Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese; because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Mandarin is placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers. Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast; this is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones; the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop.
Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, which have been lost in southern dialect groups. The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects influential; some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore, it is used as one of the working languages of the United Nations. It is one of the most used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally; the English word "mandarin" meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties.
When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or "language of the officials". In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, called "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects, it is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China, the de facto official language of the Republic of China, one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and in Taiwan, it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines,but not as Guānhuà. Linguists use the term "Mandarin" to refer to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call Guānhuà.
The alternative term Běifānghuà, or "Northern dialects", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" or "Early Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of "Mandarin" in a broader sense. Within Chinese social or cultural discourse, there is not a common "Mandarin" identity based on language. Speakers of forms of Mandarin other than the standard refer to the variety they speak by a geographic name—for example Sichuan dialect, Hebei dialect or Northeastern dialect, all being regarded as distinct from the standard language; the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven major groups of dialects have been recognized. Aside from Mandarin, the other six are Wu, Xiang in central China, Min and Yue on the southeast coast.
The Language Atlas of China distinguishes three further groups: Jin, Huizhou in the Huizhou region of Anhui and Zhejiang, Pinghua in Guangxi and Yunnan. After the fall of the Northern Song and during the reign of the Jin and Yuan dynasties in northern China, a common speech developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital, a language referred to as Old Mandarin. New genres of vernacular literature were based on this language, including verse and story forms, such as the qu and sanqu poetry; the rhyming conventions of the new verse were codified in a rime dictionary called the Zhongyuan Yinyun. A radical departure from the rime table tradition that had evolved over the previous centuries, this dictionary contains a wealth of information on the phonology of Old Mandarin. Further sources are the'Phags-pa script based on the Ti
Choa Chu Kang
Choa Chu Kang, alternatively spelt as Chua Chu Kang and abbreviated as CCK, is a planning area and residential town located at the north-westernmost point of the West Region of Singapore. The town shares borders with Sungei Kadut to the north, Tengah to the southwest, Bukit Batok to the southeast, Bukit Panjang to the east and the Western Water Catchment to the west. Choa Chu Kang New Town is separated into two portions by the Kranji Expressway. A kampung, the area has been developed under the ambition of the Housing and Development Board, to transform it into a modern township; the town comprises seven subzones, four of which are the most densely populated: Choa Chu Kang Central, Choa Chu Kang North, Yew Tee and Teck Whye. Choa Chu Kang's name is derived from its historical core at the former site of Chua Chu Kang Village located near the junction of Choa Chu Kang Road and Jalan Sungei Poyan occupied by the grounds of the National Shooting Centre which comes under the purview of Singapore Shooting Association.
The name began to be applied to the general area around the village when Choa Chu Kang Road, a main arterial road linking the village to Upper Bukit Timah Road towards the east was built. The name "Choa Chu Kang" is derived from the Teochew word "kang chu". In the nineteenth century, Chinese immigrants to plant gambier and pepper along the river banks of Choa Chu Kang, although many migrated to Johor to the north at the encouragement of the Temenggong of Johor; the plantation owners were known as Kangchu - the word "kang" refers to the riverbank and "chu" means "owner" or "master", referring to the headman in charge of the plantations in the area. "Choa" is the clan name of the first headman. Choa Chu Kang was a diverse area with old kampong rubber plantations. Residents had to depend on boats or bullock carts for transportation. Among the few villages which sprang up were Kampong Belimbing and Chua Chu Kang Village. Most of the inhabitants belonged to the Teochew dialect group; the early Teochew settlers were farmers growing gambier and pepper.
