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ClimaCell is an American weather technology company that repurposes wireless communication networks for advanced weather forecasting. Using re-purposed wireless communication networks as weather sensors, ClimaCell delivers real-time forecasts to critical industries such as municipalities and transportation; the company launched publicly with its HyperCast dashboard in April 2017. It has raised over $70M in VC funding. SoftBank invested $7 million in April 2019. Traditional weather forecasts rely on public data from government entities. ClimaCell pioneered techniques using existing wireless communication infrastructure and IoT devices to collect real-time weather data, their observations report conditions closer to the ground than satellite and higher resolution than Doppler weather radar techniques. The aggregated data from the virtual sources ClimaCell uses is processed through their proprietary models, including CBAM and Nowcasting, it includes measurements on temperature, wind profiler, precipitation data.

After two years of development with their in-house engineering and meteorological team, ClimaCell’s Hypercast was publicly launched in April 2017. Their processed data and minutely forecasts are available to app developers via their micro-weather API. ClimaCell was the first company to bring a new source of weather data to market in decades. Since the infrastructure was existing wireless communication networks, Inc. Magazine commented that “Unencumbered by manufacturing and hardware deployment … ClimaCell could launch their product immediately.” The company’s software solutions provide information and insights to aviation, drone flight, construction sites, insurance and outdoor events, utility services. Clients include JetBlue Airways and the New England Patriots. ClimaCell established, a new, independent non-profit organization to tackle one of the root causes of global poverty: lack of access to reliable localized weather information.'s sole focus will be to save and transform lives by bringing MicroWeather Solutions to areas underserved by traditional means but need it the most.

Beginning in East Africa and working together with local governments, NGOs, local communities, ClimaCell’s initiative aims to facilitate the rapid and collaborative implementation of novel technological approaches and the adoption of critical weather warnings and insights. To save lives, the initiative’s impact areas will focus on zero hunger, infectious disease eradication, early warnings. ClimaCell began a roll-out in India; the company predict weather. With no capital investment, ClimaCell’s data analysis and imaging service give consumers access to forecast updates and localized weather maps; the solution may enable farmers and governments to make informed decisions. Official website

85th Regiment of Foot (Bucks Volunteers)

The 85th Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised in 1793. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 53rd Regiment of Foot to form the King's Shropshire Light Infantry in 1881; the regiment was raised in Buckinghamshire by Lieutenant-Colonel George Nugent as the 85th Regiment of Foot, in response to the threat posed by the French Revolution, on 18 November 1793. The regiment was sent to join the Duke of York's army in the Netherlands in 1795 as part of the unsuccessful defence of that country against the Republican French during the Flanders Campaign, it was posted to Gibraltar in 1795 and returned home in 1797. It embarked for the Netherlands again in August 1799 and saw action at the Battle of Alkmaar and the Battle of Castricum in October 1799 during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. A second battalion was raised in 1800; the 1st Battalion was deployed to Madeira in 1801 and both battalions went to Jamaica in 1802. The regiment absorbed the Bucks volunteers in 1802 and became the 85th Regiment of Foot in 1802.

It returned to England in 1808 and converted to a Light Infantry role, becoming the 85th Regiment of Foot in the year. The regiment next took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign in autumn 1809; the regiment embarked for Portugal in 1811 for service under Viscount Wellington in the Peninsular War. It fought at the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro in May 1811, the Second Siege of Badajoz that month and the Siege of San Sebastián in autumn 1813, it pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 before returning to England in April 1814. The regiment was dispatched to North America in May 1814 and saw action in the last phase of the War of 1812, it fought at the Battle of Bladensburg, capturing two American colours, in August 1814. Under the command of Colonel William Thornton, the regiment accompanied by detachments from the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, carried out a successful attack on the American positions on the west bank of the Mississippi River during the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815.

Casualties among the regiment were: 1 captured and 41 wounded. The regiment returned home that year; the regiment was dispatched to Malta and became the 85th Regiment of Light Infantry in April 1821. After that it transferred to Gibraltar and became the 85th, or The King's Regiment of Light Infantry in August 1827; the regiment went back to Malta in 1828 and returned home in 1831. It embarked for Canada in 1838 as part of the response to the rebellions in Lower and Upper Canada and transferred to the West Indies in 1843 before returning home in 1846; the regiment was posted to Mauritius in 1853 and South Africa in 1856 before returning home again in 1863. It embarked for India in 1868 and was deployed to Afghanistan for service in the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878. After returning to India, it took part in operations against the Zaimukhts and was involved in the destruction of their capital, Zawa, in 1879; as part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 85th was linked with the 52nd Regiment of Foot, assigned to district no. 42 at Cowley Barracks in Oxford.

