Istana Bukit Serene
Istana Bukit Serene is the royal palace and official residence of the Sultan of Johor, located in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The palace faces the Straits of Johor and has a bird's eye view of Singapore, a former possession of the Sultanate. From historical records, the palace was completed in 1933. Istana Bukit Serene has a tower measuring 35m in height and is among the famous tourist attractions in Johor Bahru. Tourists are amazed by the unique carvings on the walls on this historical building which features Art Deco influences; the palace has a huge sprawling garden, a common site for many royal gatherings and celebrations. The palace is well guarded by the Sultan's own private army. Istana Bukit Serene was a gift from the Johor government to the late Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Abu Bakar in conjunction with the ruler’s 40th anniversary as the sultan of Johor. Sultan Ibrahim became a personal friend of Tokugawa Yoshichika during the 1920s. Tokugawa was a scion of the Tokugawa clan, his ancestors were military leaders which ruled Japan from the 16th to the 19th centuries.
When the Japanese invaded Malaya, Tokugawa accompanied General Yamashita Tomoyuki's troops and was warmly received by Sultan Ibrahim when they reached Johor Bahru at the end of January 1942. Yamashita and his officers stationed themselves at Istana Bukit Serene and the state secretariat building, Sultan Ibrahim Building to plan for the invasion of Singapore. From the palace, he had a splendid view of the positions of the Australian Army and Navy across the Straits of Johor. Yamashita used the palace tower as viewing point. Although advised by his top military personnel that the palace is an easy target, Yamashita was confident that the British Army would not attack Istana Bukit Serene because it was the pride and possession of the Sultan of Johor. Yamashita's prediction was correct. Shortly before the Japanese surrendered in 1945, Sultan Ibrahim was expelled from his residence at Istana Bukit Serene and was forced to reside at Istana Pasir Pelangi, the crown prince's palace. Historical events held at the Istana Bukit Serene are: venue for the Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Iskandar’s investiture ceremony in conjunction with his 55th birthday in 2014.
Akad nikah ceremony of Tunku Mahkota Johor Tunku Ismail Sultan Ibrahim and his consort Che Puan Khaleeda Bustamam was held on 24 October 2014. Istana Besar Istana Pasir Pelangi Pasir Pelangi The Temenggong family Monarchies of Malaysia A palace in the sun, Fauziah Ismail, New Straits Times
Sultan Ibrahim Building
The Sultan Ibrahim Building is a former state secretariat building of Johor. It is located at Bukit Timbalan in Malaysia; the building was constructed between 1936 and 1939 and was completed in 1940 as the British colonial government attempted to streamline the state's administration. It was opened by the late Sultan Ibrahim of Johor, it was the tallest building in Malaya during the pre-Merdeka era. In Johor Bahru itself, it stood unchallenged as the tallest building in the town until the completion of the Merlin Tower in the 1970s; the offices of the state secretariat have now moved to Kota Iskandar. There are plans to convert the building into a museum; the building's architecture combines colonial and Malay architecture with its Saracenic design and tower making it a landmark in Johor Bahru. The building was designed by the renowned British architecture firm and Turner, responsible for designing the Johor Bahru General Hospital now known as Hospital Sultanah Aminah as well as several prominent landmarks in Singapore.
The building housed the Menteri Besar's office and the Johor State Legislative Assembly before both were moved to Kota Iskandar. The reinforced concrete construction, with stone facing, is built on a metal framework that consists of 3,000 tons of structural steelwork, fabricated in the Singapore workshops of United Engineers Ltd, who were responsible for its erection in 1940. Another Singapore based Ah Hong and Company, was responsible for the general construction. In 1942, during the Japanese occupation of Malaya, the Japanese Imperial Army led by General Yamashita Tomoyuki stationed themselves at the building and Istana Bukit Serene to plan for the invasion of Singapore; the Japanese used the building as a fortress and a command centre to spy on the British activities in Singapore. The building was damaged during the Japanese invasion and the damaged parts are still visible today. Johor Sultanate
Central Market, Kuala Lumpur
Central Market Kuala Lumpur is a market in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Central Market Kuala Lumpur is located at Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock and the pedestrian-only section of Jalan Hang Kasturi, a few minutes away from Petaling Street, it was founded in 1888 and used as a wet market, while the current Art Deco style building was completed in 1937. It has been classified as a Heritage Site by the Malaysian Heritage Society and it is now a landmark for Malaysian culture and heritage; the original building was built in 1888 by the British in colonial British Malaya. It was used as wet market for Kuala Lumpur citizens and tin miners; the Wet Market was convenient to the early city dwellers because it was within the vicinity of Klang bus stand, the hub of feeder bus service for Kuala Lumpur and the train station. Further expansions were made in 1889, 1895, 1920 and 1921. By 1933, the expansions to the warehouse made the market now in its present size, cost around $167,000; as Kuala Lumpur experienced its own development at a rapid pace in the 1970s, there were plans to demolish the site.
