the transition to black majority rule, Rhodesia's predominantly white government issued its own Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965. The UDI administration sought recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, but reconstituted itself as a republic in 1970; the Rhodesian Bush War, which pitted the government against two African nationalist organisations, ZANU and ZAPU, intensified in the 1970s, prompting Rhodesian premier Ian Smith to concede to multiracial democracy in 1978. However, a provisional government subsequently headed by Smith and his moderate colleague Abel Muzorewa failed in appeasing international critics or halting the bloodshed. By December 1979, Muzorewa had replaced Smith as Prime Minister and secured an agreement with the militant nationalists, allowing Rhodesia to revert to colonial status pending elections under a universal franchise, it achieved internationally recognised independence in April 1980 as the Republic of Zimbabwe.
Rhodesia's largest cities were its capital and Bulawayo. The white population, which grew to nearly 300,000, dominated the country's politics and economy, though they never made up more than eight percent of the total population. Rhodesia developed an economy dependent on agriculture and mining, its largest exports were chrome and steel. International sanctions put; the Parliament of Rhodesia, which included the lower House of Assembly and a senate, was predominantly white, with minority of seats reserved for blacks. After 1970, the country used a semi-presidential system, with a president, prime minister, cabinet; the official name of the country, according to the constitution adopted concurrently with the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, was Rhodesia. This was not the case under British law, which considered the territory's legal name to be Southern Rhodesia, the name given to the country in 1898 during the British South Africa Company's administration of the Rhodesias, retained by the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia after the end of Company rule in 1923.
This naming dispute dated back to October 1964, when Northern Rhodesia became independent from the UK and concurrently changed its name to Zambia. The Southern Rhodesian colonial government in Salisbury felt that in the absence of a "Northern" Rhodesia, the continued use of "Southern" was superfluous, it passed legislation to become Rhodesia, but the British government refused to approve this on the grounds that the country's name was defined by British legislation and so could not be altered by the colonial government. Salisbury went on using the shortened name in an official manner while the British government continued referring to the country as Southern Rhodesia; this situation continued throughout the UDI period. The shortened name was used by many people including the British government in the House of Commons; the British government maintained this stance regarding the June–December 1979 successor state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, when Zimbabwe Rhodesia returned to colonial status from December 1979 to April 1980, it was as Southern Rhodesia.
Southern Rhodesia subsequently achieved internationally recognised independence in April 1980, when it became the Republic of Zimbabwe. Until after World War II, the landlocked British possession of Southern Rhodesia was not developed as an indigenous African territory, but rather as a unique state that reflected its multiracial character; this situation made it different from other lands that existed under colonial rule, as many Europeans had arrived to make permanent homes, populating the towns as traders or settling to farm the most productive soils. In 1922, faced with the decision to join the Union of South Africa as a fifth province or accept nearly full internal autonomy, the electorate cast its vote against South African integration. In view of the outcome of the referendum, the territory was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September 1923. Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia came into force. Under this constitution, Southern Rhodesia was given the right to elect its own thirty-member legislature and cabinet—although the British Crown retained a formal veto over measures affecting natives and dominated foreign policy.
Over the course of the next three decades, Southern Rhodesia experienced a degree of economic expansion and industrialisation almost
Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected is a term for United States military light tactical vehicles produced as part of the MRAP program that are designed to withstand improvised explosive device attacks and ambushes. The United States Department of Defense MRAP program began in 2007 as a response to the increased threat of IEDs during the Iraq War. From 2007 until 2012, the MRAP program deployed more than 12,000 vehicles in the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan. Production of MRAP vehicles ended in 2012; this was followed by the MRAP All Terrain vehicle. In 2015, Oshkosh Corporation was awarded a contract to build the Oshkosh L-ATV as the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, a lighter mine-resistant vehicle to replace the Humvee in combat roles and supplement the M-ATV. Light armored vehicles designed to resist land mines were first introduced in specialized vehicles in the 1970s by the Rhodesian Army, further developed by South African manufacturers, starting in 1974 with the Hippo armored personnel carrier.