The Hokkiens, who moved in established pineapple and coconut plantations as well as vegetable farms and poultry farms. In the early days, tigers used to roam in the area; the last tiger of Singapore was shot here in the 1930s. Kampong Belimbing, Chua Chu Kang Village and Kampong Berih was demolished in phases from 1993 to 1998, it was replaced by military plot and. The Cemetery North is gazetted as an army restricted and live-firing area from 19 September 2003; the Jalan Bahar is gazetted as an army restricted and live-firing area from 16 March 2001. The name Choa Chu Kang is used for its nearby facilities. However, the original name Chua Chu Kang is retained in the cemetery area; the new town era had been evolved since 1985 where Teck Whye was developed, it was extended to N2, N3 and N4 by 1992 with the cutting short of Choa Chu Kang Road. Yew Tee was developed by 1997, with N5, N6 and N7 being completed and residents had moved in. There is still a military training area at Yew Tee/Kranji Camp premises, since 6 February 2002.
The camps are Mowbray Camps. Choa Chu Kang had their new neighbourhood being completed, the Neighbourhood 8 by 2015. On 25 April 2015, bus services such as 300, 301 and 983 were being enhanced for their needs of residents. Bus service 301 and 983 took over the deleted portions of service 300. On 27 December 2015, service 983 was extended via Choa Chu Kang Avenue 1, Choa Chu Kang Avenue 7, Choa Chu Kang Grove, Choa Chu Kang Way, Choa Chu Kang Road, Upper Bukit Timah Road, Petir Road, Jelebu Road all the way to Bukit Panjang to enhance connectivity to the Downtown MRT Line; when Choa Chu Kang Town was built by expanding Teck Whye Estate near the other end of Choa Chu Kang Road at its junction with Upper Bukit Timah Road and Woodlands Road to the north, the place name began to be applied to a much larger area when political divisions like the Choa Chu Kang ward applied to the entire northwest sector of the country during some editions of the Parliamentary elections. The residents' committees in Choa Chu Kang were expanded in 1988 and 1991, part of Chua Chu Kang sector had given way to Yew Tee division, followed by Keat Hong division in 2001.
The growing demand of Keat Hong Neighbourhood 8 requested for redrawing of boundaries whereby Limbang ward took over the parts of Yew Tee and Choa Chu Kang, giving a nice feel of Neighbourhood 5 and 6. Today, the Yew Tee and Limbang wards fall within the Marsiling-Yew Tee Group Representation Constituency and the rest of the town such as Keat Hong and Chua Chu Kang fall within the Chua Chu Kang Group Representation Constituency; as of 2017, this area has a total of eight primary schools and six secondary schools, together with Pioneer Junior College. Choa Chu Kang is home to the newest addition to ITE College West, constructed and completed in 2010. City planners plan for public transport to become the preferred mode of transport in the future; the government of Singapore ideally desires environmental towns, using public transport to reduce pollution caused by heavy road traffic. Choa Chu Kang is part of the Urban Redevelopment Authority's focus for realising this urban planning model and is still undergoing an expansion of its town.
As Choa Chu Kang is distant from the city centre at the Central Area, an efficient, high-volume and high-speed public transport system is preferred to using road networks. Choa Chu Kang MRT/LRT Station and Choa Chu Kang Bus Interchange are conveniently connected to each another in the town centre to allow seamless travel for the residen
Community centres or community centers are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Community centres can be religious in nature, such as Christian, Islamic, or Jewish community centres, or can be secular, such as youth clubs. Community centres perform many the following functions in its community; as the place for all-community celebrations at various occasions and traditions. As the place for public meetings of the citizens on various issues; as the place where politicians or other official leaders come to meet the citizens and ask for their opinions, support or votes. As a place where community members meet each other socially; as a place housing local clubs and volunteer activities. As a place that community members, can rent cheaply when a private family function or party is too big for their own home.
For instance the non-religious parts of weddings, funerals etc. As a place that retells local history; as a place where local non-government activities are organised. As a place where indoor circuses can entertain the paying public; as a place of relief in instances of community tragedies. Around the world there appear to be four common ways in which the operation of the kind of community centre are owned and organised. In the following description "Government" may refer to the ordinary secular government or to a dominant religious organisation such as the Roman Catholic Church. Community owned: The centre is directly owned and run by the local community through an organization separate from the official governmental institutions of the area, but with the full knowledge and sometimes funding from government institutions. Example:. Government owned: The centre is a public government facility, though it is used for non-government community activities and may have some kind of local leadership elected from its community.