The intervention of the Malaysian Heritage Society proved timely as they petitioned against its deconstruction and the site was declared as a'Heritage Site'. During construction of Dayabumi near Klang River banks in 1981, the market was saved from demolition. In 1985, the market was renovated into a vibrant and colourful new style, has been known as Pasar Budaya since April 1986; the Central Market Annexe, located at the back of main building housed a cineplex and was opened in 2006. The Annexe houses a variety of eclectic art galleries, it is one of the major art spaces in Kuala Lumpur and is a hub of activity all year long which features artworks by local artists. Located alongside the main building is the newly transformed and covered walkway, Kasturi Walk. Opened in 2011, Kasturi Walk boasts an al fresco ambiance featuring an exciting variety of stalls selling tantalizing local snacks and exquisite souvenirs; the street is noted for housing street musicians or "buskers". The Central Market Kuala Lumpur is arranged in a stall concept, representing the traditional market that has existed in Kuala Lumpur since the 1800s.
Travelers can scroll through the many sections that exists within the Central Market, from the Lorong Melayu, Straits Chinese, Lorong India, located on the west wing. The second floor hosts a food court. Notable are two-storey and single- storey buildings resembling the kampong-style houses representing the many ethnic groups living harmoniously in Kuala Lumpur. ArchitectureArt Deco architecture Central Market Kuala Lumpur is near the KJ14 SBK16 Pasar Seni station, served by the LRT Kelana Jaya Line and the MRT Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line; the station is in fact named after the market. Double-decker KL Hop-on Hop-off sightseeing tour buses stop at the opposite of Central Market Kuala Lumpur The free bus service Go KL - Purple Line starts at Pasar Seni Bus Hub, next to Pasar Seni station. 5 mins walk to Central Market Official Central Market website Central Market Website - Chinese Version Tourism Malaysia - Central Market Kuala Lumpur Attractions Travel Guide: Central Market−Pasar Seni
Kedah known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km², it consists of the mainland and the Langkawi islands; the mainland has a flat terrain, used to grow rice, while Langkawi is an archipelago, most of which are uninhabited islands. Kedah was known as Kadaram by the ancient and medieval Tamil people, Kataha or Kalahbar by the Arabs, Syburi by the Siamese when it was under their influence. To the north, Kedah borders the state of Perlis and shares an international boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of Thailand, it borders the states of Perak to Penang to the southwest. The state's capital is the royal seat is in Anak Bukit. Other major towns include Sungai Petani, Kulim on the mainland, Kuah on Langkawi. Archaeological evidence found in Bujang Valley reveals that a Hindu–Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient Kedah as early as 110 A. D; the discovery of temples, jetty remains, iron smelting sites, clay brick monuments dating back to 110 A.
D shows that a maritime trading route with south Indian Tamil kingdoms was established since that time. The discoveries in Bujang Valley made the ancient Kedah as the oldest civilisation of Southeast Asia. Reference to ancient Kedah was first mentioned in a Tamil poem Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of the 2nd century A. D, it described. Other than Kadaram, Kedah was known with different names at varying times in Indian literature. In the middle eastern literature, ancient Kedah was referred as Qilah by Ibn Khordadbeh in Kitāb al Masālik w'al Mamālik, Kalah-Bar by Soleiman Siraf & Abu Zaid al Hassan in Silsilat-al-Tawarikh, Kalah by Abu-Dulaf Misa'r Ibn Muhalhil in Al-Risalah al-thaniyah; the famous Tang dynasty Buddhist monk, Yi Jing who visited Malay archipelago between 688–695 mentioned about a kingdom known as Ka-Cha in the northern part of Malay peninsular, which according to him was 30 days sail from Bogha, the capital of Sribogha. In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah was under the loose control of Srivijaya.
Indian and Arab sources consider Kedah to be one of the two important sites during the Srivijaya period calling the king of the straits "the ruler of Srivijaya and Kataha". In 1025, Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, captured Kedah in his invasion of Srivijaya and occupied it for some time. A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola of the Chola dynasty who conquered Kedah in the late 11th century. During the reign of Kulothunga Chola I Chola overlordship was established over the Sri Vijaya province Kedah in the late 11th century. According to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the Kedah Annals, Kedah was founded by a Hindu king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the text further, the Sultanate of Kedah started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar Shah. However, an Acehnese account gave a date of 1474 for the year of conversion to Islam by the ruler of Kedah; this date accords with an account in the Malay Annals where a raja of Kedah visited Malacca during the reign of its last sultan seeking the honour of the royal band that marks the sovereignty of a Muslim ruler.
