Pietro de' Crescenzi
Pietro de' Crescenzi, Latin:'Petrus de Crescentiis', was a Bolognese jurist, now remembered for his writings on horticulture and agriculture, the Ruralia commoda. There are many variant spellings of his name. Pietro de' Crescenzi was born in Bologna in about 1235, he was educated at the University of Bologna in logic, the natural sciences and law, but did not take his doctorate. Crescenzi practiced as a lawyer and judge from about 1269 until 1299, travelling in Italy in the course of his work. In January 1274 he married Geraldina de' Castagnoli, she died in or shortly after December 1287. In January 1289 he married Antonia de' Nascentori, with whom he had several children. After his retirement in 1298 he divided his time between Bologna and his country estate, the Villa dell'Olmo outside the walls of Bologna. During this time he wrote the Ruralia commoda, an agricultural treatise based on classical and medieval sources, as well as his own experience as a landowner, it is not known. His last will is dated 23 June 1320.
The Ruralia commoda, sometimes known as the Liber ruralium commodorum, was completed some time between 1304 and 1309, was dedicated to Charles II of Naples. King Charles V of France ordered a French translation in 1373. After circulating in numerous manuscript copies, Crescenzi's treatise became the first printed modern text on agriculture when it was published in Augsburg by Johann Schüssler in 1471; some 57 editions in Latin, Italian and German appeared during the following century, as did two editions in Polish. The structure and content of the Ruralia commoda is based on the De re rustica of Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella, written in the first century AD though this work was not available to de' Crescenzi, was known only in fragments until a complete version was discovered in a monastery library by Poggio Bracciolini during the Council of Constance, between 1414 and 1418. While de' Crescenzi cites Columella twelve times, all the citations are indirect, taken from the Opus agriculturae of Rutilius Taurus Aemilianus Palladius.
Like the De re rustica of Columella, the Ruralia commoda is divided into 12 parts: Siting and layout of a manor, villa or farm, considering climate and water supply. Bibliography and works on line: http://architectura.cesr.univ-tours.fr/Traite/Auteur/Crescenzi.asp?param=en
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place, now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes; the history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Achaemenid Persians, the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great; the Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs; the many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids and obelisks.
Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were copied, its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world, its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy; the Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization. Nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.
In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, this is the period when many animals were first domesticated. By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry, identifiable by their pottery and personal items, such as combs and beads; the largest of these early cultures in upper Egypt was the Badari, which originated in the Western Desert. The Badari was followed by the Amratian and Gerzeh cultures, which brought a number of technological improvements; as early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from flakes. In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the Near East Canaan and the Byblos coast.
Over a period of about 1,000 years, the Naqada culture developed from a few small farming communities into a powerful civilization whose leaders were in complete control of the people and resources of the Nile valley. Establishing a power center at Nekhen, at Abydos, Naqada III leaders expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the Nile, they traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the western desert to the west, the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean and Near East to the east, initiating a period of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations. The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of material goods, reflective of the increasing power and wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items, which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, jewelry made of gold and ivory, they developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, used well into the Roman Per
The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil published in 29 BC. As the name suggests the subject of the poem is agriculture; the Georgics is considered Virgil's second major work, following his Eclogues and preceding the Aeneid. The poem draws on a variety of prior sources and has influenced many authors from antiquity to the present; the work consists of 2,188 hexametric verses divided into four books. The yearly timings by the rising and setting of particular stars were valid for the precession epoch of Virgil's time, so are not always valid now. Virgil begins his poem with a summary of the four books, followed by a prayer to various agricultural deities as well as Augustus himself, it differs from it in important ways. Numerous technical passages fill out the first half of Book 1. In the succession of ages, whose model is Hesiod, the age of Jupiter and its relation to the golden age and the current age of man are crafted with deliberate tension. Of chief importance is the contribution of labor to the success or failure of mankind's endeavors, agricultural or otherwise.
