Laïkó, is a Greek music genre composed in Greek language in accordance with the tradition of the Greek people. Called folk song or urban folk music, in its plural form is a Greek music genre which has taken many forms over the years. Laïkó followed after the commercialization of Rebetiko music, it is dominated by Greek folk music and it is used to describe Greek popular music as a whole. When used in context, it refers to the form it took in the period from the 1950s to the 1980s; until the 1930s the Greek discography was dominated by two musical genres: the Greek folk music and the Elafró tragoudi. The latter was represented by ensembles of singers/musicians or solo artists like Attik and Nikos Gounaris, it was the Greek version of the international popular music of the era. In the 1930s the first rebetiko recordings had a massive impact on Greek music; as Markos Vamvakaris stated "we were the first to record laïká songs". In the years to follow this type of music, the first form of what is now called laïkó tragoudi, became the mainstream Greek music.
1920s–1950s Attik Nikos Gounaris Tony Maroudas Giorgos Mouzakis Michalis Souyioul Danaë Stratigopoulou Sofia Vembo 1930s–1960s Markos Vamvakaris Manolis Chiotis Roza Eskenazi Vassilis Tsitsanis Giannis Papaioannou Panagiotis Toundas Kostas Skarvelis Classic laïkó as it is known today, was the mainstream popular music of Greece during the 1960s and 1970s. Laiko music evolved from the traditional Greek music of the ancient and the medieval Greek era and was established until the present day. Laïkó was dominated by singers such as Stelios Kazantzidis. Among the most significant songwriters and lyricists of this period are George Zambetas and the big names of the Rebetiko era that were still in business, like Vassilis Tsitsanis and Manolis Chiotis. Many artists combined the traditions of éntekhno and laïkó with considerable success, such as the composers Stavros Xarchakos and Mimis Plessas. 1960s–80s Contemporary laïkó can be called in Greece the mainstream music genre, with variations in plural form as Contemporary laïká.
Along with Modern laïká in Greek is Greece's mainstream music genre. The main cultural Greek dances and rhythms of today's Greek music culture laïká are Nisiotika, Rebetika, Zeibekiko, Hasaposerviko and Syrtaki; the more cheerful version of laïkó, called elafró laïkó and it was used in musicals during the Golden Age of Greek cinema. Τhe Greek Peiraiotes superstar Tolis Voskopoulos gave the after-modern version of Greek Laïko listenings. Many artists have combined the traditions of éntekhno and laïkó with considerable success, such as the composers Mimis Plessas and Stavros Xarchakos. Contemporary laïká emerged as a style in the early 1980s. An indispensable part of the contemporary laïká culture is the písta, "dance floor/venue". Night clubs at which the DJs play only contemporary laïká where colloquially known on the 90s as ellinádhika. Modern laiko is mainstream Greek laïkó music mixed in with modern Western influences, from such international mainstream genres as pop music and dance. Renowned songwriters or lyricists of contemporary laïká include Alekos Chrysovergis, Nikos Karvelas, Nikos Terzis, Giorgos Theofanous and Evi Droutsa.
In effect, there is no single name for contemporary laïká in the Greek language, but it is formally referred to as σύγχρονο λαϊκό, a term, however used for denoting newly composed songs in the tradition of "proper" Laïkó. The choice of contrasting the notions of "westernized" and "genuine" may be based on ideological and aesthetic grounds. Laiko interacted more westernized sounds in the late of 2000s; the term modern laïká comes from modern songs of the people. Despite its immense popularity, the genre of contemporary laïká has come under scrutiny for "featuring musical clichés, average singing voices and slogan-like lyrics" and for "being a hybrid, neither laïkó, nor pop". Anna Vissi Elli Kokkinou Konstantinos Argyros Yiannis Parios Antonis Remos Natassa Theodoridou Elena Paparizou Notis Sfakianakis Kostas Makedonas Christos Nikolopoulos Thodoris Ferris Dimitris Basis Yiannis Parios Sakis Rouvas Thanos Petrelis Giannis Ploutarhos Nikos Oikonomopoulos Katy Garbi Despina Vandi Peggy Zina Giorgos Mazonakis Pantelis Pantelidis Rebetiko Greek folk music Nightclubs in Greece
Music of Bulgaria
The music of Bulgaria refers to all forms of music associated with the country of Bulgaria, including classical, popular music, other forms. Classical music and ballet are represented by composers Emanuil Manolov, Pancho Vladigerov and Georgi Atanasov and singers Ghena Dimitrova, Mariana Paunova, Boris Hristov, Raina Kabaivanska and Nicolai Ghiaurov. Notable names from the contemporary pop scene are Emil Dimitrov, Vasil Naydenov; the State Television Female Vocal Choir is the Bulgarian folk choir best known around the world and received a Grammy Award in 1990. Rhodope folk singer Valya Balkanska is known best for her recording of the folk song, Izlel e Delyo Haidutin, included on the Golden Disk sent into space with the Voyager spacecraft. Famous Bulgarian artists living abroad are Sylvie Vartan, Kristian Kostov, Philipp Kirkorov, Lucy Diakovska, Mira Aroyo, Mikhael Paskalev, Nora Nova, Vasko Vassilev, members of the Varimezov family such as Tzvetanka Varimezova and Ivan Varimezov, Ivo Papazov.
