The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
The Jaffna Kingdom known as Kingdom of Aryachakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India. Established as a powerful force in the north, north east and west of the island, it became a tribute paying feudatory of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1258, gaining independence in 1323, when the last Pandyan ruler of Madurai was defeated and expelled in 1323 by Malik Kafur, the army general of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate. For a brief period, in the early to mid-14th century, it was an ascendant power in the island of Sri Lanka when all regional kingdoms accepted subordination. However, the kingdom was overpowered by the rival Kotte Kingdom, around 1450 when it was invaded by Prince Sapumal under the Kotte Kingdom's directive, it was freed of Kotte control in 1467 and its subsequent rulers directed their energies towards consolidating its economic potential by maximising revenue from pearls and elephant exports and land revenue.
It was less feudal than most of the other regional kingdoms on the island of Sri Lanka of the same period. During this period, important local Tamil literature was produced and Hindu temples were built, including an academy for language advancement; the arrival of the Portuguese on the island of Sri Lanka in 1505, its strategic location in the Palk Strait connecting all interior Sinhalese kingdoms to South India, created political problems. Many of its kings confronted and made peace with the Portuguese. In 1617, Cankili II, a usurper to the throne, confronted the Portuguese but was defeated, thus bringing the kingdom's independent existence to an end in 1619. Although rebels like Migapulle Arachchi—with the help of the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom—tried to recover the kingdom, they were defeated. Nallur, a suburb of modern Jaffna town, was its capital; the origin of the Jaffna kingdom is obscure and still the subject of controversy among historians. Among mainstream historians, such as K. M. de Silva, S. Pathmanathan and Karthigesu Indrapala, the accepted view is that the Kingdom of the Aryacakravarti dynasty in Jaffna began in 1215 with the invasion of a unknown chieftain called Magha, who claimed to be from Kalinga in modern India.
He deposed the ruling Parakrama Pandyan II, a foreigner from the Pandyan Dynasty, ruling the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa at the time with the help of his soldiers and mercenaries from the Kalinga, modern Kerala and Damila regions in India. After the conquest of Rajarata, he moved the capital to the Jaffna peninsula, more secured by heavy Vanni forest and ruled as a tribute-paying subordinate of the Chola empire of Tanjavur, in modern Tamil Nadu, India. During this period, a Malay chieftain from Tambralinga in modern Thailand named Chandrabhanu invaded the politically fragmented island. Although King Parakramabahu II from Dambadeniya was able to repulse the attack, Chandrabhanu moved north and secured the throne for himself around 1255 from Magha. Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan I invaded Sri Lanka in the 13th century and defeated Chandrabhanu the usurper of the Jaffna Kingdom in northern Sri Lanka. Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan I forced Chandrabhanu to submit to the Pandyan rule and to pay tributes to the Pandyan Dynasty.
But on when Chandrabhanu became powerful enough he again invaded the Singhalese kingdom but he was defeated by the brother of Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan I called Veera Pandyan I and Chandrabhanu lost his life. Sri Lanka was invaded for the 3rd time by the Pandyan Dynasty under the leadership of Arya Cakravarti who established the Jaffna kingdom; the Sinhala text Nampota mentions the Aryacakravartis as ruling the kingdom known as Themilapattinam. Other scholars push the date of the founding of the kingdom in the 7th century CE with the ancient capital being Kathiramalai, which finds mention in Tamil literature; the king Ukkirasinghan thought as one of the early Jaffna king had his capital at Kathiramalai and is said to have married the Chola princess Maruta Piravika Valli. According to the scholars was the capital moved to Singainagar after an invasion of Parantaka Chola in 10th century CE; when Chandrabhanu embarked on a second invasion of the south, the Pandyas came to the support of the Sinhalese king and killed Chandrabhanu in 1262 and installed Aryacakravarti, a minister in charge of the invasion, as the king.
When the Pandyan Empire became weak due to Muslim invasions, successive Aryacakravarti rulers made the Jaffna kingdom independent and a regional power to reckon with in Sri Lanka. All subsequent kings of the Jaffna Kingdom claimed descent from one Kulingai Cakravarti, identified with Kalinga Magha by Swami Gnanaprakasar and Mudaliar Rasanayagam while maintaining their Pandyan progenitor's family name. Politically, the dynasty was an expanding power in the 13th and 14th century with all regional kingdoms paying tribute to it. However, it met with simultaneous confrontations with the Vijayanagar empire that ruled from Vijayanagara, southern India, a rebounding Kingdom of Kotte from the south of Sri Lanka; this led to the kingdom becoming a vassal of the Vijayanagar Empire as well as losing its independence under the Kotte kingdom from 1450 to 1467. The kingdom was re-established with the disintegration of Kotte kingdom and the fragmentation of Vijayanagar Empire, it maintained close commercial and political relationships with the Thanjavur Nayakar kingdom in southern India as well as the Kandyan and segments of the Kotte kingdom.