On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with 53rd Regiment of Foot to become the 2nd battalion, the King's Shropshire Light Infantry. Battle honours won by the regiment were: Peninsular War: Fuentes d'Onor, Peninsula War of 1812: Bladensburg Second Anglo-Afghan War: Afghanistan 1879-80 Colonels of the Regiment were: 1794–1805: F. M. Sir George Nugent, Bt. GCB 1805–1806: Lt-Gen. Sir Charles Ross, Bt. 1806–1807: Gen. Sir Charles Asgill, Bt. GCH 1807–1815: Gen. Thomas Slaughter Stanwix 1815–1823: Gen. Sir James Willoughby Gordon, Bt. GCB, GCH 1823–1839: Lt-Gen. Sir Herbert Taylor, GCB, GCH 1839–1840: Lt-Gen. Sir William Thornton, KCB 1840–1843: F. M. Sir John Forster Fitzgerald, GCB 1843–1847: Lt-Gen. Sir Thomas Pearson, KCB, KCH 1847–1865: Gen. Sir John Wright Guise, Bt. GCB 1865–1875: Gen. Frederick Maunsell 1875–1876: Lt-Gen. George Campbell, CB 1876–1879: Gen. Arnold Charles Errington 1879–1880: Lt-Gen. Percy Hill, CB 1880–1881: Gen. Sir Henry Percival de Bathe, Bt.

Patterson, Benton Rain, The Generals, Andrew Jackson, Sir Edward Pakenham, the road to New Orleans, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-6717-6 Barratt, C. R. B.. The 85th King's Light Infantry. Spottiswoode. Robinson, Colonel William; the History Of The Corps Of The King'S Shropshire Light Infantry. Volume II; the 85th Regiment, 1759-1881

Thrips tabaci

Thrips tabaci is a species of small insect in the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is known as the onion thrips, the potato thrips, the tobacco thrips or the cotton seedling thrips, it is an agricultural pest that can damage crops of onions and other plants, it can additionally act as a vector for plant viruses. In some populations, nearly all onion thrips are female, males are rare; the adult onion thrips is some 1 to 1.3 mm long. The body is some shade of yellowish-brown or brown; the onion thrips is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean region but is now found on all continents except Antarctica. It infests a wide range of host plants that include onion and garlic, brassicaceous plants such as cabbage and broccoli, sugarbeet, pumpkin and cucumber, potato, tobacco and many fruiting and ornamental plants. Onion thrips was the first vector identified for tomato spotted wilt virus, being reported in 1927. There are now some identified populations of onion thrips that are not able to transmit tomato spotted wilt virus due to genetic spread in the global population.

The female inserts lays her eggs under the epidermis. The eggs are white at first, turning orange and hatch in four to five days; the larvae suck sap from the plant tissues. Two larval stages lasting about nine days in total are followed by the non-feeding prepupal and pupal stages which last four to seven days in total; the adult survives for three weeks during which time the females lay about eighty eggs. Most of the eggs are produced by parthenogenesis. In Hawaii, only about one in a thousand individuals is male, in this location, it breeds throughout the year. In cooler climates it becomes active again in spring. In populations from different areas, the ratio of males to females varies. A male to female ratio as high as 1 male to 2 females has been recorded from Central Spain, 1 male to 6 females in Colorado. In contrast, counts as low as 1 male to 300 females have been recorded from Sudan, in Hawaii a collection of over 5000 specimens held only 5 males in total; some collections over the years from France, Japan and India have had no reported males at all.

One study of the literature published in 1990 suggested a correlation between longitude and male population number, with the higher male counts occurring in the Western hemisphere. The onion thrips is the most serious insect pest attacking onion crops in the tropics; the thrips rasp and pierce the surface of the plant with their mouthparts choosing young plant growth. They add digestive juices and suck up the fluids that seep from the wounds; as the plant part grows, so do the damaged regions, leaving silvery streaks. The more thrips that are present, the greater the area of plant damaged, reducing the area of foliage available for photosynthesis. At the same time, more water is transpired and pathogens can find a way to gain entry. In damaged plants, leaves may wither and the whole plant may appear silvery; the onion thrips is a vector of certain plant viruses, including iris yellow spot tospovirus, strawberry necrotic shock virus, tobacco streak virus and tomato spotted wilt virus. It is a vector of Alternaria porri, which causes the fungal disease known as purple blotch

Cyrus IMAP server

The Cyrus IMAP server is electronic mail server software developed by Carnegie Mellon University. It differs from other Internet Message Access Protocol server implementations in that it is intended to be run on sealed servers, where normal users cannot log in; the mail spool uses a filesystem layout and format similar to the Maildir format used by other popular email servers such as qmail, Dovecot, etc. Users can access mail through the POP3/POP3-S or KPOP protocols; the Cyrus IMAP server supports server-side mail filtering through the implementation of a mail filtering language called Sieve. The private mailbox database design gives the server considerable advantages in efficiency and administratability. Multiple concurrent read/write connections to the same mailbox are permitted; the server supports access control lists on mailboxes and storage quotas on mailbox hierarchies. As of version 2.4.17, there is support for CalDAV and CardDAV to provide an integrated calendaring and email solution, support for viewing email via an RSS reader.