The book comes to one climax with the description of a great storm in lines 311–350, which brings all of man's efforts to naught. After detailing various weather-signs, Virgil ends with an enumeration of the portents associated with Caesar’s assassination and civil war. Prominent themes of the second book include agriculture as man's struggle against a hostile natural world described in violent terms, the ages of Saturn and Jupiter. Like the first book, it begins with a poem addressing the divinities associated with the matters about to be discussed: viticulture and the olive. In the next hundred lines Virgil treats fruit trees, their propagation and growth are described in detail, with a contrast drawn between methods that are natural and those that require human intervention. Three sections on grafting are of particular interest: presented as marvels of man's alteration of nature, many of the examples Virgil gives are unlikely or impossible. Included is a catalogue of the world's trees, set forth in rapid succession, other products of various lands.
The most famous passage of the poem, the Laudes Italiae or Praises of Italy, is introduced by way of a comparison with foreign marvels: despite all of those, no land is as praiseworthy as Italy. A point of cultural interest is a reference to Ascra in line 176, which an ancient reader would have known as the hometown of Hesiod. Next comes the care of vines; these depict the beauty that accompany spring's arrival. The poet returns to didactic narrative with yet more on vines, emphasizing their fragility and laboriousness. A warning about animal damage provides occasion for an explanation of why goats are sacrificed to Bacchus; the olive tree is presented in contrast to the vine: it requires little effort on the part of the farmer. The next subject, at last turning away from the vine, is other kinds of trees: those that produce fruit and those that have useful wood. Virgil again returns to grapevines, recalling the myth of the battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs in a passage known as the Vituperation of Vines.
The remainder of the book is devoted to extolling the simple country life over the corruptness of the city. The third book ostensibly concerned with animal husbandry, it consists of two principal parts, the first half is devoted to the selection of breed stock and the breeding of horses and cattle. It concludes with a description of the furor induced in all animals by sexual desire; the second half of the book is devoted to the care and protection of sheep and goats and their byproducts. It concludes with a description of the devastation caused by a plague in Noricum. Both halves begin with a short prologue called a proem; the poems invoke Greek and Italian gods and address such issues as Virgil's intention to honor both Caesar and his patron Maecenas, as well as his lofty poetic aspirations and the difficulty of the material to follow. Many have observed the parallels between the dramatic endings of each half of this book and the irresistible power of their respective themes of love and death.
Book four, a tonal counterpart to Book two, is divided in half. Bees resemble man in that they labor, are devoted to a king and give their lives for the sake of the community, but they lack the arts and love. In spite of their labor the bees perish and the entire colony dies; the restoration of the bees is accomplished by bugonia, spontaneous rebirth from the carcass of an ox. This process is described twice in the second half and frames the Aristaeus epyllion beginning at line 315; the tone of the book changes from didactic to epic and elegiac in this epyllion, which contains within it the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. Aristaeus, after losing his bees, descends to the home of his mother, the nymph Cyrene, where he is given instructions on how to restore his colonies, he must capture the seer and force him to reveal which divine spirit he angered and how to restore his bee colonies. After binding Proteus (who changes into many fo
Golden syrup or light treacle is a thick amber-coloured form of inverted sugar syrup made in the process of refining sugar cane or sugar beet juice into sugar, or by treatment of a sugar solution with acid. It is used in a variety of baking desserts, it has an appearance similar to honey and is used as a substitute where honey is unavailable or prohibitively expensive. Many vegans use it as a honey substitute, it is not to be confused with amber refined sugar. Regular molasses, or dark treacle, has both a strong, distinctive flavour. Formulated by the chemists Charles Eastick and his brother John Joseph Eastick at the Abram Lyle & Sons refinery in Plaistow, Lyle's Golden Syrup was first canned and sold in 1885. In 2006 it was recognised by Guinness World Records as having the world's oldest branding and packaging. In 1883, Charles Eastick, an English chemist at the Abram Lyle & Sons refinery in Plaistow, east London, formulated how it could be refined to make a preserve and sweetener for cooking.