This period saw the building of Hindu temples
Arcot is a town and urban of Vellore city in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Located on the southern banks of Palar River, the city straddles a trade route between Chennai and Bangalore or Salem, between the Mysore Ghat and the Javadi Hills; as of 2011, the city had a population 55,955. The sweet makkan peda is a local speciality while Arcot biryani, a rice-based traditional food, is served here, its name is believed to have been derived from the Tamil words aaru + kaadu. However, arkaadu meant'a forest of fig trees'. Jainism was flourishing in this part of Tamil Land who were otherwise known as Arugar most corrupted form of Arhants or the perfected souls; the word Arugar is found in many ancient literary works and places dominant with arugars were related to them viz Arakonam, Aruvur, etc. Not far away from present day Arcot there is a place called Arungundram. Hence Arcot or Aarkaadu would have derived its name from Arugarkaadu; the town's strategic location has led to it being contested and prompted the construction of a formidable fortress.
The Nawabdom of the Carnatic was established by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who in 1692 appointed Zulfiqar Ali Khan as the first Nawab of the Carnatic. In 1740, the Maratha forces came down upon Arcot, they attacked Dost Ali in the pass of Damalcherry. In the war that followed, Dost Ali, one of his sons Hasan Ali, a number of prominent persons lost their lives; this initial success at once enhanced Maratha prestige in the south. From Damalcherry the Marathas proceeded to Arcot, it surrendered to them without much resistance. Chanda Saheb and his son were sent to Nagpur. In 1751, The English captured the town during the conflict between the United Kingdom and France for control of South India; the English held it with only 500 men against the French and the Nawab, resisting for 56 days. The enemy army dissolved and its leader, Chanda Shahib, was killed. Mohammed Ali Khan Walajah took over as Nawab serving as a vassal of the British, his successors soon ran up enormous debts at the hands of English speculators.
In 1801, the town was annexed by the British East India Company. In the 20th century, Arcot was incorporated into Vellore District. Arcot has the tomb of the famous 18th-century Sufi Saint Tipu Mastan Aulia; the story goes that from the blessings of Tipu Mastan Aulia, Hyder Ali had a son Tippu Sultan of Mysore, whom he appropriately named after the saint. In Kaspa, Sri Vaikuntha Varadharaja Perumal Temple is situated; the speciality of this temple is that it is the only temple where the Lord Vishnu statue is erected in the middle with Sri Devi and Bamadevi at its sides. This type of posture of Lord Perumal is only present in this temple. Moreover, the three statues are designed using a single stone; this temple was built during the Pallava era. Arcot is located at 12.9°N 79.33°E / 12.9. It has an average elevation of 164 metres. Arcot Municipality was constituted in 1959, it had Third Grade Municipality and was subsequently upgraded to second Grade Municipality in 1973. In July 1998, it was upgraded to I Grade Municipality.
The selected council with 30 members and chairpersons have functioned from 25 October 2006. The first grade commissioner is working as Executive Authority of the Municipal Administration with the Regional Director of Municipal Administration and Collector of Vellore District and overall control by the Commissioner of Municipal Administration are functioning administrative head of this urban local body. Arcot Town has a 7.49 km2 area with a population of 49,953 as per the 2001 census. The Municipal office is situated nearly 1/4 km east from the bus stand. Arcot town is an historical town with forts once ruled by Arcot Navab; the town is located on the southern bank of Palar river accessible from the capital of Tamil Nadu. Chennai is within 120 km and the district headquarters are within 25 km. Arcot has been developing as a commercial centre for long time as it is connected to Chennai and Vellore by the National Highways-46 Ranipet to Krishnagiri Road passing through this town. Arcot is famous for the coarse rice variety called "arcot kicheli", thus several rice mills and paddy mundys were established.