It is worth mentioning the late, great gaida player Vassil Bebelekov and his wife, Rhodope music singer Maria Bebelekova. She lives and teaches in San Jose, California; the Philip Kutev Ensemble, the first of the Bulgarian state-sponsored folk ensembles and founded in 1951 is featured on the 1990 Grammy-winning album and has had many well-known Bulgarian folk singers, including, at present, Neli Andreeva and Sorina Bogomilova. Bulgarian music uses a wide range of instruments; some folk instruments are variants of traditional Asian instruments such as the "Saz", or the kemençe. More modern style instruments are used in the modern dance music, an offshoot of traditional village music. Bulgarian folk bands, called bitovi, use instruments that include: The gaida, a traditional goat-skin bagpipe. There are two common types of gaida; the Thracian gaida is tuned either in D or in A. The Rhodopi gaida, called the kaba gaida, is larger, has a much deeper sound and is tuned in F; the kaval, an end-blown flute is close to the Turkish kaval, as well as the Arabic "Ney."
The gadulka, a bowed stringed instrument descended from the rebec, held vertically, with melody and sympathetic strings. The bass gadulka has been replaced by the double bass; the tǔpan, a large drum worn over the shoulder by the player and hit with a beater on one side and a thin stick on the other. The tambura, a long-necked, metal-strung, fretted lute used for rhythmic accompaniment as well as melodic solos, it is somewhat like the Greek bouzouki and similar to the Tamburica family's "alto" instrument, the brac. The tarabuka or dumbek, an hourglass-shaped finger-drum, it is similar to the Turkish and North African "darbouka" and the Greek "touberleki". Modern professional musicians soon reached new heights of innovation in using traditional Bulgarian instruments, by expanding the capacities of the gaida and kaval. Other instruments arrived in Bulgaria including the accordion and the clarinet. Bulgarian accordion music was defined by Boris Karlov and Roma musicians including Kosta Kolev and Ibro Lolov.
In 1965, the Ministry of Culture founded the Koprivshtitsa National Music Festival, which has become an important event in showcasing Bulgarian music and dance. It is held once every five years, the last festival was August 7–9, 2015. Instruments used in wedding music include violin, clarinet, drum set, electric bass, electric guitar and synthesizer. Not to be confused with Chalga's "folk" subgenre Regional styles abound in Bulgaria. Dobrudzha, the region surrounding Sofia, Macedonia, Thrace and the Danube shore all have distinctive sounds; some folk music revolves around holidays like Christmas, New Year's Day and the Feast of St. Lazarus, as well as the Strandzha region's unusual Nestinarstvo rites, in which villagers fall into a trance and dance on hot coals as part of the joint feast of Sts Konstantin and Elena on May 21. Music is a part of more personal celebrations such as weddings. Singing has always been a tradition for both women. Songs were sung by women at work parties such as the sedenka, betrothal ceremonies, just for fun.
