In the engineering and social sciences, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made environment that provides the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to cities and beyond. It has been defined as "the human-made space in which people live and recreate on a day-to-day basis."The built environment encompasses places and spaces created or modified by people to serve their needs of accommodation and representation. The sciences of the built environment cover architecture, building technology, civil engineering and the management of built stock mutations and operations. In recent years, public health research has expanded the definition of "built environment" to include healthy food access, community gardens, mental health, physical health, "walkability", "bikeability". Early concepts of built environment date to Classical Antiquity: Hippodamus of Miletos, known as the "father of urban planning", developed Greek cities from 498 BC to 408 BC that created order by using grid plans that mapped the city.
These early city plans gave way to the City Beautiful movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s, inspired by Daniel Hudson Burnham, a reformist for the Progressivism movement who promoted "a reform of the landscape in tandem with political change." The effort was in partnership with others who believed that beautifying American cities would improve the moral compass of the cities and encourage the upper class to spend their money in cities. This beautification process included architectural design. By mid-century modernist "indifferent" design influenced the character of work and public spaces, followed by what Alexander describes as a late twentieth century "revival of interest relating to the concept of place, its relevance to mental health and other fields of study." Built environments are used to describe the interdisciplinary field that addresses the design, construction and use of these man-made surroundings as an interrelated whole as well as their relationship to human activities over time.
The field is not regarded as a traditional profession or academic discipline in its own right, instead drawing upon areas such as economics, public policy, public health, geography, engineering and environmental sustainability. Within the field of public health, built environments are referred to as building or renovating areas in an effort to improve the community's well-being through construction of “aesthetically, health improved, environmentally improved landscapes and living structures”. For example: community forest user group in Nepal is a multidimensional institution, which serves goods and services to the communities through natural resource management. Technology is playing a pivotal role in shaping the industries of today by augmenting processes, streamlining activities, integrating innovations to propel the functioning of companies and organisations across a multitude of industries and help them achieve new heights. Building information modeling is prominent practice, it involves illustration & pre-execution overview of physical and functional characteristics of places.
BIM tools help the planner in making a future ready informed decision regarding a building or other built asset. Smart Building Management, Drone-based Surveying, 3D Printing, Intelligent Transportation System are recent implementation of technology in modern built environment. In public health, built environment refers to physical environments that are designed with health and wellness as integral parts of the communities. Research has indicated that the way neighbourhoods are created can affect both the physical activity and mental health of the communities’ residents. Studies have shown that built environments that were expressly designed to improve physical activity are linked to higher rates of physical activity, which in turn, positively affects health. Neighbourhoods with more walkability had lower rates of obesity, as well as increased physical activity among its residents, they had lower rates of depression, higher social capital, less alcohol abuse. Walkability features in these neighbourhoods include safety, sidewalk construction, as well as destinations in which to walk.
In addition, the perception of a walkable neighbourhood, one, perceived to have good sidewalks and connectivity, is correlated with higher rates of physical activity. Assessments of walkability have been completed through the use of GIS programs, such as the Street Smart Walk Score; this example of a walkability assessment tool determines distances to grocery stores and other amenities, as well as connectivity and intersection frequency using specific addresses. Assessments such as the Street Smart Walk Score can be utilized by city and country planning departments to improve existing walkability of communities. To implement walkable neighbourhoods, community members and local leaders should focus on policy development. An effective framework, utilized in an abundance of communities is the Complete Streets concept of community planning, developed by the National Complete Streets Coalition. NCSC states that the most successful policies are those that reflect input from a broad group of stakeholders, including transportation planners and engineers, elected officials, transit agencies, public health departments, members of the community.
According to Riggs, 2016, policies may focus on a “Complete Streets” investment, which includes sidewalk bulb-outs and refuges to reduce crossing distances or street widths for pedestrians. Ot
Line Damkjær Kruse is a Danish badminton player. She won silver medal in girls' doubles event at the 2007 Europeann Junior Championships, bronze medal in mixed doubles event. Women's doubles Girls' doubles Mixed doubles The BWF Grand Prix has two levels, the BWF Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold, it is a series of badminton tournaments sanctioned by the Badminton World Federation since 2007. Women's doubles BWF Grand Prix Gold tournament BWF Grand Prix tournament Women's doubles Mixed doubles BWF International Challenge tournament BWF International Series tournament BWF Future Series tournament Line Damkjær Kruse at BWF.tournamentsoftware.com
Formidable was an 80-gun Tonnant-class ship of the line of the French Navy, laid down in August 1794 and given the name Formidable, on 5 October, but renamed Figuieres on 4 December 1794, although the name was restored to Formidable on 31 May 1795 after she was launched at Toulon on 17 March 1795. She participated in the Battle of Algeciras, the Battle of Cape Finisterre and several other actions before the British captured her at the Battle of Cape Ortegal on 4 November 1805; the British took her into service as HMS Brave. She was sold to be broken up in April 1816. On 6 July 1801 she fought in the Battle of Algeciras under Captain Landais Lalonde, killed in the action. Command transferred to capitaine de frégate Amable Troude second in command of Dessaix. On 13 July, as she sailed isolated behind the French fleet, she was chased by the frigate HMS Thames and the ships of the line HMS Venerable, HMS Caesar and HMS Superb, she allowed Venerable catch up and took her under heavy fire, leaving her dismasted and in danger of sinking.
The rest of the British squadron had to come to aid Venerable, allowing Formidable to escape to Cádiz, acclaimed by the population. Troude was promoted to capitaine de vaisseau. Bonaparte met with him and called him "the French Horatius". In 1802 and 1803, Formidable served in Toulon under Admiral Latouche Tréville. On 17 January 1805 she went to sea under Admiral Villeneuve, together with ten other ships of the line and eight frigates, on 20 January the fleet sailed for Martinique in the Caribbean Sea, which it reached on 13 May; the fleet captured Diamond Rock from the British, but Villeneuve returned to Europe on hearing that Nelson had arrived in the West Indies. On 22 June 1805, the returning Franco-Spanish fleet was intercepted by a British fleet under Sir Robert Calder, resulting in the Battle of Cape Finisterre. After a violent artillery exchange and the capture of two of the Spanish ships, the fleets were separated in the fog. Exhausted after six months at sea, the fleet anchored in Cádiz to refit.
With his command under question and planning to meet the British fleet to gain a decisive victory, Villeneuve left Cádiz and met the British fleet near Cape Trafalgar. Formidable was the flagship of Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley, who commanded the six-ship vanguard of the French fleet, along with Formidable, Duguay-Trouin, Mont-Blanc, Intrépide and Neptune; the vanguard was kept as a reserve, joined the battle around 16:00. They only fired a few shots. On 4 November 1805 at the Battle of Cape Ortegal, Admiral Sir Richard Strachan, with Caesar, Courageux and four frigates and captured what remained of the squadron. Formidable was commissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Brave. Brave was broken up in 1816. Le Combat du Formidable Naval History Appendix