Prior to 1994, Carnegie Mellon University's email was based on the locally-developed and non-standard Andrew Messaging System - written in the early 1980s as part of the Andrew Project. This was advanced for its day, but had major scalability issues and Carnegie Mellon wanted to move to a standards-compliant mail system that met or exceeded the feature set of AMS. In 1994 the Computing Services Division at Carnegie Mellon addressed these goals by starting the Cyrus Project. In 1998, Carnegie Mellon placed all of its incoming freshmen on the Cyrus server for the first time and in December 2001, bboard access, was cut over to Cyrus completely. AMS was phased out in May 2002; the Computing Services Division developed Cyrus "Murder" clustering, after several revisions deployed it within Carnegie Mellon in the summer of 2002. Several members of the Cyrus development team at Carnegie Mellon went on to become leaders in the development of large-scale electronic mail infrastructure elsewhere: John Gardiner Myers was Chief Architect of Host Mail Infrastructure at America Online.

In the fall of 2016 Carnegie Mellon announced the retirement of Cyrus IMAP as their electronic mail storage service, with Cyrus users required to choose between on-campus Microsoft Exchange and Google "G Suite" off-campus mail. Cyrus is still being developed. Carnegie Mellon University remains active in development, provides the infrastructure on which runs. Staff at FastMail contribute much of the recent work, as they depend upon it as part of their commercial service. Comparison of mail servers Comparison of CalDAV and CardDAV implementations UW IMAP Official website

Eaten Alive (album)

Eaten Alive is an album by American singer Diana Ross, released in 1985. Written and produced by Barry Gibb of the Bee Gees, the album includes a contribution from Michael Jackson who co-wrote and performed on the title track, it includes her international hit single "Chain Reaction", which topped the charts in the UK and Australia. The album reached #45 in the US, #11 in the UK and Australia and the top ten in Switzerland, Norway and the Netherlands; the album was released on the RCA label in the US where it was deemed a commercial failure, selling less than 300,000 US copies. It fared better internationally as an EMI label release to which Ross had been signed directly since 1981; the album was conceived by Barry Gibb, who had co-written and co-produced successful albums for Barbra Streisand, Dionne Warwick, Kenny Rogers earlier that decade. Most of the tracks were co-written by Gibb and at least one of his other siblings, though some were written by all members of the Bee Gees; the album includes the UK and Australia #1 hit "Chain Reaction", along with the Top 10 R&B title track - written and co-produced with Michael Jackson.

"Experience" was released as a single, reaching #47 on the UK Singles Chart. Videos were made for each of the three singles, with the title track being done in the style of the film The Island of Dr. Moreau; the video for "Chain Reaction" paid homage to American Bandstand-type shows of the 1960s. Both "Eaten Alive" and "Experience" co-starred actor Joseph Gian. Due to the success of "Chain Reaction", the album would reach the Top 20 in many European territories. Barry Gibb accompanied Ross in the background on most of the tracks with Jackson performing on "Eaten Alive". Despite perceptions, the title single, "Eaten Alive" hit the Top 20 in several European territories including Italy where it reached #10, Sweden #14 and Switzerland #17, it peaked at #3 on the Billboard Dance Charts. The album was remastered and re-released on September 29, 2014 by Funky Town Grooves, with bonus material on a second CD. All tracks are written by Robin Gibb, Maurice Gibb, except where noted. Musicians credited in the liner notes: John J. Barnes – keyboards George Bitzer – keyboards, piano Nathan Eastbass guitar Don Felder – guitar Michael Fisherpercussion Steve Gadddrums Albhy Galutensynthesizer, arrangements Gary E. Grant – trumpet Jerry Hey – trumpet James Newton Howard – keyboards, synthesizer Kim S. Hutchcroft – saxophone Paul Leim – drums Greg Phillinganes – keyboards Bill Reichenbach Jr. – trombone Tom Scott – saxophone George Terry – guitar Larry Williams – keyboards Diana Ross – lead vocals Barry Gibb – backing vocals, arrangements Michael Jackson – backing vocals on "Eaten Alive" Bruce Albertine – backing vocals Myrna Matthews – backing vocals Marti McCall – backing vocals Producers – Albhy Galuten, Barry Gibb and Karl Richardson.

Co-Producer on Track 1 – Michael Jackson Engineers – Jack Joseph Puig and Karl Richardson Assistant Engineers – Larry Ferguson, Dan Garcia, Scott Glasel and Julie Last. Recorded at Bill Schnee Studio and Middle Ear Studio. Mixing – Humberto Gatica. Mixed at Middle Ear Studio. Re-mixing on Track 11 – Francois Kervorkian and Ron St. Germain Mastered by George Marino at Sterling Sound. Art Direction and Design – Ria Lewerke Artwork – Diana Ross Enterprises, Inc. Photography – Moshe Brakha The Eaten Alive Demos as sung by Barry Gibb were made available as downloads on iTunes in October 2006; the album contained most of the songs except for the title track and "Chain Reaction". In the spring of 2009, when iTunes changed into DRM-free downloads with higher bit-rates. In August 2011 all of the Barry Gibb demos reappeared on iTunes shortly after the opening of the download store on his official website where many of the same tracks were available. Another demo of the title track by Michael Jackson is known to have been recorded, but, to this date, has not yet surfaced