A roof is the top covering of a building, including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights. A roof is part of the building envelope; the characteristics of a roof are dependent upon the purpose of the building that it covers, the available roofing materials and the local traditions of construction and wider concepts of architectural design and practice and may be governed by local or national legislation. In most countries a roof protects against rain. A verandah may be roofed with material that admits the other elements; the roof of a garden conservatory protects plants from cold and rain, but admits light. A roof may provide additional living space, for example a roof garden. Old English hrof "roof, top, summit. There are no apparent connections outside the Germanic family. "English alone has retained the word in a general sense, for which the other languages use forms corresponding to OE. þæc thatch". The elements in the design of a roof are: the material the construction the durabilityThe material of a roof may range from banana leaves, wheaten straw or seagrass to laminated glass, aluminium sheeting and pre-cast concrete.
In many parts of the world ceramic tiles have been the predominant roofing material for centuries, if not millennia. Other roofing materials include asphalt, coal tar pitch, EPDM rubber, polyurethane foam, PVC, Teflon fabric, TPO, wood shakes and shingles; the construction of a roof is determined by its method of support and how the underneath space is bridged and whether or not the roof is pitched. The pitch is the angle. Most US domestic architecture, except in dry regions, has roofs that are sloped, or pitched. Although modern construction elements such as drainpipes may remove the need for pitch, roofs are pitched for reasons of tradition and aesthetics. So the pitch is dependent upon stylistic factors, to do with practicalities; some types of roofing, for example thatch, require a steep pitch in order to be waterproof and durable. Other types of roofing, for example pantiles, are unstable on a steeply pitched roof but provide excellent weather protection at a low angle. In regions where there is little rain, an flat roof with a slight run-off provides adequate protection against an occasional downpour.
Drainpipes remove the need for a sloping roof. A person that specializes in roof construction is called a roofer; the durability of a roof is a matter of concern because the roof is the least accessible part of a building for purposes of repair and renewal, while its damage or destruction can have serious effects. The shape of roofs differs from region to region; the main factors which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and the materials available for roof structure and the outer covering. The basic shapes of roofs are flat, mono-pitched, hipped, butterfly and domed. There are many variations on these types. Roofs constructed of flat sections that are sloped are referred to as pitched roofs. Pitched roofs, including gabled and skillion roofs, make up the greatest number of domestic roofs; some roofs follow organic shapes, either by architectural design or because a flexible material such as thatch has been used in the construction. There are two parts to a roof, its supporting structure and its outer skin, or uppermost weatherproof layer.
In a minority of buildings, the outer layer is a self-supporting structure. The roof structure is supported upon walls, although some building styles, for example, geodesic and A-frame, blur the distinction between wall and roof; the supporting structure of a roof comprises beams that are long and of strong rigid material such as timber, since the mid-19th century, cast iron or steel. In countries that use bamboo extensively, the flexibility of the material causes a distinctive curving line to the roof, characteristic of Oriental architecture. Timber lends itself to a great variety of roof shapes; the timber structure can fulfil an aesthetic as well as practical function, when left exposed to view. Stone lintels have been used to support roofs since prehistoric times, but cannot bridge large distances; the stone arch came into extensive use in the ancient Roman period and in variant forms could be used to span spaces up to 140 feet across. The stone arch or vault, with or without ribs, dominated the roof structures of major architectural works for about 2,000 years, only giving way to iron beams with the Industrial Revolution and the designing of such buildings as Paxton's Crystal Palace, completed 1851.
With continual improvements in steel girders, these became the major structural support for large roofs, for ordinary houses as well. Another form of girder is the reinforced concrete beam, in which metal rods are encased in concrete, giving it greater strength under tension; this part of the roof shows great variation dependent upon availability of material. In vernacular architecture, roofing material is vegetation, such as thatches, the most durable being sea grass with a life of 40 years. In many Asian countries bamboo is used both for the supporting structure and the outer layer where split bamboo stems are laid turned alternately and overlapped. In areas with an abundance of timber, woo
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs; the city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous Semper Oper. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany and Europe; the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches called “Silicon Saxony”; the city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe. Main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle; the most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II; the remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden has nearly 560,000 inhabitants, the agglomeration is the largest in Saxony with 780,000 inhabitants. According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut and Berenberg Bank in 2017, Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Although Dresden is a recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from meaning people of the forest. Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony. Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, it was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, as Altendresden, both "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate, it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, from 1547 the electors as well.
The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden, his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built; these include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had converted from Catholicism.
In 1729, by decree of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War, following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy for the Dresden Masonic lodge in 1785. During the decline of Poland Dresden was site of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising; the city of Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous paintings by Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the famous Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Following the November Uprising many Poles, including writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian Partition of Poland to Dresden.