Besides this, tourists see green stone mosque within the town. This generates floating population to this town. Arcot is part of Arakkonam. Arcot is the principal market for the surrounding agricultural area, it has a viable local weaving industry, groundnut oil industry. Arcot is most famous for edible oil production focusing on groundnut and gingelly oil production. A number of oil expellers are available around Arcot. Certain cast of people are involved in this edible oil business; the people who lived in the Arcot region in and near the temple town of Tiruvannamalai, belonged to a clan called the Arcots. The Nawabs ruled over them for a long period. With the establishment of the Danish Missionary Society, many of these Arcots converted Christians; the Danish Missionary Society established many hospitals. The first missionary of the DMS was the German Rev. C. C. E. Ochs, he started his first mission station, Bethanien, at Melpattambakkam in South Arcot in 1861. Now all its activities have been transferred to the nearby town of Nellikuppam.
The second mission station of DMS was opened at Tirukkoyilur in 1869 by Rev. P. Andersen and was called "Siloam". Siloam church was consecrated on 10 October 1886
Achyuta Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva Raya was a ruler of a Vijayanagara Empire of South India. He was the younger brother of Krishna Deva Raya, whom he succeeded in 1529. Fernao Nuniz was a Portuguese traveller and horse trader who visited India during reign of Achyutaraya and who spent three years in Vijayanagara, he patronised Kannada poet Chatu Vittalanatha, the great composer and singer Purandaradasa, the Sanskrit scholar Rajanatha Dindima II. Upon his death, the succession was disputed, his nephew, Sadasiva Raya became king while yet a child, under the regency of Aliya Rama Raya, a son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya. The time when Achyuta Deva Raya became the king was by no means a favorable one; the peace and prosperity of the halcyon days under Krishnadevaraya were coming to an end. Feudatories and enemies were waiting for an opportunity to bring down the empire. In addition, Achyuta Deva Raya had to contend with the powerful Aliya Rama Raya, competing for the throne. While the works of Nuniz speak lowly of Achyuta Deva Raya as being a king given to vices and cruelty, there is enough evidence to prove that the king was indeed noteworthy in his own right and fought hard to keep the prosperity of the kingdom alive.
He had been handpicked by Krishna Deva Raya himself as an able successor. Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur captured the Raichur doab; however the Gajapati's of Orissa and Quli Qutub Shah of Golconda were pushed back. Now Achyuta Deva Raya along with his general Salakaraju Tirumala went on a southern campaign to bring the chiefs of Travancore and Ummatur under control; this they did successfully. They invaded the doab north of Tungabhadra and recaptured the forts of Raichur and Mudgal; the two Sanskrit works Achyutabhyudayam and Varadambikaparinayam describe the king's life and rule in detail. Throughout his rule, Achyuta Deva Raya had to contend with the manipulations of Rama Raya who in his powerful capacity had replaced many of the faithful servants of the Kingdom in high ranking positions with men of his own favour. On more than one occasion the Bahamani Sultans were brought in to play the role of mediator between the king and Ailya Rama Raya in the game of power sharing; this would further weaken the kingdom.
Around 1540 Aliya Rama Raya imprisoned Achyuta Deva Raya in a coup. In 1542 Achyuta Deva Raya died, was succeeded by his young son of Venkata I, but he was soon killed, Sadasiva Raya became the new king. Aliya Rama Raya became the regent and let little governance in the hands of Sadasiva Raya; the Tiruvengalanatha temple was built at Vijayanagara during his reign. It has become popularly known by his name as Achyutaraya temple, rather than by the name of the deity Lord Venkateshwara to whom the temple was dedicated. Prof K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, New Delhi Coins Pictures of temple on HampiOnline.com Achyuta Rayas Temple Photographs, 2013 Learn more about Achyutaraya Temple on HampiOnline.com
The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal. It was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate; the demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime, before the Musunuri Nayaks brought stability to the region. Studies of the inscriptions and coinage by the historian Dineshchandra Sircar reveal that there was no contemporary standard spelling of the family name. Variants include Kakatiya, Kakita and Kakatya; the family name was prefixed to the name of the monarch, giving constructs such as Kakatiya-Prataparudra. Some of the monarchs had alternate names; the dynasty's name derives from the word "Kakati", variously thought to be the name of a goddess or a place. It is possible that Kakati was the name of a deity worshipped by the early Kakatiya chiefs, the name of the place where they resided. Kumarasvami Somapithin, a 15th-century writer who wrote a commentary on Vidyanatha's Prataparudriya, states that the dynasty was named after Kakati, a form of the goddess Durga.
