Chupryna, khokhol, or oseledets is an element of traditional Ukrainian Cossack haircut. It describes a style of man's haircut that features a lock of hair sprouting from the top or the front of an otherwise shaven head. There are several Ukrainian surnames deriving from words chub and oseledets Russians use the word khokhol as an ethnic slur for Ukrainians; the term is derogatory or condescending, an equivalent of the Ukrainian term katsap and Polish kacap for Russians. Mohawk hairstyle Queue Sarmatism Sikha Stamerov K. History of Ukrainian costume: from the Scythian period to the late 17th century. Melbourne: Bayda Books, 1986 - 62 p. ISBN 0-908480-16-4, ISBN 978-0-908480-16-6
The Orenburg Cossack Host was a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province. After having constructed fortifications around the future town of Orenburg in 1734, they founded it in 1735. For the purpose of defending the city and colonizing the region, The Russian government relocated the Cossacks from Ufa, Iset and other places and created the Orenburg non-regular corps in 1748. In 1755, a part of it was transformed into the Orenburg Cossack Host with 2,000 men. In 1773—1774, the Orenburg Cossacks took part in Yemelyan Pugachev's insurrection. In 1798, all of the Cossack settlements in the Southern Urals were incorporated into the Orenburg Cossack Host. A decree of 1840 established the borders of its composition. In the mid-19th century, the Cossack population of this region equaled 200,000 people; the Orenburg Host participated in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790, in the campaigns that Russia waged in order to conquer Central Asia. The Orenburg Host okrugs.
By 1916, the Cossack population of this region had grown to 533,000 people occupying a territory of 7,45 million desyatinas. One desyatina equaled 2,7 acres. In the early 19th century, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 6 cavalry regiments, 3 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards and 2 detached sotnyas. During World War I, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 18 cavalry regiments, 9,5 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards, 9 unmounted sotnyas, 7,5 reserve sotnyas and 39 detached and special sotnyas. After the October Revolution of 1917, the leadership of the Orenburg Cossack Host, under the command of Ataman Alexander Dutov, fought against the Soviets; the poorer Cossacks joined the ranks of the Red Army. The 1st Orenburg Cossack Socialist Regiment took part in the Ural Army Campaign of 1918. In 1920, the Orenburg Cossack Host ceased to exist; the distinguishing colour of the Orenburg Cossack Host was light blue. High fleece hats were worn on occasion with light blue cloth tops.
Officers wore braiding. After 1907 a khaki-grey service uniform of standard Imperial Cavalry pattern was introduced but the light blue distinctions were retained until 1920. Nagaybaks, Tatar-speaking Cossacks belonging to the Orenburg Host Petr I. Avdeev Istoricheskaya Zapiska ob Orenburgskom Kazach'em Voiske, 1904
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia, or the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721. From 1551 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 per year; the period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, many wars with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the ground-changing reign of Peter the Great, who took power in 1689 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. During the Great Northern War, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire after victory over Sweden in 1721. While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' and the Russian land, a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia and became common in the 15th century. In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship".
In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl, on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir, in the work by Maximus the Greek, the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov in 1516–22 and in other sources. In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” and was crowned on 16 January, thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document, by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II and in numerous official texts, but the state remained referred to as Moscovia throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia; the two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia".
In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Muscovy. Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth, Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia, both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works. So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously, starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it, appeared in the form Great Russia, more typical of the 17th century, whereas the state was known as Great-Russian Tsardom. According to prominent historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'.
Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth, as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia. Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites refute this, saying that their country was called Russia". Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century, presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians; when they are asked what nation they are, they respond'Russac', which means'Russians', when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda and other cities".
The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom”, used along with the name "Russia", sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State. By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a Tsar. By assuming that title, the sovereign of Moscow tried to emphasize that he was a major ruler or emperor on par with the Byzantine emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the Moscow court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals and emblems such as the double-
Ussuri Cossack Host was a Cossack Host in Imperial Russia, located in Primorye south of Khabarovsk along the Ussuri River, the Sungari River, around the Khanka Lake. The Ussuri Cossack Host was created in 1889 on the basis of an unmounted half-battalion of the Amur Cossack Host and reinforced with settlers from the Don Cossack Host, Kuban Cossack Host, other Cossack hosts; the Ussuri Cossack Host headquarters was first located in Vladivostok and in Iman. Its nakazny ataman subordinated to the Governor General of the Amur region, who, in turn, was the nakazny ataman of the Amur and the Ussuri Cossack Hosts; the Ussuri Cossacks possessed 6740 km² of land. In 1916, they numbered 39,900 people in six stanitsas. In times of peace, the Ussuri Cossacks supplied one platoon; the Ussuri Cossack Host was used for border patrol and police service. It participated in the Russo-Japanese War. During the World War I, the Ussuri Cossacks supplied one cavalry regiment, one cavalry battalion, one platoon of guards, six special sotnyas.