Women had an extensive repertoire of songs that they sang while working in the fields. Young women eligible for marriage played a important role at the dancing in the village square; the dancing — every Sunday and for three days on major holidays like Easter — began not with instrumental music, but with two groups of young women singing, one leading each end of the dance line. On, instrumentalists might arrive and the singers would no longer lead the dance. A special form of song, the lament, was sung not only at funerals but when young men departed for military service. Bulgarian folk music is known for its asymmetrical rhythms, where meter is not split in beats, but in combinations of short and long beats, corresponding to the dancers' short and long steps. In European folk music, such asymmetrical rhythms are used in Bulgaria, elsewhere in the Balkans and Sweden; the most important state-supported folk ensembl
The Recording Academy
The Recording Academy is a U. S. organization of musicians, recording engineers, other recording professionals. It is headquartered in California. Neil Portnow is its current president; the Recording Academy, which began in 1957, is known for its Grammy Awards. In 1997, the Recording Academy under Michael Greene launched The Latin Recording Academy, which produces the Latin Grammy Awards; the origin of the academy dates back to the beginning of the 1950s Hollywood Walk of Fame project. The Hollywood Chamber of Commerce asked the help of major recording industry executives in compiling a list of people in the music business who should be honored by Walk of Fame stars; the music committee, made up of these executives, compiled a list, but as they worked, they realized there were many more talented industry people who would not qualify to be recognized with a Hollywood Boulevard bronze star. The founding committee members included MGM Records; this was the start of the academy and of the Grammy Awards.
The Producers and Engineers Wing is a part of the academy made up of producers, engineers and other technically involved professionals. It is composed of 6,000 members; the producers and engineers wing addresses various aspects of issues facing the recording profession. They support music and recording arts education; the P&E Wing advocates for the use of professional usage of recording technology as well as the preservation of recordings. The members of this division make up a large portion of those who vote on the Grammy Awards each year; the Grammy University Network is an organization for college students who are pursuing a career in the music industry. It offers forms of networking, interactive educational experiences and programs, advice from music professionals and internship opportunities; the Recording Academy supports the MusiCares Foundation, a philanthropic organization which provides money and services to musicians in an emergency or crisis. The academy has twelve chapters in various locations throughout the United States.
The twelve chapters are in Atlanta, Florida, Los Angeles, Nashville, New York City, the Pacific Northwest, San Francisco and Washington D. C. List of music organizations in the United States The Latin Recording Academy Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences The Recording Academy
Peter Murphy (musician)
Peter John Joseph Murphy is an English singer and musician. He was the vocalist of the goth rock band Bauhaus and went on to release a number of solo albums, such as Love Hysteria and Holy Smoke. Thin with prominent cheekbones, a baritone voice, a penchant for gloomy poetics, he is called the "Godfather of Goth". Murphy was born in Northampton, Northamptonshire on 11 July 1957, he is of Irish descent. He was raised in Wellingborough, where he was a school friend of Daniel Ash. Daniel Ash convinced Murphy to join one of the establishing acts of the goth movement, their use of spacey recording effects and theatrical aesthetics was evocative of glam rock. In 1983, Bauhaus appeared during the opening sequences of the horror film The Hunger, performing one of their most popular songs, "Bela Lugosi's Dead"; the camera focused exclusively on Murphy during most of the scene, panning only to the stars David Bowie and Catherine Deneuve. Bauhaus reformed in 1998 for a tour. By 1983, Bauhaus had broken up and Murphy went on to new projects not involving Bauhaus members Kevin Haskins, David J or Daniel Ash.
After some brief dabbling with acting and dance – including a television performance to Bauhaus's "Hollow Hills" – he formed Dalis Car with Mick Karn, the bass player from Japan. The group recorded only one album. After Dalis Car's lack of commercial success, Murphy's first solo album, Should the World Fail to Fall Apart, was overlooked. Should the World Fail to Fall Apart did spawn several singles, including a cover of Pere Ubu's "Final Solution" that made a minor splash on the club scene; the followup, Love Hysteria, was not successful in the UK although in the US it performed better than his previous solo releases. The album marked the beginning of a long-term collaboration with songwriter Paul Statham from B-Movie, who co-wrote songs with Murphy until 1995; the resulting singles "All Night Long" and "Indigo Eyes" helped garner a wider following, the black-and-white video for "All Night Long" entered rotation on MTV. The pinnacle of Murphy's solo popularity in the US came with the release of Deep.