Although the Hindu mythological texts do not mention any such form of Durga, the worship of a goddess named Kakati is attested by several other sources. For example, Vallabharaya's Krida-bhiramamu mentions an image of Kakatamma in the Kakatiya capital Orugallu; the 16th century Shitap Khan inscription mentions the reinstallation of the image of goddess Jaganmatrika and the lotus seat of the Kakatirajya, destroyed by the Turushkas. According to one theory, Kakati was a Jain goddess, came to be regarded as a form of Durga; the Bayyaram tank inscription from the reign of Ganapati-deva names the family's founder as Venna, states that he resided at Kakati, because of which his descendants came to be known as Kakatishas. Ganapati-deva's Garavapadu charter names the family's founder as Durjaya, states that his descendant Karikala Chola arrived at a town called Kakati during a hunting expedition, set up his camp there; the modern identity of Kakati is uncertain: different historians have variously attempted to identify it with modern Kakati village in Karnataka and Kanker in Chhattisgarh.
Siddeshvara Charitra, a literary work, states that the ancestors of the Kakatiya family lived at Kandarapura. However, no other evidence supports this tradition. Much of the information about the Kakatiya period comes from inscriptions, including around 1,000 stone inscriptions, 12 copper-plate inscriptions. Most of these inscriptions document matters relating to religion, such as donations to Hindu temples, they are abundant for the period 1175–1324 CE, the period when the dynasty most flourished and are a reflection of that. The probability is that many inscriptions have been lost due to buildings falling into disuse and the ravages of subsequent rulers, most notably the Muslim Mughal Empire in the Telangana region. Inscriptions are still being discovered today but governmental agencies tend to concentrate on recording those that are known rather than searching for new examples. According to a 1978 book, written by P. V. P. Sastry's 1978 book on the history of the Kakatiyas, published by the Government of Andhra Pradesh Information about the Kakatiya period comes from Sanskrit and Telugu literary works written during Kakatiya and post-Kakatiya period.
The most notable among these works include Prataparudriyam, Krida-bhiramamu, Panditaradhya-charitamu, Nitisara, Niti-shastra-muktavali, Nritta-ratnavali, Pratapa-charita, Siddheshvara-charitra, Somadeva-rajiyamu, Palnativira-charitra, Velugotivari-vamsavali, Velugotivari-vamsacharitra. Chronicles by Muslim authors such as Isami and Firishta describe Prataparudra's defeats against the Muslim armies; the Kannada text Kumara-Ramana-charita provides information about Prataparudra's relations with the Kampili kingdom. Besides epigraphs and literature, the forts and tanks constructed during the Kakatiya period are an important source of information about the contemporary society and architecture; the Kakatiya rulers traced their ancestry to a legendary ruler named Durjaya. Many other ruling dynasties of Andhra claimed descent from Durjaya. Nothing further is known about this chief. Most of the Kakatiya records do not mention the varna of the family, but the majority of the ones that do, proudly describe them as Shudra.
Examples include the Vaddamanu inscriptions of Ganapati's general Malyala Gunda senani. The Kakatiyas maintained marital relations with other Shudra families, such as the Kotas and the Natavadi chiefs. All these pieces of evidence indicate. A few copper-plate inscriptions of the Kakatiya family describe them as belonging to the Kshatriya varna; these inscriptions document grants to brahmans, appear to be inspired by the genealogies of the imperial Cholas. For example, the Motupalli inscription of Ganapati counts legendary solar dynasty kings such as Rama among the ancestors of Durjaya, the progenitor of the Kakatiya family; the Malkapuram inscription of Vishveshvara Shivacharya, the preceptor of Kakatiya rulers Ganapati-deva and Rudrama-devi connects the Kakatiyas to the solar dynasty. The term "Kshatriya" in these panegyric records appears to signify the family's warrior-like qualities rather than their actual varna; the regnal years of the early members of the Kakatiya family are not certain.
Venna, said to have been
Anegundi called Kishkindha is a village in the Gangavathi taluk, Koppal district in the Indian state of Karnataka, It is older than Hampi situated on the northern bank of Tungabhadra River, Huchappayana matha temple, Pampa Sarovar, Ranganatha temple, Kamal Mahal, Nava Brindavana are the major attractions Nimvapuram, a nearby village, has a mount of ash believed to be the cremated remains of monkey king Vaali. Anegundi is best visited along with Hampi, it is part of the world Heritage Site, being developed into a world class tourism spot by engaging the locals to sensitise them to their cultural wealth and provide them a means of livelihood. Existing tanks in the village have been redesigned to store clean drinking water and proper drainage facilities developed to keep the surroundings clean and hygienic; the Kishkinda Trust is working on tourism development in Anegundi. Anegundi, believed to be the monkey kingdom of Kishkindha in the epic of Ramayana, is at a distance of 5 km from the historical site of Hampi.
