Narcissus /nɑːrˈsɪsəs/ is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants in the Amaryllidaceae family. Various common names including daffodil, daffadowndilly and jonquil are used to all or some members of the genus. Narcissus has conspicuous flowers with six petal-like tepals surmounted by a cup- or trumpet-shaped corona, the flowers are generally white or yellow, with either uniform or contrasting coloured tepals and corona. Narcissus were well known in ancient civilisation, both medicinally and botanically, but formally described by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum, the genus is generally considered to have about ten sections with approximately 50 species. The number of species has varied, depending on how they are classified, the genus arose some time in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene epochs, in the Iberian peninsula and adjacent areas of southwest Europe. The exact origin of the name Narcissus is unknown, but it is linked to a Greek word for intoxicated. The English word daffodil appears to be derived from asphodel, with which it was commonly compared, the species are native to meadows and woods in southern Europe and North Africa with a center of diversity in the Western Mediterranean, particularly the Iberian peninsula.
Both wild and cultivated plants have naturalised widely, and were introduced into the Far East prior to the tenth century, Narcissi tend to be long-lived bulbs, which propagate by division, but are insect-pollinated. Known pests and disorders include viruses, the larvae of flies and nematodes, some Narcissus species have become extinct, while others are threatened by increasing urbanisation and tourism. Today narcissi are popular as cut flowers and as plants in private. The long history of breeding has resulted in thousands of different cultivars, for horticultural purposes, narcissi are classified into divisions, covering a wide range of shapes and colours. Like other members of their family, narcissi produce a number of different alkaloids, which provide protection for the plant. This property has been exploited for use in traditional healing and has resulted in the production of galantamine for the treatment of Alzheimers dementia. Long celebrated in art and literature, narcissi are associated with a number of themes in different cultures, ranging from death to good fortune, the daffodil is the national flower of Wales and the symbol of cancer charities in many countries.
The appearance of the flowers in spring is associated with festivals in many places. Narcissus is a genus of perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes, dying back after flowering to a storage bulb. They regrow in the year from brown-skinned ovoid bulbs with pronounced necks. Dwarf species such as N. asturiensis have a height of 5–8 cm
The pseudobulb is a storage organ found in many epiphytic and terrestrial sympodial orchids. It is derived from a thickening of the part of a stem between leaf nodes and may be composed of just one internode or several, termed heteroblastic and homoblastic respectively, all leaves and inflorescences usually arise from this structure. Pseudobulbs formed from a single internode produce the leaves and inflorescence from the top, whether cane-like or spherical, they are all produced from a long-lived creeping stem called a rhizome which may itself be climbing or pendulous. The pseudobulbs are relatively short lived, but are produced from the growing tip of the rhizome. Strictly speaking, there is no distinction between the pseduobulb and corm structures. Media related to Pseudobulb at Wikimedia Commons
A storage organ is a part of a plant specifically modified for storage of energy or water. Storage organs often grow underground, where they are protected from attack by herbivores. Plants that have a storage organ are called geophytes in the Raunkiær plant life-form classification system. Storage organs often, but not always, act as perennating organs which enable plants to survive adverse conditions, storage organs may act as perennating organs. These are used by plants to survive adverse periods in the plants life-cycle, during these periods, parts of the plant die and when conditions become favourable again, re-growth occurs from buds in the perennating organs. For example geophytes growing in woodland under deciduous trees die back to storage organs during summer when tree leaf cover restricts light. However, perennating organs need not be storage organs, storage organs need not be perennating organs. Many succulents have leaves adapted for storage, which they retain in adverse conditions. g.
Intermediates and combinations of the above are found, making classification difficult. As an example of an intermediate, the tuber of Cyclamen arises from the stem of the seedling, which forms the junction of the roots and stem of the mature plant. In some species come from the bottom of the tuber, suggesting that it is a stem tuber, in others roots come largely from the top of the tuber. As an example of a combination, juno irises have both bulbs and storage roots, underground storage organs used for food may be generically called root vegetables, although this phrase should not be taken to imply that the class only includes true roots. Succulents are plants which are adapted to periods of drought by their ability to store moisture in specialized storage organs. Leaf succulents store water in their leaves, which are thickened, fleshy. They may contain mucilagenous compounds, some leaf succulents have leaves which are distributed along the stem in a similar fashion to non-succulent species, their stems may be succulent.