It was under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Malacca, by Aceh. In the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang and Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century; the Siamese invaded Kedah in 1821, it remained under Siamese control under the name of Syburi. In 1896, Kedah along with Perlis and Setul was combined into the Siamese province of Monthon Syburi which lasted until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. In World War II, Kedah was the first part of Malaya to be invaded by Japan; the Japanese returned Kedah to their Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule after the end of the war. Kedah was a reluctant addition to the Federation of Malaya in 1948. Since 1958, the hereditary Sultan of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah.
The Kedah Sultanate began when the 9th Kedah Maharaja Derbar Raja or Phra Ong Mahawangsa, converted to Islam and changed his name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah I. Since there have been 27 Sultans who ruled Kedah. Kedah is the 8th largest state by land area and 8th most populated state in Malaysia, with a total land area of 9,500 km2, a population of 1,890,098; the Pedu Lake is the largest man-made lake in the state. Kedah has a heterogeneous populace constituted by three major ethnic groups. Prior to the formation of the Federation of Malaya, there was an ethnic group known as the Sam Sam people, they speak Siamese language. Most of these communities are extinct due to assimilation with the Malays. In some places in Kedah, the Sam Sam people still retain their Siamese language as their mother tongue; these communities can be found in Pendang District, Kuala Nera
The Malaysian language or Malaysian Malay is the name applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia. Constitutionally, the official language of Malaysia is Malay, but the government from time to time refers to it as Malaysian. Standard Malaysian is a normative register of the Johore-Riau dialect of Malay, it is spoken by much of the Malaysian population, although most learn a vernacular form of Malay or other native language first. Malay is a compulsory subject in secondary schools. Article 152 of the Federation designates Malay as the official language. Between 1986 and 2007, the official term Bahasa Malaysia was replaced by "Bahasa Melayu". Today, to recognize that Malaysia is composed of many ethnic groups, the term Bahasa Malaysia has once again become the government's preferred designation for the "Bahasa Kebangsaan" and the "Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu"; the language is sometimes referred to as BM or Bahasa. English continues, however, to be used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts.
The Malaysian language is written using a Latin alphabet called Rumi, though an Arabic alphabet called Jawi exists. Rumi is official while efforts are being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use in Malaysia; the Latin alphabet, however, is still the most used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes. The Malaysian language has most of its borrowings absorbed from Sanskrit, Hindi, Portuguese, Sinitic languages and more English. Modern Malaysian Malay has been influenced lexically by the Indonesian variety through the popularity of Indonesian dramas, soap operas, music. Colloquial and contemporary usage of Malay includes modern Malaysian vocabulary, which may not be familiar to the older generation, such as awek, balak or cun. New plural pronouns have been formed out of the original pronouns and the word orang, such as kitorang or diorang. Code-switching between English and Malaysian and the use of novel loanwords is widespread, forming Bahasa Rojak; this phenomenon has raised the displeasure of linguistic purists in Malaysia, in their effort to uphold use of the prescribed normative language.
Differences between the Malaysian and Indonesian languages Indonesian language Jawi, an Arabic alphabet for Malay Language politics Malaysian English, English language used formally in Malaysia. Varieties of Malay Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Malay Online Web Application with 40 Interactive Free Lessons Malay–English Online Dictionary from Webster's Dictionary Malay–English Online Dictionary The Malay Spelling Reform, Asmah Haji Omar, Pogadaev, V. A. Rott, N. V. Kamus Bahasa Russia – Bahasa Malaysia. Lebih kurang 30 000 perkataan. Moscow: Russky Yazik, 1986
Overseas Chinese are people of ethnic Chinese birth or descent who reside outside the territories of Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Although a vast majority are Han Chinese, the group represents all ethnic groups in China. Huáqiáo or Hoan-kheh in Hokkien, refers to people of Chinese origin residing outside of China. At the end of the 19th century, the Chinese government realized that the overseas Chinese could be an asset, a source of foreign investment, a bridge to overseas knowledge; the modern term haigui refers to returned overseas Chinese and guīqiáo qiáojuàn to their returning relatives. Huáyì refers to people of Chinese descent residing outside of China, regardless of citizenship. Another often-used term is 海外華人, it is used by the PRC government to refer to people of Chinese ethnicities who live outside the PRC, regardless of citizenship. Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Teochew refer to themselves as 唐人, pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien, tong nyin in Hakka.