Anjanadri hill, the birthplace of monkey-god Hanuman, the mountain Rishimuka are the other places near Anegundi associated with Ramayana. It is said to have one of the oldest plateaus on the planet, estimated to be 3,000 million years old. So, only local story-tellers refer to Anegundi as the maternal home of Bhoodevi; the village, located on the northern side bank of River Tungabhadra, was said to be the legendary Kishkindha, a kingdom of the monkey Prince Sugriva and the cradle place of the historic Krishnadevaraya dynasty of the glorious Vijayanagar empire and falls in the core zone of Hampi. Neolithic history is represented in this region by Mourya Mane, a several-thousand-year-old Stone Age Colony. Several Neolithic dwellings still bear paintings that are clear and intact to this day at'Onke Kindi'; this is the rare human settlement where we will find traces of Microlithic and Neolithic age of human life at one same spot. Anegundi area is older than the Vijayanagar empire, as is old as the planet.
As per geologists the Anegundi area is about four billion years old. Till date, this village is a living heritage site in its true sense; the nearest Pre-historic sites are HireBenekal, Mallapur and Anjanahalli. Pre-historic rock shelters and paintings are found in Tungabhadra river valley. At Anegundi there is prehistoric settlement called Onake Kindi; the boulders with rock art, a rock with some red and white markings had figures of human and bull. on another boulder there is a circular diagram like sun and moon and with some symbolism. The rock painting are belonged to Iron Age, date back to 1500 BC and the faded circular painting a rare depiction of a megalithic style of burial includes a human body in the middle surrounded by a stone circle and burial goods; the site of megalithic dolmens located up in the hills locals call it as Mourya Mane, about five to seven feet high sheet rocks forms four walls and another rock sheet used as roof, it is about 10 km away from Anegundi, the Neolithic dwellings in the Elu gudda hill range, from Benegal to Indaragi gudda.
About 1.5 km from Anegundi, there are rock shelters and paintings, paintings found in the hill ranges called locally as Elu gudda Salu. Anegundi the ancient town Kishkindha of Ramayana, a lively settlement has mahals and monuments, there are forts and palaces, ruined temples, lush green padi fields. Pampa Sarovar related to Shiva and Parvati featured in Ramayana, Sabari a devotee of Rama met here, the legends of Ramayana including Hanuman, Sugriva all are pervading around Anegundi; the pilgrims consider Pampa Sarovara a holy place. Aneguni in Kannada means Elephant Gorge, it is older than Hampi, in fact the mother kingdom. Anegundi history dates back to 3rd BC century was under Ashoka Empire. Anegundi was ruled by various dynasties like Shatavahanas, Chalukyas, Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire and Bahamanis. Now this place is well-known tourism place. Early 14th century, elephant enclosure in Kannada known as Anegundi, named because of elephant contingent of Vijayanagar army; the first capital of Vijayanagar Empire and capital of several other dynasties.
In 1334, Deva Raya the Chief Minister of Anegundi became ruler of Anegundi. When Delhi Sultans invaded Warangal and Bukka escaped and came to Anegundi founded the Vijayanagar Empire at Hampi; the Tallarighatta gate is the entrance to Anegundi from Hampi side, the collapsed modern day bridge under construction between Hampi and Anegundi across the Tungabhadra river. Crossing the river in a coracle, circular basket shaped made of cane and wrapped in a plastic sheet. "Coracle was used to ferry people in the Vijayanagar time also", it is mentioned by Dominoes Paes the Portuguese traveller in the 16th century, there is mention of carrying "about twenty persons and horses and oxen to cross the river." During 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Anegundi was ruled by Bijapur Sultans, Moghuls and Tipu Sultan. According to 1824 treaty with the British and Hyderabad Nizam, the king of Vijayanagar, ruled from Hampi lost his kingdom, provided a monthly pension of Rs 300, forced to leave Hampi and make Anegundi as official residence, Rani Lalkumari Bai last descendant who received monthly pension.