Most of the Ussuri Cossack Host took the side of the White movement during the Russian Civil War. The Ussuri Cossack Host was disbanded in 1922, it was re-established in 1990. The distinguishing colour of the Ussuri Cossack Host was yellow; this was the color of the cap bands and wide trouser stripes of a green uniform of the loose-fitting cut common to all the Steppe Cossack Hosts. Individual regiments were distinguished by numbers on the epaulettes. Lambs-wool hats were worn on occasion with yellow cloth tops. From 1907 on, light khaki blouses summer blouses were adopted to replace the white shirt-tunics worn; the green breeches with yellow stripes continued to be worn through World War I. Ussuri Cossacks
Azov Cossack Host
Azov Cossack Host was a Cossack host that existed on the northern shore of the Sea of Azov, between 1832 and 1862. The host was made up of several Cossack groups; the most numerous were the former Danubian Sich Cossacks, who came under Russian Patronage in 1828. The host was the only one in the Russian Empire whose primary task was Naval Coast Guard duties, participating extensively in the course of the Caucasus and Crimean wars. During the Russo-Turkish War, the Danubian Sich Cossacks living in exile in Ottoman controlled Danube Delta were split in loyalty towards the Orthodox Russian Empire, who they left in 1775 and Islamic Ottoman Empire, about to start another war with Russia. Led by their Kosh ataman Osip Gladky, some of the Cossacks, chose to defect to Russia, where they were pardoned by Nicholas I in 1828; the Tsar formed a Special Zaporozhian Host out of them. After Russia's victory, a separate newly created Danube Cossack Host was deemed sufficient to safeguard the borders and the ex-Zaporozhian presence in the Danube was deemed excessive.
The Tsar, having befriended Gladky, suggested that his Host moves to the Kuban to join the other ex-Zaporozhian Cossacks, the Black Sea Cossack Host who were involved against the Circassians in the course of the Caucasus War. In 1830 Gladky visited the Kuban, but rejected this idea of migrating there, citing the difficulties faced in such a long move for such a small host, because such a persona would reject subordinating to the supreme authorities of the Black Sea Cossacks; the Tsar instead allowed the Cossacks to remain in Novorossiya provided they find a suitable empty land. Gladky found the territory adjacent to the west of the Don Cossack Host land on the Northern coast of the Azov Sea between Berdyansk and Mariupol, thus in 1832 Gladky moved his host to Priazovye which numbered 2,336 Cossacks, the Azov Cossack Host was formed, with Gladky as its Nakazny Ataman. They were the only Cossack Host that had a naval role and were tasked in guarding the Black Sea coasts of the Caucasus and Crimea.
Because of their initial small size, the peasants of Novospasovka selo were incorporated into the host. They were joined by numerous volunteers from the Chernigov governorate and in 1839 a group of 217 Nekrasov Cossacks were added to their host; the Azov Host was involved in the Caucasus War, General Yermolov's aide A. Velyaminov suggested to press the Circassians from the south-western slope of the Caucasus ridge, which runs along the Black Sea from the Strait of Kerch all the way to Abkhazia. A defence line was proposed from Anapa all the way to Sukhum; the first marine landings by the Russian Black Sea Fleet took place in 1830 near Gagra, prior to the formation of the Azov Host. After Gladky arrived in 1832, he formed 10 commands numbering 20 Cossacks and their specially made barka boats were carrying out pre-landing reconnaissance and offered fire support to the Russian marines and sailors who were faced with conquering the difficult landings; the Azov Cossacks helped to intercept numerous English and Turkish contraband supplies, in 1835 off the coast of Novorossiysk they destroyed two Schooners and captured the English cargo ship Vixen which carried a whole arsenal of illegal rifles.
However, despite the success in 1839 Imam Shamil sent his naib Magomet-Amin who instead of rallying the Circassians on the northern Kuban approach, unleashed them onto the Black Sea line in 1840. Outnumbered and after several Russian forts and garrisons were overrun, it was decided to abandon the Black Sea Coast and the Azov Cossacks proved their importance in evacuating the surviving Russian units. Despite the unsuccessful operation in building the line, the Russian evacuation did not affect the Azov Cossacks' role in patrolling the Black Sea Coast. In 1845 the 26 commands were re-organized into two groups; the first one numbering 147 Cossacks and 7 Starshinas patrolling the coast from Anapa where they were based to Navaginsk fort, the southern group numbering 164 Cossacks with 20 officers from Svyatogo Dukha to Svyatogo Nikolaya. During the following years, as quoted by General M. Rayevsky The Azov Cossacks recommended themselves as a potent force and stroke fear to the captains of contraband ships and Circassian galleys.