Charles and his brother John Joseph Eastick experimented with the refining process, of the bitter molasses-brown treacle—hitherto a waste by-product of sugar refining—into an eminently palatable syrup with the viscosity and sweetness of honey. The resulting product was marketed commercially in 1885 as "golden syrup"; the name "golden syrup" in connection with molasses had occurred, however, as early as 1840 in an Adelaide newspaper, the South Australian. The tin bears a picture of the rotting carcass of a lion with a swarm of bees and the slogan "Out of the strong came forth sweetness"; this is a reference to the Biblical story in chapter 14 of the Book of Judges in which Samson was traveling to the land of the Philistines in search of a wife. During the journey he killed a lion, when he passed the same spot on his return he noticed that a swarm of bees had formed a comb of honey in the carcass. Samson turned this into a riddle at a wedding: "Out of the eater came forth meat and out of the strong came forth sweetness".
While it is not known why this image and slogan were chosen, Abram Lyle was a religious man, it has been suggested that they refer either to the strength of the Lyle company or the tins in which golden syrup is sold. In 1904, they were registered together as a trademark, in 2006 Guinness World Records declared the mark to be the world's oldest branding and packaging. Lyle's golden syrup was awarded a Royal Warrant in 1911. In 1921, Lyle's business merged with Tate, a sugar-refining firm founded by Sir Henry Tate in 1859, to become Tate & Lyle. In 2010, Tate & Lyle sold its sugar refining and golden syrup business to American Sugar Refining. Golden syrup was a product made at the white sugar refinery from the recovered mother liquor "washed" off the raw sugar crystals in the process of creating white sugar; this liquor is known as refiners return syrup. Today most golden syrups are produced by a specialist manufacturer by inverting half the refiners return syrup to fructose and glucose and blending it back again.
Refiners syrup begins as a high-Brix, pale sucrose syrup made from white sugar and water designed to loosen the dried molasses found on raw sugar crystals. The sucrose saturated content of the initial "green" syrup impedes sugar crystals from dissolving during the process of washing; the purpose is to mix the green syrup with raw sugar crystals to form a "magma" of 8–10% moisture content at around 60–65 degrees C, washed with water in a centrifuge. After the first washing the "washed off" molasses combines with the sucrose syrup to generate refiners return syrup, re-used several times until deemed spent; the spent refiners return syrup is sold off to manufacturers for golden syrup production or is sent to a recovery section of the refinery called the remelt house or boil-out section. Here it is reheated to crystallize and recover the sucrose it contains and, returned to the affination stage; the final spent syrup left. An equivalent golden syrup product may be made from beet sugar by processing the clarified evaporated beet juice to break down most of the disaccharide sucrose into its constituents monosaccharides glucose and fructose.
In this process none of the sucrose is crystallized from the beet juice. Inversion may be done by adding an enzyme, invertase; this produces a free flowing syrup. In acid hydrolysis, the disaccharides are split by hydrochloric acid, resulting in a solution, acidic; as a result, syrup made by this method contains sodium chloride. The free glucose and fructose present in golden syrups are more water-soluble than the original sucrose; as a result, golden syrups are less to crystallize than a pure sucrose syrup. The free fructose content gives the syrup a taste sweeter than that of an equivalent solution of white sugar; the term invert comes from the method used for assessing sugar syrups. The plane of linear polarised light passed through a sample of pure sucrose solution is rotated to the right; as the solution is converted to a mixture of sucrose and glucose, the angle of rotation reduces, through zero and increases in the opposite direction, thus the direction appears to have been i
The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews; the term "Talmud" refers to the collection of writings named the Babylonian Talmud, although there is an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud. It may traditionally be called Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah; the Talmud has two components. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone; the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, customs, history and many other topics.
The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, is quoted in rabbinic literature. Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study". Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example of court decisions; this situation changed drastically as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained, it is during this period. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online; the process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were the two major centers of Jewish scholarship and Babylonia.
Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Talmud Yerushalmi, it was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500; the word "Talmud", when used without qualification refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently. Here the argument from silence is convincing." The Jerusalem Talmud known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary, transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias and Caesarea, it is written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah, developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel.
Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi, but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem, it has more been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". Its final redaction belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended; the text is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination.
Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land, it was an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chana
A drone is a male bee. Unlike the female worker bee, drones do not gather neither nectar nor pollen. A drone's primary role is to mate with an unfertilized queen. Drones carry only one type of allele at each chromosomal position. During the development of eggs within a queen, a diploid cell with 32 chromosomes divides to generate haploid cells called gametes with 16 chromosomes; the result is a haploid egg, with chromosomes having a new combination of alleles at the various loci. This process is called arrhenotokous parthenogenesis or arrhenotoky; because the male bee technically has only a mother, no father, its genealogical tree is unusual. The first generation has one member. One generation back has one member. Two generations back are two members. Three generations back are three members. Four back are five members; that is, the numbers in each generation going back are 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8... – the Fibonacci sequence. Much debate and controversy exist in the scientific literature about the dynamics and apparent benefit of the combined forms of reproduction in honey bees and other social insects, known as the haplodiploid sex-determination system.
The drones have two reproductive functions: Each drone grows from the queen's unfertilized haploid egg and produces some 10 million male sperm cells, each genetically identical to the egg. Drones serve as a vehicle to mate with a new queen to fertilize her eggs. Female worker bees develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid in origin, which means that the sperm from a father provides a second set of 16 chromosomes for a total of 32: one set from each parent. Since all the sperm cells produced by a particular drone are genetically identical, full sisters are more related than full sisters of other animals where the sperm is not genetically identical. A laying worker bee produces unfertilized eggs, which develop into drones; as an exception to this rule, laying worker bees in some subspecies of honey bees may produce diploid fertile offspring in a process called thelytoky, in which the second set of chromosomes comes not from sperm, but from one of the three polar bodies during anaphase II of meiosis.
In honey bees, the genetics of offspring can best be controlled by artificially inseminating a queen with drones collected from a single hive, where the drones' mother is known. In the natural mating process, a queen mates with multiple drones, which may not come from the same hive. Therefore, batches of female offspring have fathers of a different genetic origin. A drone is characterized by eyes that are twice the size of those of worker bees and queens, a body size greater than that of worker bees, though smaller than the queen bee, his abdomen is stouter than the abdomen of workers or queen. Although heavy bodied, the drone must be able to fly fast enough to accompany the queen in flight. An Apis cerana colony has about 200 drones during high summer peak time. Drones die off or are ejected from the hive by the worker bees in late autumn, do not reappear in the bee hive until late spring; the drones' main function is to be ready to fertilize a receptive queen. Drones in a hive do not mate with a virgin queen of the same hive because they drift from hive to hive.
Mating takes place in or near drone congregation areas. How these areas are selected is poorly understood; when a drone mates with a queen of the same hive, the resultant queen will have a spotty brood pattern due to the removal of diploid drone larvae by nurse bees. Mating occurs in flight, which accounts for drones needing better vision, provided by their large eyes. Should a drone succeed in mating, he soon dies because the penis and associated abdominal tissues are ripped from the drone's body after sexual intercourse. Honey bee queen breeders may breed drones to be used for open mating. A queen mating yard must have many drones to be successful. In areas with severe winters, all drones are driven out of the hive in the autumn. A colony begins to rear drones in spring and drone population reaches its peak coinciding with the swarm season in late spring and early summer; the life expectancy of a drone is about 90 days. Although the drone is specialized to perform one function and continuing the propagation of the hive, it is not without side benefit to it.
All bees, when they sense the hive's temperature deviating from proper limits, either generate heat by shivering, or exhaust heat by moving air with their wings—behaviours which drones share with worker bees. Drones do not exhibit typical worker bee behaviours such as nectar and pollen gathering, nursing, or hive construction. While drones are unable to sting, if picked up, they may swing their tails in an attempt to frighten the disturber. In some species, drones buzz around intruders in an attempt to disorient them if the nest is disturbed. Drones fly in abundance in the early afternoon and are known to congregate in drone congregation areas a good distance away from the hive; the drone penis is designed to disperse a large quantity of seminal fluid and spermatozoa with great speed and force. The penis is held internally in the drone. During mating, the organ is everted, into the queen; the eversion of the penis is achieved by contracting abdominal muscles, which increases hemolymph pressure "inflating" the penis.