In others, the leaves are more compact, forming a rosette, pebble-plants or living stones have reduced their leaves to just two, forming a fleshy body, only the top of which may be visible above ground. Stem succulents are generally either leafless or have leaves which can be shed in the event of drought. Photosynthesis is taken over by the stems, as with leaf succulents, stems may be covered with a waxy coating or fine hairs to reduce evaporation
Amaryllis is the only genus in the subtribe Amaryllidinae. It is a genus of flowering bulbs, with two species. The better known of the two, Amaryllis belladonna, is a native of the Western Cape region of South Africa and this is one of numerous genera with the common name lily due to their flower shape and growth habit. However, they are distantly related to the true lily. Amaryllis is a plant, with each bulb being 5–10 cm in diameter. It has several strap-shaped, green leaves, 30–50 cm long and 2–3 cm broad, each bulb produces one or two leafless stems 30–60 cm tall, each of which bears a cluster of two to twelve funnel-shaped flowers at their tops. Each flower is 6–10 cm diameter with six tepals, the usual color is white with crimson veins, but pink or purple occur naturally. The single genus in subtribe Amaryllidinae, in the Amaryllideae tribe, the taxonomy of the genus has been controversial. In 1753 Carl Linnaeus created the name Amaryllis belladonna, the species of the genus Amaryllis. At the time both South African and South American plants were placed in the genus, subsequently they were separated into two different genera.
The key question is whether Linnaeuss type was a South African plant or a South American plant, if the latter, Amaryllis would be the correct name for the genus Hippeastrum, and a different name would have to be used for the genus discussed here. Alan W. Meerow et al. have briefly summarized the debate, although the 1987 decision settled the question of the scientific name of the genus, the common name amaryllis continues to be used differently. Bulbs sold as amaryllis and described as ready to bloom for the holidays belong to the allied genus Hippeastrum, the common name naked lady comes from the plants pattern of flowering when the foliage has died down. In areas of its habitat with mountainous fynbos flowering tends to be suppressed until after bush fires as dense overhead vegetation prevents growth. In more open areas of the Western Cape, the plant flowers annually. Plants tend to be localized in dense concentrations due to the seeds large size. Strong winds shake loose the seeds, which fall to ground and immediately start to germinate, the leaves are produced in the autumn or early spring in warm climates depending on the onset of rain and eventually die down by late spring.
The bulb is dormant until late summer, the plant is not frost-tolerant, nor does it do well in tropical environments since they require a dry resting period between leaf growth and flower spike production
Garlic is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, leek, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use, garlic is native to the region between the Mediterranean and China, and has long been a common seasoning worldwide. It was known to Ancient Egyptians, and has used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine. Allium sativum is a bulbous plant and it grows up to 1.2 m in height. Its hardiness is USDA Zone 8 and it is pollinated by bees and other insects. Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalized, the wild garlic, crow garlic, and field garlic of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, and Allium oleraceum, respectively. In North America, Allium vineale and Allium canadense, known as garlic or wild garlic. So-called elephant garlic is actually a wild leek, and not a true garlic, single clove garlic originated in the Yunnan province of China. A. sativum var. ophioscorodon Döll, called Ophioscorodon, or hard-necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic and it is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium ophioscorodon G.
Don. A. sativum var. sativum, or soft-necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. While sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, in colder climates, cloves are planted in the autumn, about six weeks before the soil freezes, and harvested in late spring or early summer. The cloves must be planted deep enough to prevent freeze/thaw, which causes mold or white rot, Garlic plants can be grown closely together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. Garlic does well in loose, well-drained soils in sunny locations, when selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels.
There are different varieties or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic, the latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type, as garlic can be day-length sensitive. Hardneck garlic is grown in cooler climates and produces relatively large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small. Garlic scapes are removed to all the garlics energy into bulb growth. The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked, Garlic plants are usually hardy and not affected by many pests or diseases
In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization. Its etymology is Greek for away from + mixing and this definition notably does not mention meiosis. Apomictically produced offspring are genetically identical to the parent plant, some authors included all forms of asexual reproduction within apomixis, but that generalization of the term has since died out. In flowering plants, the term apomixis is commonly used in a sense to mean agamospermy. Although agamospermy could theoretically occur in gymnosperms, it appears to be absent in that group, apogamy is a related term that has had various meanings over time. In plants with independent gametophytes, the term is used interchangeably with apomixis. Male apomixis involves replacement of the material of the egg cell by that from the pollen. They are therefore often called microspecies, in some plant families, genera with apomixis are quite common, for example in Asteraceae and Rosaceae.