The success of the Azov Cossacks, led to a plan being drawn in 1843 to once again re-settle them to the whole Black Sea Coast from Mingrelia to the mouth of the Kuban river. This however was never realised. After the events of 1848 it became clear that Russia was en route to another major conflict between Ottoman Empire and her new allies Britain and France; the Azov Cossack Host's first job was to sabotage the remaining Russian strongholds on the Caucasus coast, which they themselves have built. After the British and French navies penetrated the Strait of Kerch and entered the Sea of Azov, they planned to navigate up the Don River to force the Russian armies en route to re-inforce Crimea to divert the attention; the Azov Host was tasked with preventing the enemy from reaching the Don, a task which they accomplished. However, in addition to guarding the Don, their Black Sea duties in Novorossiysk, the Azov Cossacks were involved in guarding their own home, Gladky formed three irregular units a naval battalion numbering 722 Cossacks, an infantry battalion with 400 more and a cavalry sotnia which
The Red Cossacks was a military formation of Bolsheviks and their puppet government of Ukraine. Red Cossacks was a collective for one of the biggest cavalry formations of the Workers-Peasant Red Army and was part of the Ukrainian and Southwestern fronts during the Russian Civil War and was stationed in the Ukrainian SSR; the Red Cossacks were the only military unit of Bolsheviks that contain some Ukrainian national characteristics. According to Vitaliy Primakov, the formation was created in protection of the Soviet government in Ukraine, liquidation of so-called "nationalistic and counter-revolutionary" Central Council of Ukraine and as an opposing force to the Central Council's armed forces, so called "Free Cossacks"; the creation of Red Cossacks was first declared on 10 January 1918 in Kharkiv by Vitaliy Primakov who participated in the Bolshevik coup-d'etat and was among those who "stormed" the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. He participated against the Kerensky–Krasnov uprising; the formation of the military unit continued until 9 February 1918.
In the beginning after announcing the formation, the military unit was joined by soldiers of former 3rd battalion of 2nd Ukrainian Reserve Regiment who were disarmed by revolutionary detachments that arrived out of the Bolshevik Russia. The newly announced military unit included local Red guards of several Kharkiv factories such as Kharkiv Locomotive Factory, General Electric Company, Helfferich-Sade Association. With time the Red Cossacks detachments were established where was declared the Soviet power including Kharkiv Governorate, Poltava Governorate, Kiev Governorate; the formations were established voluntarily and composed out of workers and peasants predominantly Ukrainians, but contained other ethnic representatives. Sister of Yuriy Kotsiubynsky, Oksana was in charge of agitation and propaganda and chief editor of Red Cossack newspaper "To arms". On 2 February 1918 the People's Secretariat of Ukraine issued its decree about organization of People's Revolutionary and Socialist Army in Ukraine, the Red Cossacks.
At first in January 1918 the regiment as part of the Soviet 4th Revolutionary Army took part in advance against the troops loyal to Central Council of Ukraine and in fought against the advance of German and Ukrainian forces in March-April 1918. On 1 March 1918 soldiers of the 1st Horse Regiment of Red Cossacks attempted to rename their regiment to the 1st Workers-Peasants Socialist Regiment of the Red Army. After that the regiment was "cleansed" from non-Ukrainian element by Soviet government. During liberation of Ukraine from Bolsheviks, number of Red Cossacks sided with the Army of Ukrainian People's Republic after the 1918 Battle of Poltava. After being withdrawn out of Ukraine, in summer of 1918 it was reformed into the 1st Dnieper Partizan detachment that operated in so called "neutral zone", established along the Russia-Ukraine border. During the fall of 1918 it was reestablished as part of the 1st Ukrainian Soviet Division and the 2nd Ukrainian Soviet Division that fought against the Army of UNR.
As part of the Army Group of Kiev direction in May 1919 participated in suppression of Nikifor Grigoriev rebellion and in July–September 1919 fought against armies of Anton Denikin. In August 1919 the regiment was expanded into brigade, part of 12th and 14th armies of the Workers and Peasants Red Army. In October 1919 it expanded further into the 8th Cavalry Division of Red Cossacks which in November of same year conducted a raid across the Denikin's Army rears. In April 1920 battled in the Northern Taurida Governorate against the Pyotr Wrangel's troops. Soon after the Polish-Ukrainian union treaty of Warsaw in 1920, the division participated in the Polish-Soviet War. During that campaign it reached the city of Stryi, but during a retreat of the Red Army, it was encircled and destroyed at Zbruch River. Syla Mishchenko Bublyk brothers Vitaliy Primakov Rudolf Sivers Red Army Ukrainian–Soviet War 1st Cavalry Division Dubinskiy, I. Shevchuk, G. Chervonnoye kazachestvo. Kiev, 1977 Red avatars of Ukraine: military uniforms of the Primakov's eagles based on the book of Yaroslav Tynchenko "Red Cossacks.