National poet Adam Mickiewicz stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote the poetic drama Dziady, P
Sustainability is the process of maintaining change in a balanced environment, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. For many in the field, sustainability is defined through the following interconnected domains or pillars: environment and social, which according to Fritjof Capra is based on the principles of Systems Thinking. Sub-domains of sustainable development have been considered also: cultural and political. While sustainable development may be the organizing principle for sustainability for some, for others, the two terms are paradoxical. Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development introduced the term of sustainable development.
Sustainability can be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal. An ideal is by definition unattainable in space. However, by persistently and dynamically approaching it, the process results in a sustainable system. Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact are environmentally-friendly chemical engineering, environmental resources management and environmental protection. Information is gained from green computing, green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems. Moving towards sustainability is a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban planning and transport, supply chain management and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions, reappraising economic sectors, or work practices, using science to develop new technologies, or designing systems in a flexible and reversible manner, adjusting individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources."The term'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability."
Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability", the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, continues to be, questioned—in light of environmental degradation, climate change, population growth and societies' pursuit of unlimited economic growth in a closed system. The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere. Sustain can mean "maintain", "support", or "endure". Since the 1980s sustainability has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most quoted definition of sustainability as a part of the concept sustainable development, that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987: "sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"; the 2005 World Summit on Social Development identified sustainable development goals, such as economic development, social development and environmental protection.
This view has been expressed as an illustration using three overlapping ellipses indicating that the three pillars of sustainability are not mutually exclusive and can be mutually reinforcing. In fact, the three pillars are interdependent, in the long run none can exist without the others; the three pillars have served as a common ground for numerous sustainability standards and certification systems in recent years, in particular in the food industry. Standards which today explicitly refer to the triple bottom line include Rainforest Alliance, Fairtrade and UTZ Certified; some sustainability experts and practitioners have illustrated four pillars of sustainability, or a quadruple bottom line. One such pillar is future generations, which emphasizes the long-term thinking associated with sustainability. There is an opinion that considers resource use and financial sustainability as two additional pillars of sustainability. Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment.
The question becomes how to represent the relationship between those needs and the environment. A study from 2005 pointed out. Ecological economist Herman Daly asked, "what use is a sawmill without a forest?" From this perspective, the economy is a subsystem of human society, itself a subsystem of the biosphere, a gain in one sector is a loss from another. This perspective led to the nested circles figure of'economics' inside'society' inside the'environment'; the simple definition that sustainability is something that improves "the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems", though vague, conveys the idea of sustainability having quantifiable limits. But sustainability is a call to action, a task in progress or "journe
A hut is a primitive dwelling, which may be constructed of various local materials. Huts are a type of vernacular architecture because they are built of available materials such as wood, ice, grass, palm leaves, hides, fabric, or mud using techniques passed down through the generations. A hut is a shape of a lower quality than a house but higher quality than a shelter such as a tent and is used as temporary or seasonal shelter or in primitive societies as a permanent dwelling; the men cut and strip the branches, tanning them over a fire and removing the bark. Bent into a curved shape, they are pinned to the ground for a few days to set like this. Meanwhile, the women hand weave the river reeds into between 20 – 40 mats per hut, which are placed on the frame and tied into position. Huts exist in all nomadic cultures; some huts can stand most conditions of weather. The term is employed by people who consider non-primitive, but the designs are based on traditions of local craftsmanship using sophisticated architectural techniques.
The designs in tropical and sub-tropical areas favour high airflow configurations built from non-conducting materials, which allow heat dissipation. The term house or home is considered by some to be more appropriate. In the Western world the word hut is used for a wooden shed; the term has been adopted by climbers and backpackers to refer to a more solid and permanent structure offering refuge. These vary from simple bothies – which are little more than basic shelters – to mountain huts that are far more luxurious and can include facilities such as restaurants; the word comes from the 1650s, from French hutte "cottage", from Middle High German hütte "cottage, hut," from Proto-Germanic *hudjon-, related to the root of Old English hydan "to hide," from PIE *keudh-, from root keu-. First in English as a military word. Old Saxon hutta, Danish hytte, Swedish hytta, West Frisian and Middle Dutch hutte, Dutch hut are from High German. Ukrainian "hata" seems to be known from earlier ages. Avestan or ancient Iranian origins presumably."
Related to hide, a covering. Huts are used by shepherds when moving livestock between seasonal grazing areas such as mountainous and lowland pastures, they are commonly used by backpackers and other travelers in rural areas. Some displaced populations of people use huts throughout the world during a diaspora. For example, temporary collectors in the wilderness agricultural workers at plantations in the Amazon jungle. Huts have been built for purposes other than as a dwelling such as storage and teaching. Balok – A Siberian wilderness hut made of logs communal, used by hunters and travelers in the more distant parts of Siberia; some baloks mounted on sleds. Barabara – An earth sheltered winter home of the Aleut people Barracks – an old term for a temporary hut, now more used as a term for military housing and a unique hay storage structure called a hay barrack. Bothy – Originally a one-room hut for men farm workers in the United Kingdom, now a mountain hut for overnight hikers. Burdei or bordei – a dugout or pit-house with a sod roof in Romania and Canada.