Example:. Kominkan Sponsored: A rich citizen or commercial corporation owns the place and donates its use to the community for reasons of charity or public relations. Example:; each individual community centre has its own peculiar origin and history, though some variants seem to be common. Built as such. Buildings have been erected to function as community centres at least as far back as the 1880 even earlier. Disused public building; when an official government building is no longer needed for its original purpose, it is sometimes offered to the community as gift, loan or sale. Disused commercial building; when a commercial building of some local importance is no longer used, it is sometimes sold or donated to the community. Building that served many of the community centre purposes in addition to a different primary use, acquired so it could continue these functions after its primary use subsided. Early forms of community centres in the United States were based in schools providing facilities to inner city communities out of school hours.
An early celebrated example of this is to be found in Rochester, New York from 1907. Edward J. Ward, a Presbyterian minister, joined the Extension Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, organizing the Wisconsin Bureau of Civic and Social Development. By 1911 they organized a country-wide conference on schools as social centres. Despite concerns expressed by politicians and public officials that they might provide a focus for alternative political and social activity, the idea was successful. In 1916, with the foundation of the National Community Center Association, the term Community Center was used in the US. By 1918 there were community centres in 107 US cities, in 240 cities by 1924. By 1930 there were nearly 500 centres with more than four million people attending; the first of these was Public School 63, located in the Lower East Side. Clinton Child's, one of the organizers, described it as "A Community organized about some centre for its own political and social welfare and expression.
In the UK many villages and towns have their own Community Centre, although nearby schools may offer their assembly or dining hall after school for Community Centre activities. For example, local schools near Ouston may host dance, or sporting activities provided by a local community centre. Parks are considered community centres. Another pioneer of community centres was Mary Parker Follett, who saw community centres as playing a major part in her concept of community development and democracy seen through individuals organizing themselves into neighbourhood groups, attending to people's needs and aspirations; this can include parks. In the United Kingdom, the oldest community centre is that, established in 1901 in Thringstone, Leiceste
Tekka Centre is a multi-use building complex comprising a wet market, food centre and shops, located in the northern corner of Bukit Timah Road and Serangoon Road, in Little India, Singapore. The case of Tekka Centre is used to illustrate the complexities of Chinese language romanisation in Singapore; the market was known as "Kandang Kerbau", Malay for "buffalo pens", referring to the slaughterhouses operating in the area until the 1920s, the name still lives on in the nearby Kandang Kerbau Women's and Children's Hospital, Kandang Kerbau Police Station and the Kandang Kerbau Post Office. In Hokkien, the market was known as Tek Kia Kha meaning "foot of the small bamboos", as bamboo plants once grew on the banks of the Rochor Canal; this was adapted into the popular name Tekka Pasar, where pasar is Malay for "market". The original market was built in 1915, was located across the street between Hastings Road and Sungei Road; when it was torn down in 1982 and relocated at its present site, the new multi-use complex was named Zhujiao Centre, the pinyin version of Tek Kha.
However, to locals non-Chinese, the new word Zhujiao was both hard to read and pronounce and bore no resemblance to Tekka. The complex was renamed Tekka Centre in 2000 as it better reflected the history of the place; the market was closed for a significant renovation in 2008, reopening in 2009. Little India's first air-conditioned mall, Tekka Mall, was built on the original site of the market in 2003. Tekka Centre remained a landmark in Little India. There are Chinese stallholders who speak Tamil, vice versa. Shops sell inexpensive casual clothes; some of the more notable shops include those selling Taoist and Buddhist paraphernalia, hardware shops, tailors who can alter clothes in minutes. On the ground floor is a hawker centre with stalls which sell Indian vegetarian meals, served on banana leaves or on stainless steel platters, besides Chinese vegetarian, North Indian and Malay food. At the wet market, on the same level, stalls sell fresh seafood crabs from Sri Lanka, vegetables. There are many Chinese stalls selling vegetables that are specially flown in from India.