The Casspir infantry mobility vehicle was developed for the South African Defence Force after 1980. In 2004, the TSG/FPI Cougar was designed by a British-led U. S. team, to a U. S. Marine Corps requirement, it became the springboard from. Because there are only two steel mills in the U. S. the Russian-owned Oregon Steel Mills and the International Steel Group, qualified to produce steel armor for the U. S. Department of Defense, it negotiated to ensure enough steel was available to keep pace with production; the U. S. military's MRAP program was prompted by U. S. casualties from IEDs during the Iraq War. A number designs of vehicle from various vendors were deployed as part of the MRAP program. MRAP vehicles have "V"-shaped hulls to deflect explosive forces from land mines or IEDs below the vehicle, thereby protecting vehicle and passengers. MRAPs weigh 14 to 18 tons, 9 feet high, cost between US$500,000 and US$1,000,000; the following companies submitted designs: Armor Holdings BAE Systems Force Protection Inc General Dynamics Land Systems General Purpose Vehicles Navistar International Military Group Oshkosh Truck Protected Vehicles Incorporated Textron Marine & Land Systems There were plans to integrate the Crows II remote weapon station, the Frag Kit 6 anti-EFP armor, the Boomerang anti-sniper system on many MRAPs in combat.
The MRAP class is separated into three categories according to size. The Mine-Resistant Utility Vehicle is lighter, designed for urban operations. Category 1 MRAP vehicles ordered or in service: BAE Caiman 4x4 – 2,800 ordered. BAE OMC RG-31 BAE RG-33 4x4 Force Protection Cougar H 4x4 – 1,560 vehicles ordered. International MaxxPro – 5,250 vehicles ordered. Textron M1117 Guardian – Removed from competition; as of 18 May 2007, Textron had been notified by the USMC that they will not be receiving any additional orders as part of the MRAP program. Protected Vehicles Inc./Oshkosh Truck Alpha – Although 100 vehicles were ordered, Oshkosh was notified by the Marine Corps on 29 June 2007 that it would receive no further orders for the PVI Alpha due to "concern regarding overall vehicle survivability" and other fundamental design deficiencies of an automotive and ergonomic nature, adding that remediation "would require significant redesign". The Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle is designed for missions including convoy lead, troop transport, explosive ordnance disposal and combat engineering.
Category II MRAP vehicles ordered or in service: Force Protection Cougar HE 6x6 – 950 vehicles ordered. BAE RG-33L 6x6 GDLS RG-31E – 600 vehicles ordered. Thales Australia Bushmaster IMV – Has been removed from the competition as of 7 August 2007. According to a Thales press release, "The Thales Bushmaster vehicle offer for the US MRAP Phase 1 Program was not selected due to an evolving requirement, not due to a lack of marketing or lobbying effort…. Thales and Oshkosh remain confident of future potential sales of Bushmaster under ongoing Phases of MRAP in the US." Protected Vehicles Inc Golan – 60 vehicles ordered. International MaxxPro XL – 16 vehicles ordered. BAE Caiman 6x6 – 16 vehicles ordered. Force Protection Buffalo MRV for mine- and IED-clearing functionality, with 6 seats. In 2004, the United States Marine Corps reported that no troops had died in more than 300 IED attacks on Cougar vehicles. In 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates decided to increase MRAP vehicle orders. On 8 May 2007, Gates announced that acquisition of MRAPs was the Department of Defense's highest priority for fiscal year 2007.
A 2008 GAO report found that Marine combat planners had delayed "an urgent request in 2005 for 1,169 MRAPs" because then-Commandant General Michael Hagee wanted to preserve funding for up-armoring Humvees, believing they were the quickest way to protect Marines from roadside bomb threats. In late 2007, the Marine Corps planned to replace all Humvees in combat zones with MRAP vehicles, although that changed; as armored vehicles were considered an "urgent need" in Afghanistan, the MRAP program was funded under an "emergency war budget". The US spent $50 billion in 2007 to produce altogether 27,000 MRAPs. Brig. General Michael Brogan was in charge of the Marine MRAP program. General Frank Kelley, United States Marine Corps Systems Comman