Cabana – an open shelter Chozo spelled chozo – Spanish for hut, term used in Mexico. Clochán – A dry stone hut in Ireland Earth lodge – Native American dwelling Hata - village house in Ukraine and south-western Russia Heartebeest Hut –hut used by South African Trekboer built of reeds, sometimes plastered with mud HORSA hut - A prefabricated school building built to cope with additional demand from the Education Act 1944 Hytte – A cabin or hut in Norway Igloo – A hut made of pieces of hard snow or ice Kolba – Afghanistan Laing hut - prefabricated lightweight timber wall sections bolted together, externally clad with plasterboard and felt. Designed 1940 for barrack accommodation Lodge is a general term for a hut or cabin such as a log cabin or cottage. Lodge is used to refer to a tipi, sweat lodge, hunting, fishing and safari lodge. Mitato – A small, dry stone hut in Greece Orri – A French dry stone and sod hut Pratten hut - A prefabricated building used in schools for classrooms in the UK after World War 2.
Rondavel – Central and South Africa Sheiling – Originally a temporary shelter or hut for shepherds, now may be a stone building. Common in Scotland. Sod house – A pioneer house type on the American Plains where wood was scarce. Tipi – Central North America tent Tule hut – Coastal North America, West Coast, Northern California Oca – Brazil Quinzhee – A shelter made in a pile of snow Yurt – Central and North Asia Many huts are designed to be quick and inexpensive to build. Construction does not require specialized tools or knowledge; the term Hut is used to name many commercial stores and concepts. The name implies a small, casual venue with a fun and friendly atmosphere. Examples include Sunglass Hut. Kiosks may be constructed to look like huts and are found at parks, beaches, or other public places, selling a variety of inexpensive food or goods. Luxury hotels in tropical areas where guests are assigned to occupy their own freestanding structure sometimes call the structure a "hut", though such huts bear little more than superficial resemblance to the traditional concept of a hut.
Huts portalArchitecture of Africa Bothy – simple shelter Cabane en pierre sèche Lean-to – a type of shelter Log cabin – small house built from logs Mountain hut - building that provides food and shelter for hikers and mountaineers Nissen
A condominium shortened to condo, in the United States and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, New Zealand, the Canadian province of British Columbia. Residential condominiums are constructed as apartment buildings, but there has been an increase in the number of "detached condominiums", which look like single-family homes but in which the yards, building exteriors, streets are jointly owned and jointly maintained by a community association. Unlike apartments, which are leased by their tenants, condominium units are owned outright. Additionally, the owners of the individual units collectively own the common areas of the property, such as hallways, laundry rooms, etc. as well as common utilities and amenities, such as the HVAC system, so on.
Many shopping malls are industrial condominiums in which the individual retail and office spaces are owned by the businesses that occupy them while the common areas of the mall are collectively owned by all the business entities that own the individual spaces. The common areas and utilities are managed collectively by the owners through their association, such as a homeowner association. Scholars have traced the earliest known use of the condominium form of tenure to a document from first-century Babylon; the word condominium originated in Latin. Italy uses condominio, the modern Italian form of condominium. Both condo and condominium are used colloquially in the Canadian province of Quebec, where the official term is divided co-ownership. In France, the term is copropriété, the common areas of these properties are managed by a Syndicat de copropriété, or "co-property union". Latin American nations use the term propiedad horizontal meaning "horizontal property" but abstractly meaning that all owners of the property have equal interest.
The word condominio is used. However, in Spain, the legal term is comunidad de propietarios and the popular term is comunidad de vecinos. "Condominium" is a Latin word formed by adding the prefix con- to the word dominium. Its meaning is therefore "shared property". Condominia referred to territories over which two or more sovereign powers shared joint dominion; this technique was used to settle border disputes when multiple claimants could not agree on how to partition the disputed territory. For example, from 1818 to 1846, Oregon Country was a condominium over which both the United States and Great Britain shared joint sovereignty until the Oregon Treaty resolved the issue by splitting the territory along the 49th parallel and each country gaining sole sovereignty of one side; the difference between an "apartment" complex and condominium is purely legal. There is no way to differentiate a condominium from an apartment by looking at or visiting the building. What defines. A building developed as a condominium could be built at another location as an apartment building.