The centre is served by the adjacent Little India MRT Station. There are an underground car park and two taxicab stands. Amenities nearby includes the demolished shopping mall The Verge and Little India Arcade
Ang Mo Kio
Ang Mo Kio abbreviated as AMK, is a planning area and residential town situated in the North-East Region of Singapore. Ang Mo Kio is the 3rd most populated planning area in the North-East Region and ranks 8th in terms of population in the country overall; the planning area is located at the south-western corner of the North-East Region, bordered by the planning areas of Yishun to the north, Sengkang to the north-east, Serangoon to the east, Bishan to the south and the Central Water Catchment to the west. Prior to urbanization, the area, much like other rural districts in Singapore at the time, was undeveloped, being used for agricultural purposes, with uninhabited plots of land covered in dense secondary forest or swamps. Ang Mo Kio was subsequently redeveloped by the Housing and Development Board in 1973 as their seventh satellite town and the first to be built in metric dimensions, being completed by 1980; the first three town councils in the country were established in Ang Mo Kio in 1986, as part of a pilot project to better serve residents of HDB new towns.
The concept became adopted under the Town Council Act of 1988 which today, remains as the second-level of administration in Singapore. The large commercialization of the Ang Mo Kio throughout mid-1970s and 1980s saw the rise of neighbourhood startup businesses that remain prominent throughout Ang Mo Kio Town Centre today. One in particular became one of Singapore's largest supermarket chains, Sheng Siong. Ang Mo Kio today, much like its neighbouring towns, is urbanized, with little to no trace of its original ecology. However, parks are still prevalent in the town as part of the country's green initiative. Said parks include Ang Mo Kio Town Garden Ang Mo Kio Town Garden West. Although not technically located within Ang Mo Kio itself, Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park in the adjacent town of Bishan, was reopened in 2012 to serve residents of both towns; the park itself straddles along the Ang Mo Kio–Bishan boundary, making it accessible from Ang Mo Kio. The name of the locality is synonymous with phrases in the Hokkien dialect which either relates it as the "Red Tomato", or the "Bridge of the Caucasian".
The Caucasian suggested. Lady Windsor was the wife of Lord Windsor, a wealthy merchant who had a huge estate in the Upper Thomson Area in the 1920s until after World War II. Ang Mo Kio could have been named in reference to Mr John Turnbull Thomson, a British civil engineer and artist who played an instrumental role in the development of the early infrastructure of late 19th century Singapore and New Zealand. Old survey maps relate the area as the "Mukim of Ang Mo Kio"; the area has been referred to as Kou Teu Kio. Lady Windsor was linked to an unnamed crossing that bridged a stream running off the Peirce Reservoir, it suggested. An incident happened in 1923; the 3 children were supposed to have visited a family friend staying in the Upper Thomson area, were lost in the woods. It was found that the 2 boys were playing by the wooden crossing when a sudden gush swept them away, their bodies were found about 2 miles from the bridge. However, the body of Angela was never found, it was said that locals started hearing cries of a little girl and that prompted Lady Windsor to stay by the bridge for the rest of her life.
She thought. She told her close friends that she had heard her daughter's voice by the bridge and she wanted to accompany her soul. Lady Windsor would spend the whole day by the bridge, knitting. People soon got used to her perpetual presence by the bridge that they soon referred to the bridge as the "Red Hair Bridge". Lady Windsor died in 1963 and it was only thereafter that locals no longer heard the voice of the little girl. John Turnbull Thomson was responsible for building a bridge during the colonial days of Singapore, to facilitate logistic transportation to the nearby British military bases at Seletar until the British military withdrawal in the 1970s. After the bridge was completed, the locals referred to it as Ang Mo Kio or "Caucasian Bridge" or "Red Hair Bridge", since it was built by a Caucasian. Nowadays, "Ang Mo" is a popular term to refer to Caucasians in Singapore; the name "Thomson" was used extensively in the naming of several roads in and around Ang Mo Kio. This explanation is being listed at the Heritage Corridor in Deyi Secondary School located in Ang Mo Kio.