Examples of apomixis can be found in the genera Crataegus, Sorbus, Poa, Nardus stricta, Apomixis is reported to occur in about 10% of globally extant ferns. Among polystichoid ferns, apomixis evolved several times independently in three different clades, although the evolutionary advantages of sexual reproduction are lost, apomixis can pass along traits fortuitous for evolutionary fitness. As Jens Clausen put it The apomicts actually have discovered the effectiveness of mass production long before Mr Henry Ford applied it to the production of the automobile, does not prevent variation, rather, it multiplies certain varietal products. Facultative apomixis means that apomixis does not always occur, i. e. sexual reproduction can happen and it appears likely that all apomixis in plants is facultative, in other words, that obligate apomixis is an artifact of insufficient observation. The sporophytes of plants of these groups may have the ability to form a plant that looks like a gametophyte but with the level of the sporophyte.
See Androgenesis and androclinesis described below, a type of apomixis that occurs in a conifer. Agamospermy, asexual reproduction through seeds, occurs in flowering plants through many different mechanisms, there are almost as many different usages of terminology for apomixis in angiosperms as there are authors on the subject. For English speakers, Maheshwari 1950 is very influential, german speakers might prefer to consult Rutishauser 1967. Some older text books on the basis of misinformation attempted to reform the terminology to match the term parthenogenesis as it is used in zoology, and this continues to cause much confusion. Agamospermy occurs mainly in two forms, In gametophytic apomixis, the embryo arises from an egg cell in a gametophyte that was produced from a cell that did not complete meiosis
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot, Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in autumn foliage. Although leaves can be seen in different shapes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground. Most leaves have distinctive upper surface and lower surface that differ in colour, broad, flat leaves with complex venation are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. In others, such as the clubmosses, with different evolutionary origins, some leaves, such as bulb scales are not above ground, and in many aquatic species the leaves are submerged in water. Succulent plants often have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not totally homologous with them.
Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from both in their structure and origin. Many structures of plants, such as the phyllids of mosses and liverworts and even of some foliose lichens. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants and these are further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as cellulose, the basic structural material in plant cell walls. The plant must therefore bring these three together in the leaf for photosynthesis to take place. Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a tissue called the phloem. The phloem and xylem are parallel to each other but the transport of materials is usually in opposite directions. Within the leaf these vascular systems branch to form veins which supply as much as the leaf as possible and they are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications.
For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows, the flat, or laminar, shape maximises thermal contact with the surrounding air, promoting cooling. Functionally, in addition to photosynthesis the leaf is the site of transpiration and guttation. Many gymnosperms have thin needle-like or scale-like leaves that can be advantageous in cold climates with frequent snow and these are interpreted as reduced from megaphyllous leaves of their Devonian ancestors. For xerophytes the major constraint is not light flux or intensity, some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes. and Bulbine mesembryanthemoides
The lily family, consists of fifteen genera and about 705 known species of flowering plants within the order Liliales. They are monocotyledonous, herbaceous, often bulbous geophytes, plants in this family have evolved with a fair amount of morphological diversity despite genetic similarity. Common characteristics include large flowers with parts arranged in threes, with six colored or patterned petaloid tepals arranged in two whorls, six stamens and a superior ovary. The leaves are linear in shape, with their veins usually arranged parallel to the edges and arranged alternating on the stem, most species are grown from bulbs, although some have rhizomes. Consequently, many sources and descriptions labelled Liliaceae deal with the sense of the family. The family evolved approximately 52 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene eras, Liliaceae are widely distributed, mainly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and the flowers are insect pollinated. Many Liliaceae are important ornamental plants, widely grown for their flowers and involved in a major floriculture of cut flowers.
Some species are poisonous if eaten and can have health effects in humans. A number of Liliaceae genera are popular cultivated plants in private and tulips in particular have had considerable symbolic and decorative value, and appear frequently in paintings and the decorative arts. They are an important product. The diversity of characteristics complicates any description of the Liliaceae morphology, the diversity is of considerable evolutionary significance, as some members emerged from shaded areas and adapted to a more open environment. The Liliaceae are characterised as monocotyledonous, herbaceous, bulbous flowering plants with simple trichomes, the flowers may be arranged along the stem, developing from the base, or as a single flower at the tip of the stem, or as a cluster of flowers. They contain both male and female characteristics and are symmetric radially, but sometimes as a mirror image, most flowers are large and colourful, except for Medeoleae. Both the petals and sepals are similar and appear as two concentric groups of petals, that are often striped or multi-coloured, and produce nectar at their bases.