It means Tang people, a reference to Tang dynasty China when it was ruling China proper. This term is used by the Cantonese, Hoochew and Hokkien as a colloquial reference to the Chinese people, has little relevance to the ancient dynasty; the term shǎoshù mínzú is added to the various terms for the overseas Chinese to indicate those who would be considered ethnic minorities in China. The terms shǎoshù shǎoshù mínzú hǎiwài qiáobāo are all in usage; the Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the PRC does not distinguish between Han and ethnic minority populations for official policy purposes. For example, members of the Tibetan people may travel to China on passes granted to certain people of Chinese descent. Various estimates of the Chinese emigrant minority population include 3.1 million, 3.4 million, 5.7 million, or one tenth of all Chinese emigrants. Cross-border ethnic groups are not considered Chinese emigrant minorities unless they left China after the establishment of an independent state on China's border.
Some ethnic groups who have historic connections with China, like the Hmong may not associate themselves as part of the Chinese diaspora. The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas. One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty, he sent people – many of them Cantonese and Hokkien – to explore and trade in the South China Sea and in the Indian Ocean. When China was under the imperial rule of the Qing Dynasty, subjects who left the Qing Empire without the Administrator's consent were considered to be traitors and were executed, their family members faced consequences as well. However, the establishment of the Lanfang Republic in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, as a tributary state of Qing China, attests that it was possible to attain permission; the republic lasted until 1884. Under the administration of the Republic of China from 1911 to 1949, these rules were abolished and many migrated outside the Republic of China through the coastal regions via the ports of Fujian, Guangdong and Shanghai.
These migrations are considered to be among the largest in China's history. Many nationals of the Republic of China fled and settled down in South East Asia between the years 1911–1949, after the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang lost to the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Most of the nationalist and neutral refugees fled Mainland China to Southeast Asia as well as Taiwan. Many nationalists who stayed behind were persecuted or executed. Most of the Chinese who fled during 1911–1949 under the Republic of China settled down in Singapore and Malaysia and automatically gained citizenship in 1957 and 1963 as these countries gained independence. Kuomintang members who settled in Malaysia and Singapore played a major role in the establishment of the Malaysian Chinese Association and their meeting hall at Sun Yat Sen Villa. There is some evidence that they intend to reclaim mainland China from the Communists by funding the Kuomintang in China. During the 1950s and 1960s, the ROC tended to seek the support of overseas Chinese communities through branches of the Kuomintang based on Sun Yat-sen's use of expatriate Chinese communities to raise money for his revolution.
During this period, the People's Republic of China tended to view overseas Chinese with suspicion as possible capitalist infiltrators and tended to value relationships with Southeast Asian nations as more important than gaining support of overseas Chinese, in the Bandung declaration explicitly stated that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation. Different waves of immigration led to subgroups among overseas Chinese such as the new and old immigrants in Southeast Asia, North America, the Caribbean, South America, South Africa, Europe. In the 19th century, the age of colonialism was at its height and the great Chinese dia
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – known as the Great Ming Empire – for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683; the Hongwu Emperor attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. He took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang-Ming Zuxun, a set of published dynastic instructions; this failed when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402.
The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, restored the Grand Canal and the primacy of the imperial examinations in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the eastern coasts of Africa; the rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples.
Haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves. By the 16th century, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou like Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth; the growth of Portuguese and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese and American silver. This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose paper money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age joined changes in Japanese and Spanish policy that cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes.
Combined with crop failure and epidemic, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng, defeated by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflation, massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects. Agriculture and the economy were in shambles, rebellion broke out among the hundreds of thousands of peasants called upon to work on repairing the dykes of the Yellow River. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, including the Red Turbans in 1351; the Red Turbans were affiliated with a Buddhist secret society. Zhu Yuanzhang was a penniless peasant and Buddhist monk who joined the Red Turbans in 1352. In 1356, Zhu's rebel force captured the city of Nanjing, which he would establish as the capital of the Ming dynasty.
With the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty. In 1363, Zhu Yuanzhang eliminated his archrival and leader of the rebel Han faction, Chen Youliang, in the Battle of Lake Poyang, arguably the largest naval battle in history. Known for its ambitious use of fire ships, Zhu's force of 200,000 Ming sailors were able to defeat a Han rebel force over triple their size, claimed to be 650,000-strong; the victory destroyed the last opposing rebel faction, leaving Zhu Yuanzhang in uncontested control of the bountiful Yangtze River Valley and cementing his power in the south. After the dynastic head of the Red Turbans suspiciously died in 1367 while a guest of Zhu, there was no one left, remotely capable of contesting his march to the throne, he made his imperial ambitions known by sending an army toward the Yuan capital Dadu in 1368; the las