The explanation is more accepted by the local historians and listed in the National Library Board. The bridge, however, no longer exists, it was, according to local historians, located at the junction of Ang Mo Kio Avenue 1 and Upper Thomson Road. Little of the bridge built by Thomson remains. Ang Mo Kio Planning Area, as defined by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, sits within the North-East Region of Singapore. Yishun bounds Ang Mo Kio to the north, Sengkang to the northeast, Serangoon to the east, Bishan to the south and Central Water Catchment to the west; the main component of the planning area, Ang Mo Kio New Town, is located within it. The town itself has seven neighbourhoods, with Neighbourhood 1 to the west, cycling in an anti-clockwise direction to Neighbourhood 6 to the north, ending with Neighbourhood 7 for the town centre; the town centre is located in the heart of Ang Mo Kio and is sandwiched by two town gardens set on natural hillocks. Ang Mo Kio Planning Area
Yishun known as Nee Soon, is a planning area and residential town located in the northeastern corner of the North Region of Singapore, bordering Simpang and Sembawang to the north, Mandai to the west, the Central Water Catchment to its southwest, Ang Mo Kio to its south, as well as Seletar and Sengkang to its east. The name Yishun is a Mandarin romanisation of Lim Nee Soon, a prominent industrialist who made his fortune from the rubber and pineapple plantations he had in the area. Lim Nee Soon was a banker and general commission agent, he was the first general manager of the Bukit Sembawang Rubber Company Limited, formed in 1908. Nee Soon and Company was formed in 1911. Nee Soon was one of the pioneers, he served on the Rural Board from 1913 to 1921 and was appointed a Justice of Peace. In the field of education, he was one of the founders of Chinese High School and was a member of the Raffles College Committee. Nee Soon Road was named in 1950 by the Rural Board to facilitate postal services. Several roads in Yishun are named after his business concerns and family members.
Nee Soon was a leading member of the Teochew clan association poit ip huay kwan, a close friend of Dr Sun Yat Sen. The name Nee Soon was one of those changed at the height of the campaign to replace dialect names with Mandarin ones. While the government revoked some of its decisions and reinstated names like Bukit Panjang, Yishun remained unchanged and is now the name attached to streets, roads and many amenities; the development of Yishun started in 1976 with the first HDB apartments being built at the Chong Pang area. Yishun Neighbourhood 1 was developed 1981, followed by Neighbourhood 7 and Neighbourhood 2. Neighbourhood 6, 8 and 9 were developed in 1987, together with the Town Centre. Neighbourhood 3 and 4 followed later in 1992. Construction of Neighbourhood 5 was started in 2009 and was completed in 2015. Within the Yishun vicinity, 8 of its neighbourhoods are allocated for construction of HDB apartments namely Yishun Neighbourhood 1, Yishun Neighbourhood 2, Yishun Neighbourhoods 3, 4 and 5, Yishun Neighbourhood 6 and 9, Yishun Neighbourhood 7, Yishun Neighbourhood 8.
Yishun planning areas contain the subzones of Yishun South, Yishun West, Yishun East, Nee Soon, Lower Seletar and Yishun Central. Areas in Springleaf and Nee Soon are private housing. Northpoint City - The largest shopping mall in the North, it is located beside Yishun MRT Station. Known as Northpoint Shopping Centre, it underwent its first expansion, completed in 2010, it included a new building connected to the main shopping mall built on a plot of land next to it. The expansion had more shops as well. Additionally, Yishun community library moved to its new location, at the top floor of Northpoint Shopping Centre; the shopping centre was opened in 1992 making it the first modern sub-urban mall in a major housing estate. Sub-urban malls are a standard feature in all housing estates. Northpoint Shopping Centre was renamed Northpoint City after undergoing a massive expansion which will not only include shopping areas but an air-conditioned bus interchange, a condominium called North Park Residences, a community club, the first to be located in a shopping mall.