1917–1925. Organization and uniform".. Red avatars of Ukraine: Forgotten stepson of the Revolution. Zdorov, A; the 1918 Red Cossacks appeared before the Red Army. Ukrayinska Pravda. 23 February 2011
Pugachev's Rebellion of 1773-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in the Russian Empire after Catherine II seized power in 1762. It began as an organized insurrection of Yaik Cossacks headed by Yemelyan Pugachev, a disaffected ex-lieutenant of the Imperial Russian Army, against a background of profound peasant unrest and war with the Ottoman Empire. After initial success, Pugachev assumed leadership of an alternative government in the name of the assassinated Tsar Peter III and proclaimed an end to serfdom; this organized leadership presented a challenge to the imperial administration of Catherine II. The rebellion managed to consolidate support from various groups including the peasants, the Cossacks, Old Believers priesthood. At one point, its administration claimed control over most of the territory between the Volga River and the Urals. One of the most significant events of the insurrection was the Battle of Kazan in July 1774. Government forces failed to respond to the insurrection at first due to logistical difficulties and a failure to appreciate its scale.
However, the revolt was crushed towards the end of 1774 by General Michelsohn at Tsaritsyn. Pugachev was captured soon after and executed in Moscow in January 1775. Further reprisals against rebel areas were carried out by General Peter Panin; the events have generated many stories in legend and literature, most notably Pushkin's historical novel The Captain's Daughter. It was the largest peasant revolt in Russia's history; as the Russian monarchy contributed to the degradation of the serfs, peasant anger ran high. Peter the Great ceded entire villages to favored nobles, while Catherine the Great confirmed the authority of the nobles over the serfs in return for the nobles' political cooperation; the unrest intensified as the 18th century wore on, with more than fifty peasant revolts occurring between 1762 and 1769. These culminated in Pugachev's Rebellion, between 1773 and 1775, Yemelyan Pugachev rallied the peasants and Cossacks and promised the serfs land of their own and freedom from their lords.
There were various pressures on Russian serfs during the 18th century, which induced them to follow Pugachev. The peasantry in Russia tied to their owner; the connecting links that had existed between the peasant community and the tsar, diminishing, was broken by the interposition of the serf owners. Many nobles imposed harsher rules on their peasants; the relationship between peasant and ruler was cut off most in the decree of 1767, which prohibited direct petitions to the empress from the peasantry. The peasants were subject to an increase in indirect taxes due to the increase in the state’s requirements. In addition, a strong inflationary trend resulted in higher prices on all goods; the peasants felt abandoned by the "modern" state. They were living in desperate circumstances and had no way to change their situation, having lost all possibilities for political redress. There were natural disasters in Russia during the 18th century, which added strain on the peasants. Frequent recurrence of crop failures and epidemics created economic and social instability.
The most dramatic was the 1771 epidemic in Moscow, which brought to the surface all the unconscious and unfocused fears and panics of the populace. Each ruler altered the position of the Church. Peter the Great gave the Church new obligations, while its administration assimilated to a department of the secular state; the Church’s resources, or the means of collection, could not meet the new obligations and as a consequence, they exploited and poorly administered their serfs. The unrest spurred constant revolt among Church serfs. Pugachev’s image according to folk memory and contemporary legends was one of a pretender-liberator; as Peter III, he was seen as Christ-like and saintly because he had meekly accepted his dethronement by his evil wife Catherine II and her courtiers. He had left to wander the world, he had come to help the revolt. The popular mythology of Peter III linked Pugachev with the Emancipation Manifesto of 1762 and the serf’s expectations of further liberalizations had he continued as ruler.
Pugachev offered freedom from the poll tax and the recruit-levy, which made him appear to follow in the same vein as the emperor he was impersonating. Pugachev attempted to reproduce the St. Petersburg bureaucracy, he established his own College of War with quite extensive functions. It is important to emphasize that he did not promise complete freedom from taxation and recruitment for the peasants, his perception of the state was one where soldiers took the role of Cossacks, meaning they were free, military servicemen. Pugachev placed all other military personnel into this category as well the nobles and officers who joined his ranks. All peasants were seen as servants of the state, they were to become state peasants and serve as Cossacks in the militia. Pugachev envisioned the nobles returning to their previous status as the czar’s servicemen on salary instead of estate and serf owners, he emphasized the peasants’ freedom from the nobility. Pugachev still expected the peasants to continue their labor, but he granted them the freedom to work and own the land.
They would enjoy religious freedoms and Pugachev promised to restore the bond between the ruler and the people