Anegundi has a Fort with many gates. There is a Ganesha cave temple. Vijayanagar kings used to pray before every battle at the Durga t
Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising as priests and protectors of sacred learning across generations. The traditional occupation of Brahmins was that of priesthood at the Hindu temples or at socio-religious ceremonies and rite of passage rituals such as solemnising a wedding with hymns and prayers. Theoretically, the Brahmins were the highest ranking of the four social classes. In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were agriculturalists, warriors and have held a variety of other occupations in the Indian subcontinent; the earliest inferred reference to "Brahmin" as a possible social class is in the Rigveda, occurs once, the hymn is called Purusha Sukta. According to this hymn in Mandala 10, Brahmins are described as having emerged from the mouth of Purusha, being that part of the body from which words emerge; this Purusha Sukta varna verse is now considered to have been inserted at a date into the Vedic text as a charter myth. Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, a professor of Sanskrit and Religious studies, state, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda and, both and a social ideal rather than a social reality".
Ancient texts describing community-oriented Vedic yajna rituals mention four to five priests: the hotar, the adhvaryu, the udgatar, the Brahmin and sometimes the ritvij. The functions associated with the priests were: The Hotri recites invocations and litanies drawn from the Rigveda; the Adhvaryu is the priest's assistant and is in charge of the physical details of the ritual like measuring the ground, building the altar explained in the Yajurveda. The adhvaryu offers oblations; the Udgatri is the chanter of hymns set to melodies and music drawn from the Samaveda. The udgatar, like the hotar, chants the introductory and benediction hymns; the Brahmin recites from the Atharvaveda. The Ritvij is the chief operating priest. According to Kulkarni, the Grhya-sutras state that Yajna, dana pratigraha are the "peculiar duties and privileges of brahmins"; the term Brahmin in Indian texts has signified someone, good and virtuous, not just someone of priestly class. Both Buddhist and Brahmanical literature, states Patrick Olivelle define "Brahmin" not in terms of family of birth, but in terms of personal qualities.
These virtues and characteristics mirror the values cherished in Hinduism during the Sannyasa stage of life, or the life of renunciation for spiritual pursuits. Brahmins, states Olivelle, were the social class; the Dharmasutras and Dharmasatras text of Hinduism describe the expectations and role of Brahmins. The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are directed at Brahmins; the Gautama's Dharmasutra, the oldest of surviving Hindu Dharmasutras, for example, states in verse 9.54–9.55 that a Brahmin should not participate or perform a ritual unless he is invited to do so, but he may attend. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9: Be always truthful Teach his art only to virtuous men Follow rules of ritual purification Study Vedas with delight Never hurt any living creature Be gentle but steadfast Have self-control Be kind, liberal towards everyoneChapter 8 of the Dharmasutra, states Olivelle, asserts the functions of a Brahmin to be to learn the Vedas, the secular sciences, the Vedic supplements, the dialogues, the epics and the Puranas.
The text lists eight virtues that a Brahmin must inculcate: compassion, lack of envy, tranquility, auspicious disposition and lack of greed, asserts in verse 9.24–9.25, that it is more important to lead a virtuous life than perform rites and rituals, because virtue leads to achieving liberation. The Dharma texts of Hinduism such as Baudhayana Dharmasutra add charity, refraining from anger and never being arrogant as duties of a Brahmin; the Vasistha Dharmasutra in verse 6.23 lists discipline, self-control, truthfulness, Vedic learning, erudition and religious faith as characteristics of a Brahmin. In 13.55, the Vasistha text states that a Brahmin must not accept weapons, poison or liquor as gifts. The Dharmasastras such as Manusmriti, like Dharmsutras, are codes focussed on how a Brahmin must live his life, their relationship with a king and warrior class. Manusmriti dedicates 1,034 verses, the largest portion, on laws for and expected virtues of Brahmins, it asserts, for example, A well disciplined Brahmin, although he knows just the Savitri verse, is far better than an undisciplined one who eats all types of food and deals in all types of merchandise though he may know all three Vedas.
John Bussanich states that the ethical precepts set for Brahmins, in ancient Indian texts, are similar to Greek virtue-ethics, that "Manu's dharmic Brahmin can be compared to Aristotle's man of practical wisdom", that "the virtuous Brahmin is not unlike the Platonic-Aristotelian philosopher" with the difference that the latter was not sacerdotal. According to Abraham Eraly, "Brahmin as a varna hardly had any presence in historical records before the Gupta Empire era", when Buddhism dominated the land. "No Brahmin, no sacrifice, no ritualistic act of any kind even once, is referred to" in any Indian texts between third century BCE and