The latest expansion brings the number of shops and restaurants to 500. GV Yishun - The first Golden Village Cinema opened in May 1992, it was the largest multiplex with the most screens in Asia. On 1 November 2010 GV Yishun completed a three-month S$5 million refurbishment and opened as Asia's first green multiplex, featuring a cinematic experience enhanced by energy efficiency, water efficiency, sustainable operations and management, indoor environmental quality. GV Yishun has a capacity of 1477 seats with 20 berths set aside for wheelchair-bound patrons, its signature ten cinema halls have seen three of them upgraded to full 3D digital halls. Restaurants like Arnold’s Fried Chicken and Gelarè can be found at the ground level of GV Yishun. Junction Nine - The first mixed development in Yishun. Situated at the junction of Yishun Ring Road and Yishun Avenue 9, Junction Nine is a seven-minute walk away from Yishun MRT station with Sheng Shiong Supermarket as one of its anchor tenants. Wisteria Mall - Opened on 28 July 2018, Wisteria Mall is the only heartland mall in the southern part of a mature Yishun estate.
Wisteria Mall has Fairprice Finest supermarket and Kopitiam food court as its anchor tenants. Chong Pang City - Chong Pang City is located in Neighbourhood 1, it has a collection of a hawker centre and a market. There are small and family-run businesses, as well as major retailers such as a Giant supermarket, CK department store, McDonald's, Watson's and Guardian pharmacies, 7-Elevens. Chong Pang City was the largest neighbourhood centre in Yishun until the opening of Northpoint Shopping Centre and Yishun 10. Neighbourhood Centres - There are various neighbourhood centres such as Nee Soon East and Khatib Central. A typical "heartland" neighbourhood centre would consist of stores such as provision stores, supermarket chains, mini-marts, local banks, salons. In the last few decades, fast food outlets like McDonald's, KFC as well as pharmacies have opened in these areas. Yishun Park Hawker Centre - Operated by the Timbre Group, the Yishun Park Hawker Centre at Yishun Avenue 11 opened on 20th Sep 2017.
Familiar names at the 800-seater hawker ce
A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal or turret-shaped built in a park, garden or spacious public area. Gazebos are freestanding or attached to a garden wall and open on all sides, they provide shade, ornamental features in a landscape, a place to rest. Some gazebos in public parks are large enough to serve as bandstands or rain shelters. Gazebos overlap with pavilions, alhambras, follies, gloriettes and rotundas; such structures feature in the literature of China and many other classical civilizations. Examples of such structures in England are the garden houses at Montacute House in Somerset; the gazebo at Elton on the Hill in Nottinghamshire, thought to date from the late 18th or early 19th century, is a square, crenelated and stone tower with an arched opening. It acted as a focus for an extensive system of red-brick walled gardens, which has survived with some more modern additions. There is a prominent gazebo at the Grounds for Sculpture site in Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey, used as a summer refreshment facility.
In contemporary England and North America, gazebos are built of wood and covered with standard roofing materials, such as shingles. Gazebos can be tent-style structures of poles covered by tensioned fabric. Gazebos may have screens to aid in the exclusion of flying insects. Temporary gazebos are set up in the campsites of music festivals in the United Kingdom and the United States accompanying tents around it. A structure resembling a gazebo, found in villages in the Maldives, is known as a holhuashi; the etymology given by Oxford Dictionaries is "Mid 18th century: humorously from gaze, in imitation of Latin future tenses ending in -ebo: compare with lavabo." L. L. Bacon put forward a derivation from a Muslim quarter around the citadel in Algiers. W. Sayers proposed Hispano-Arabic qushaybah, in a poem by Cordoban poet Ibn Quzman; the word gazebo was used by British architects John and William Halfpenny in their book Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste. Plate 55 of the book, "Elevation of a Chinese Gazebo", shows "a Chinese Tower or Gazebo, situated on a Rock, raised to a considerable Height, a Gallery round it to render the Prospect more complete."
George Washington had a small eight-sided garden structure at Mount Vernon. Thomas Jefferson wrote about gazebos called summerhouses or pavilions. Eric and the Dread Gazebo Bandstand Spring House Gazebo Chickee Chinese pavilion "Gazebo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. 1911. P. 545