For this album Murphy sported hair dyed platinum blonde and returned to the more aggressive alt-rock sound, a trademark of early Bauhaus. The single "Cuts You Up" from Deep held on to the top spot on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart for seven weeks. Peter Murphy moved to Turkey with his wife, a Middle Eastern influence can be heard in his albums. 1992's Holy Smoke mixed some traditional Turkish influences into the music while continuing the sound pioneered on Deep. In 1995, Murphy embraced a lower-key, ambient pop sound for Cascade, featuring producer Pascal Gabriel, guest work from "infinite guitarist" Michael Brook, overall a much stronger incorporation of electronics; this album was to be his last major collaboration with Paul Statham, who departed to form Peach with Pascal Gabriel and write songs for Dido and Kylie Minogue. Cascade was Murphy's last original release for Beggar's Banquet records, his label since Bauhaus. Shortly after this departure, Murphy recorded the Recall EP for the newly formed Red Ant records, featuring a few new songs and some new electronic versions of older material, reworked in conjunction with Sascha Konietzko, Bill Rieflin and Tim Skold of the band KMFDM.
Once again, he became label-mates with former Bauhaus alums Love and Rockets, who had signed to Red Ant. This generated a significant number of rumours regarding a possible reformation of Bauhaus. While Red Ant folded, Bauhaus did reform in 1998 for the Resurrection tour, one performance of, recorded and released on DVD by Metropolis Records as Gotham; the tour was a success. In 2000, Murphy performed his international Just for Love tour, which resulted in the album aLive Just for Love, it is a live recording of the uninterrupted set from the El Rey show in Los Angeles on 30 November 2000. During the tour, Murphy chose to perform with only two back-up musicians, Canadian electric violinist Hugh Marsh and Peter DiStefano from Porno for Pyros on guitar, although former Bauhaus bassist David J sometimes joined the trio for an encore. At this point he contributed to works by film composer Harry Gregson-Williams. In 2000, Murphy gave a nod to the North American goth scene, where his solo works and his works with Bauhaus are still popular, by making a surprise guest appearance at the sixth annual Convergence festival in Seattle, to perform a low-key, acoustic solo set.
Shortly thereafter, Murphy collaborated with the Turkish artist Mercan Dede on the album Dust. Steeped in traditional Turkish instrumentation and songwriting, coupled with Dede's trademark atmospheric electronics, the album showed Murphy all but abandoning his previous pop and rock incarnations. Dust, released on goth/industrial stalwart label Metropolis Records, alienated many fans who had expected a more uptempo Murphy album, but it garnered some critical praise. Peter Murphy considers it his most unusual work to date and is most proud of the song "Your Face" from the album. In 2004, Murphy signed to yet another new label, home to several other 1980s pop artists who had moved into more eclectic areas. Despite numerous problems with the label, the album Unshattered was released, showcasing Murphy returning to a more pop sound. Murphy undertook extensive tours of Europe and the US to promote Unshattered in 2005, with a live band featuring guitarist Mark Thwaite, on guitar, Jeff Schartoff of Human Waste Project and Professional Murder Music on b
Songlines is a British based magazine launched in 1999 that covers music from traditional and popular to contemporary and fusion, featuring artists from around the globe. Songlines is published ten times a year and contains CD reviews, artist interviews, guides to particular world music traditions and festival listings and travel stories; every issue comes with an accompanying compilation CD featuring sample tracks from 10 of the best new releases reviewed in that issue and 5 additional tracks chosen by a celebrity. A podcast containing highlights of each issue is available to download through iTunes or through the Songlines website; the magazine is edited by co-editor of The Rough Guide to World Music. The name was chosen based on the aboriginal mythological concept of Songlines. In 2008 Songlines was expanded to include'Songlines Music Travel' a music tourism service offering excursions to renowned world music locations and festivals. In 2009 Songlines launched Songlines Digital, an online subscription version of the magazine.
Mark Allen Group acquired Songlines in 2015. In 2009 Songlines launched their Music Awards to replace the cancelled BBC Radio 3 Awards for World Music World Music Awards; the Songlines award is granted in four categories: Best Artist, Best Group, Best Cross-Cultural Collaboration and Best Newcomer. Instead of the category Best Cross-Cultural Collaboration, the Songlines award was granted in 2016 in six new categories: Africa & Middle East, Asia & South Pacific, Europe and World Pioneer Award; the winners were: Seckou Keita, Lila Downs, Debashish Bhattacharya, Sam Lee & Friends, Ballaké Sissoko & Vincent Ségal and Chris Blackwell. Awards for world music Official Songlines magazine website Songlines Music Travel Homepage
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time