Cornua claspers at the base of the penis help to grip the queen. Mat
A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone. Horns are distinct from antlers. In mammals, true horns are found among the ruminant artiodactyls, in the families Antilocapridae and Bovidae. One pair of horns is usual. Polycerate sheep breeds include the Hebridean, Jacob, Manx Loaghtan, the Navajo-Churro. Horns have a curved or spiral shape with ridges or fluting. In many species only males have horns. Horns start to grow soon after birth, continue to grow throughout the life of the animal. Partial or deformed horns in livestock are called scurs. Similar growths on other parts of the body are not called horns, but spurs, claws or hoofs depending on the part of the body on which they occur; the term "horn" is popularly applied to other hard and pointed features attached to the head of animals in various other families: Giraffidae: Giraffes have one or more pairs of bony bumps on their heads, called ossicones.
These are covered with furred skin. Cervidae: Most deer have antlers, which are not true horns; when developed, antlers are dead bone without a horn or skin covering. Rhinocerotidae: The "horns" of rhinoceroses are made of keratin, the same substance as fingernails, grow continuously, but do not have a bone core. Chamaeleonidae: Many chameleons, most notably the Jackson's chameleon, possess horns on their skulls, have a keratin covering. Ceratopsidae: The "horns" of the Triceratops were extensions of its skull bones although debate exists over whether they had a keratin covering. Abelisauridae: various abelisaurid theropods, such as Carnotaurus and Majungasaurus possessed extensions of the frontal bone which were covered in some form of keratinous integument. Horned lizards: These lizards have horns on their heads which have a hard keratin covering over a bony core, like mammalian horns. Insects: Some insects have horn-like structures on the head or thorax; these are pointed outgrowths of the hard chitinous exoskeleton.
Some have enlarged jaws made of chitin. Canidae: Golden jackals are known to develop a horny growth on the skull, associated with magical powers in south-eastern Asia. Azendohsauridae: the skull of the triassic azendohsaurid archosauromorph Shringasaurus possessed two massive, forward-facing conical horns, which were covered in cornified sheaths in life. Anhimidae: The horned screamer possesses an keratinous spine, loosely connected to its skull. Many mammal species in various families have tusks, which serve the same functions as horns, but are in fact oversized teeth; these include the Moschidae, Proboscidea and Odobenidae. Polled animals or pollards are those of normally-horned species whose horns have been removed, or which have not grown. In some cases such animals have small horny growths in the skin where their horns would be – these are known as scurs. Cutaneous horns are the only examples of horns growing on people, they are most benign growths and can be removed by a razor. Cases of people growing horns have been described, sometimes with mythical status.
Researchers have not however discovered photographic evidence of the phenomenon. There are human cadaveric specimens that show outgrowings, but these are instead classified as osteomas or other excrescences; the phenomenon of humans with horns has been observed in countries lacking advanced medicine. There are living people, several in China, with cases of cutaneous horns, most common in the elderly; some people, notably The Enigma, have horn implants. The erect penis is sometimes referred to in slang use as a "horn", but it contains no keratin. However, a cutaneous horn can grow on the penis. Animals have a variety of uses for horns and antlers, including defending themselves from predators and fighting members of their own species for territory, dominance or mating priority. Horns are present only in males but in some species, females too may possess horns, it has been theorized by researchers that taller species living in the open are more visible from longer distances and more to benefit from horns to defend themselves against predators.
Female bovids that are not hidden from predators due to their large size or open savannah like habitat are more to bear horns than small or camouflaged species. In addition, horns may be used to root in the strip bark from trees. In animal courtship many use horns in displays. For example, the male blue wildebeest reams the bark and branches of trees to impress the female and lure her into his territory; some animals with true horns use them for cooling. The blood vessels in the bony core allow the horns to function as a radiator. After the death of a horned animal, the keratin may be consumed by the larvae of the Horn Moth. Horned animals are sometimes hunted so their mounted head or horns can be displayed as a hunting trophy or as decorative objects; some cultures use bovid horns for example, the shofar. These have evolved into brass instruments in which, unli