The stamens are usually in two groups of three and the pollen has a single groove, the ovary is placed above the attachment of the other parts. There are three fused carpels with one to three chambers, a style and a three-lobed stigma. The embryo sac is of the Fritillaria type, the fruit is generally a wind dispersed capsule, but occasionally a berry which is dispersed by animals. The leaves are simple and elongated with veins parallel to the edges, arranged singly and alternating on the stem
Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes the cultivated onion, scallion and leek as well as chives and hundreds of other wild species. The generic name Allium is the Latin word for garlic, some sources refer to Greek αλεω by reason of the smell of garlic. The cooking and consumption of parts of the plants is due to the variety of flavours. The inclusion of a species to the genus Allium is taxonomically difficult, estimates of the number of species have been as low as 260, and as high as 979, but are most likely about 800–850. The type species for the genus is Allium sativum, Allium species occur in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere, except for a few species occurring in Chile and tropical Africa. They vary in height between 5 cm and 150 cm, the flowers form an umbel at the top of a leafless stalk. The bulbs vary in size between species, from small to rather large, some species develop thickened leaf-bases rather than forming bulbs as such. Plants of the Allium genus produce chemical compounds that give them a characteristic onion or garlic taste, many are used as food plants, though not all members of the genus are equally flavorous.
In most cases, both bulb and leaves are edible and the taste may be strong or weak, depending on the species, in the rare occurrence of sulfur-free growth conditions, all Allium species lose their usual pungency altogether. In the APG III classification system, Allium is placed in the family Amaryllidaceae, in some of the older classification systems, Allium was placed in Liliaceae. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown this circumscription of Liliaceae is not monophyletic, Allium is one of about fifty-seven genera of flowering plants with more than 500 species. It is by far the largest genus in the Amaryllidaceae, the genus Allium is characterised by herbaceous geophyte perennials with true bulbs, some of which are borne on rhizomes and an onion or garlic odor and flavor. A small number of species have tuberous roots, the bulbs outer coats are commonly brown or grey, with a smooth texture, and are fibrous, or with cellular reticulation. The inner coats of the bulbs are membranous, many alliums have basal leaves that commonly wither away from the tips downward before or while the plants flower, but some species have persistent foliage.
Plants produce from one to 12 leaves, most species having linear, the leaf blades are straight or variously coiled, but some species have broad leaves, including A. victorialis and A. tricoccum. The leaves are sessile, and very rarely narrowed into a petiole, the flowers, which are produced on scapes are erect or in some species pendent, having six petal-like tepals produced in two whorls. The flowers have one style and six stamens, the anthers. The ovaries are superior, and three-lobed with three locules, the fruits are capsules that open longitudinally along the capsule wall between the partitions of the locule
Fritillaria is a genus of Eurasian, North African, and North American plants in the lily family. The name is derived from the Latin term for a dice-box, plants of the genus are known in English as fritillaries. Some North American species are called mission bells, fritillaries often have nodding, bell- or cup-shaped flowers, and the majority are spring-flowering. Certain species have flowers that emit disagreeable odors, the scent of Fritillaria imperialis has been called rather nasty, while that of F. agrestis, known commonly as stink bells, is reminiscent of dog droppings. On the other hand, F. striata has a sweet fragrance, Fritillaria extracts are used in traditional Chinese medicine under the name chuan bei mu, and in Latin, bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae. Species such as F. cirrhosa and F. verticillata are used in cough remedies and they are listed as chuān bèi or zhè bèi, and are often in formulations combined with extracts of loquat. Fritillaria verticillata bulbs are traded as bèi mǔ or, in Kampō.
In one study fritillaria reduced airway inflammation by suppressing cytokines, most fritillaries contain poisonous alkaloids such as imperialin, some may even be deadly if ingested in quantity. But the bulbs of a few species, such as F. affinis, F. camschatcensis and they were commonly eaten by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest coast. At least one species, F. assyrica, has a large genome. With approximately 130,000,000,000 base pairs, it equals the largest known vertebrate animal genome known to date, the emblematic and often unusually-colored fritillaries are commonly used as floral emblems. F. meleagris is the county flower of Oxfordshire, UK, and the flower of Uppland, Sweden. In Croatia this species is known as kockavica, and the pattern of its flowers may have inspired the šahovnica pattern on the nations coat of arms. F. camschatcensis is the emblem of Ishikawa Prefecture and Obihiro City in Japan. Its Japanese name is kuroyuri, meaning dark lily, F. tenella is the floral emblem of Giardino Botanico Alpino di Pietra Corva, a botanical garden in Italy.