As a practical matter, builders tend to build condominiums to higher quality standards than apartment complexes because of the differences between the rental and sale markets. Technically, a condominium is a collection of individual home units and common areas along with the land upon which they sit. Individual home ownership within a condominium is construed as ownership of only the air space confining the boundaries of the home; the boundaries of that space are specified by a legal document known as a Declaration, filed on record with the local governing authority. These boundaries will include the wall surrounding a condo, allowing the homeowner to make some interior modifications without impacting the common area. Anything outside this boundary is held in an undivided ownership interest by a corporation established at the time of the condominium's creation; the corporation holds this property in trust on behalf of the homeowners as a group—it may not have ownership itself. Condominiums have conditions and restrictions, additional rules that govern how the individual unit owners are to share the space.
It is possible for a condominium to consist of single-family dwellings. There are "detached condominiums" where homeowners do not maintain the exteriors of the dwellings, etc. and "site condominiums" where the owner has more control and ownership over the exterior appearance. These structures are preferred by gated communities. A homeowners association, whose members are the unit owners, manages the condominium through a board of directors elected by the membership; this exists under various names depending on the jurisdiction, such as "unit title", "sectional title", "commonhold", "strata council", or "tenant-owner's association", "body corporate", "Owners Corporation", "condominium corporation" or "condominium association". Another variation of this concept is the "time share", although not all time shares are condominiums, not all time shares involve actual ownership of real property. C
Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water. Stilt houses are built as a protection against flooding, they keep out vermin; the shady space under the house can be used for storage. In the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, stilt-house settlements were common in the Alpine and Pianura Padana regions. Remains have been found at the Ljubljana Marshes in Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper Austria, for example. Early archaeologists like Ferdinand Keller thought they formed artificial islands, much like the Irish and Scottish Crannogs, but today it is clear that the majority of settlements were located on the shores of lakes and were only inundated on. Reconstructed stilt houses are shown in open-air museums in Zürich. In June 2011, the prehistoric pile dwellings in six Alpine states were designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A single Scandinavian pile dwelling, the Alvastra stilt houses, has been excavated in Sweden. According to archeological evidence, stilt-house settlements were an architectural norm in the Caroline Islands and Micronesia, these are still present in Oceania today.
Today, stilt houses are still common in parts of the Mosquito Coast in northeastern Nicaragua, northern Brazil, South East Asia, Papua New Guinea, West Africa. In the Alps, similar buildings, known as raccards, are still in use as granaries. In England, granaries are placed on staddle stones, similar to stilts, to prevent mice and rats getting to the grain. Stilted granaries are a common feature in West Africa, e.g. in the Malinke language regions of Mali and Guinea. Herodotus has described in his Histories the dwellings of the "lake-dwellers" in Paeonia and how those were constructed. Stilt houses are common in the western hemisphere, are an example of multiple discovery, they were built by Amerindians in pre-Columbian times. Palafitos are widespread along the banks of the tropical river valleys of South America, notably the Amazon and Orinoco river systems. Stilt houses were such a prevalent feature along the shores of Lake Maracaibo that Amerigo Vespucci was inspired to name the region "Venezuela".
As the costs of hurricane damage increase and more houses along the Gulf Coast are being built as or converted to stilt houses. Houses where permafrost is present, in the Arctic, are built on stilts to keep permafrost under them from melting. Permafrost can be up to 70% water. While it is frozen, it provides a stable foundation. If heat radiating from the bottom of a home melts the permafrost, the home goes out of level and starts sinking into the ground. Other means of keeping the permafrost from melting are available, but raising the home off the ground on stilts is one of the most effective ways. Diaojiaolou – Stilt houses in southern China. Heliotrope – A concept house designed by Rolf Disch with a single stilt, optimized for harnessing solar power. Kelong – Built for fishing, but doubling up as offshore dwellings in the following countries: Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore. Bahay Kubo – The traditional house type prevalent in the Philippines. Palafito – Found throughout South America since Pre-Columbian times.
In the late 19th century, numerous palafitos were built in Chilean cities such as Castro and other towns in the Chiloé Archipelago, are now considered a typical element of Chilotan architecture. Pang uk – A special kind of house found in Tai O, Hong Kong built by Tankas. Papua New Guinea stilt house – A kind of stilt house constructed by Motuans found in the southern coastal area of PNG. Queenslander – Stilt house common in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. Sang Ghar - A type of stilt house built in Assam state of India, it is found in flood-prone areas of the Brahmaputra river valley. Thai stilt house – A kind of house built on freshwater, e.g. a lotus pond. Vietnamese stilt house – Similar to the Thai ones, except having a front door with a smaller height for religious reasons. Pfahlbaumuseum Unteruhldingen – an English-language article about the stilt house museum in Unteruhldingen, Germany Pit-house Post in ground Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps Rumah Melayu Stiltsville Treehouse Venice Wood pilings Ernest Ingersoll.
"Lake Dwellings". Encyclopedia Americana. View on OSM wiki