The scarlet lily beetle eats fritillaries, and may become a pest where these plants are grown in gardens, accepted species Formerly included Numerous names have been coined using the name Fritillaria but referring to species now considered better suited to other genera. We provide links to help you find appropriate information, flora Europaea, Fritillaria Treatment of California Fritillaria from the Jepson Manual Fritillaria Icones Recovery Plan for Fritillaria gentneri U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Allioideae is a subfamily of monocot flowering plants in the family Amaryllidaceae, order Asparagales. It was formerly treated as a family, Alliaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the name of the type genus. It is composed of approximately eighteen genera, the subfamily contains both well known garden plants, but weeds, such as Nothoscordum. When Linnaeus formerly described the type genus Allium in his Species Plantarum in 1753 and he placed Allium in a grouping he referred to as Hexandria monogynia containing 51 genera in all. In 1763, who proposed the concept of families of plants, included Allium and related genera as a grouping within Liliaceae as Section IV, Les Oignons, de Jussieu is officially recognised as the first formal establishment of the suprageneric grouping into families in 1789. In this system Allium was one of fourteen genera in Ordo VI, Asphodeles, in 1786 the Allioideae were first described by their type genus as Alliaceae by Batsch. In 1797, after the appearance of the Jussieu system, this was validated by Borkhausen, jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire, who developed the concept of Amaryllidaceae, continued Jussieus treatment of Allium under Asphodeli.
He placed Allium in an unnamed section of Asphodeli defined as Fleurs en ombelle. Subsequently, de Candolle reverted the name back to Liliaceae from Asphodeli. He divided the Liliaceae into a series of Ordres, and the second ordre was named Asphodèles, based on Jussieus family of that name, the term Alliaceae reappeared in its subfamilial form, Allieae, in Dumortiers Florula Belgica, with six genera. The Alliaceae have been treated as Allieae within the Liliaceae family by most authorities since, in 1830, the first English systematist, considered Alliaceae to be part of the Asphodeleae tribe, separating them from the Liliaceae as he understood them. He absorbed Asphodeleae into this family and created a suborder of Scilleae, by the time of the next major British classification, that of Bentham and Hooker, the Allieae had become one of twenty tribes within Liliaceae. The Allieae included Lindleys Gilliesieae as one of its four subtribes, similarly in the German language literature, Englers classification treated Allieae and Gilliesiae as tribes of subfamily Allioideae, within Liliaceae.
In the early twentieth century there were doubts expressed about the placement of the genera within Liliaceae. Lotsy was the first taxonomist to propose separating them, and in his system he describes Alliaceae and Gilliesiaceae as new and this approach was adopted by a number of other authorities, such as Dahlgren and Rahn. In 1926 John Hutchinson moved the Allieae and Gilliesieae tribes from Liliaceae to the Amaryllidaceae, thus Allieae were variously treated as either Liliaceae, Amaryllidaceae or Alliaceae. They divided Alliaceae into three subfamilies, Agapanthoideae and Gilliesioideae, Allioideae contained two tribes, Brodiaeeae and a broadly defined Allieae, which they considered distinct enough to alternatively consider as subfamilies in their own right
Tree onions, topsetting onions, walking onions, or Egyptian onions, Allium × proliferum, are similar to common onions, but with a cluster of bulblets where a normal onion would have flowers. Genomic evidence has shown that they are a hybrid of the common onion. However, some sources may treat the tree onion as A. cepa var. proliferum or A. cepa Proliferum Group. It has been postulated that the name Egyptian onion is derived from tree onions being brought to Europe from the Indian subcontinent by the Romani people. The phenomenon of forming bulblets instead of flowers is seen in garlic and other alliums. The bulblets are usually marble-sized, between 0.5 cm to 3 cm in diameter, many tree onions are very strong flavoured, although some cultivars are relatively mild and sweet. The underground bulbs are particularly tough-skinned and pungent, and can be quite elongate, like leeks, young plants may be used as scallions in the spring, and the bulblets may be used in cooking similarly to regular onions, or preserved by pickling