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Bulgarian language

Bulgarian is a South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe in Bulgaria. It is the language of Bulgarians. Along with the related Macedonian language, it is a member of the Balkan sprachbund; the two languages have several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system. One such major development is the innovation of evidential verb forms to encode for the source of information: witnessed, inferred, or reported, it is the official language of Bulgaria, since 2007 has been among the official languages of the European Union. It is spoken by minorities in several other countries. One can divide the development of the Bulgarian language into several periods; the Prehistoric period covers the time between the Slavonic migration to the eastern Balkans and the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia in the 860s.

Old Bulgarian – a literary norm of the early southern dialect of the Common Slavic language from which Bulgarian evolved. Saints Cyril and Methodius and their disciples used this norm when translating the Bible and other liturgical literature from Greek into Slavic. Middle Bulgarian – a literary norm that evolved from the earlier Old Bulgarian, after major innovations occurred. A language of rich literary activity, it served as the official administration language of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Modern Bulgarian dates from the 16th century onwards, undergoing general grammar and syntax changes in the 18th and 19th centuries; the present-day written Bulgarian language was standardized on the basis of the 19th-century Bulgarian vernacular. The historical development of the Bulgarian language can be described as a transition from a synthetic language to a typical analytic language with Middle Bulgarian as a midpoint in this transition. Bulgarian was the first "Slavic" language attested in writing.

As Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, the oldest manuscripts referred to this language as языкъ словяньскъ, "the Slavic language". In the Middle Bulgarian period this name was replaced by the name языкъ блъгарьскъ, the "Bulgarian language". In some cases, this name was used not only with regard to the contemporary Middle Bulgarian language of the copyist but to the period of Old Bulgarian. A most notable example of anachronism is the Service of Saint Cyril from Skopje, a 13th-century Middle Bulgarian manuscript from northern Macedonia according to which St. Cyril preached with "Bulgarian" books among the Moravian Slavs; the first mention of the language as the "Bulgarian language" instead of the "Slavonic language" comes in the work of the Greek clergy of the Archbishopric of Ohrid in the 11th century, for example in the Greek hagiography of Clement of Ohrid by Theophylact of Ohrid. During the Middle Bulgarian period, the language underwent dramatic changes, losing the Slavonic case system, but preserving the rich verb system and developing a definite article.

It was influenced by its non-Slavic neighbors in the Balkan language area and also by Turkish, the official language of the Ottoman Empire, in the form of the Ottoman Turkish language lexically. As a national revival occurred toward the end of the period of Ottoman rule, a modern Bulgarian literary language emerged that drew on Church Slavonic/Old Bulgarian and reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkan loans. Today one difference between Bulgarian dialects in the country and literary spoken Bulgarian is the significant presence of Old Bulgarian words and word forms in the latter. Russian loans are distinguished from Old Bulgarian ones on the basis of the presence of Russian phonetic changes, as in оборот, непонятен, ядро and others. Many other loans from French and the classical languages have subsequently entered the language as well. Modern Bulgarian was based on the Eastern dialects of the language, but its pronunciation is in many respects a compromise between East and West Bulgarian.

Following the efforts of some figures of the National awakening of Bulgaria, there had been many attempts to codify a standard Bulgarian language. Between 1835 and 1878 more than 25 proposals were put forward and "linguistic chaos" ensued; the eastern dialects prevailed, in 1899 the Bulgarian Ministry of Education codified a standard Bulgarian language based on the Drinov-Ivanchev orthography. The language is split into two broad dialect areas, based on the different reflexes of the Common Slavic yat vowel; this split, which occurred at some point during the Middle Ages, led to the development of Bulgaria's: Western dialects the former yat is pronounced "e" in all positions. E.g. млеко – milk, хлеб – bread. Eastern dialects the former yat

Manchester Courts

Manchester Courts, earlier known as the MLC Building, was a commercial high-rise building in the Christchurch Central City. Built in 1905–1906 for the New Zealand Express Company, it was at the time the tallest commercial building in Christchurch. A Category I heritage building, it suffered serious structural damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and was condemned to be demolished. Demolition began on 19 October, was completed in February 2011. Manchester Courts was commissioned by the New Zealand Express Company, which had its headquarters in Dunedin with offices throughout the country, they worked in freight forwarding, customs and express forwarding agents. At the beginning of the 20th century, they were a major employer in New Zealand; the company engaged architects Sidney and Alfred Luttrell with the design of their Christchurch head offices. The architects had been in the country since 1902, they are credited with introducing the Chicago skyscraper architectural style to New Zealand, blending it with Edwardian architecture.

The Luttrells' buildings included the same commissioners' 1908 New Zealand Express House in The Exchange, Dunedin — the city's first skyscraper — which shares many features with Manchester Courts. From 1991 it had a Category I classification with the New Zealand Historic Places Trust. In 1986 -- 1987, the building had its parapet removed and was reclad in steel. Manchester Courts is believed to have been the first steel reinforced commercial building in Christchurch; the foundations and the two lower stories were made from reinforced concrete. The upper five stories had external unreinforced brick columns that were load bearing, while the interior was made of steel framing. Manchester Courts suffered significant structural damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake; the masonry columns showed shear failure. According to the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, this was due to the load transfer from the reinforced concrete floor to the unreinforced brick columns, was further caused by the two storey building adjoining on the south side stopping to provide lateral support at that height.

Diagonal cracking on the top floor indicated damage from torsional forces. The building was deemed unsafe and was one of just two historic CBD buildings the City Council proposed for immediate demolition; that decision was reversed hours when the building's owner proposed to dismantle the building over several weeks. A 60 m cordon was established around the building to guarantee public safety. Christchurch City Council voted 10 to 2 at their 6 October 2010 meeting that the building was a safety hazard and should thus be demolished; the council's CEO was given powers to issue a demolition warrant, which avoided the usual resource consent process that could take up to 18 months. The demolition warrant could be granted under section 129 of the Building Act 2004, where "immediate danger to the safety of people is likely". Resource consent was not required for the demolition. Heritage enthusiasts and others protested against demolition, arguing that the masonry columns would have been reinforced with steel, that the council should obtain its own engineering report, not rely on that commissioned by the building's owner.

The owner presented evidence of further damage in aftershocks and pressed for urgent demolition, saying he had been advised that the building was showing signs of impending failure. The fate of Manchester Courts attracted significant media attention. TV One had the demolition decision as their anchor story for their 6 pm news. Demolition started on 19 October, was nearing completion in January 2011; the building weakened by the removal of key structural supports by demolition engineers, withstood a number of large aftershocks without collapsing. During the demolition, an opponent of the demolition said he had photographs showing that the building did indeed contain substantial steel reinforcement; the building's owner said that less steel had been found than expected, the mayor stood by the decision to demolish. "Manchester Courts". Register of Historic Places. Heritage New Zealand. Retrieved 7 October 2010. Proposed demolition of 160 Manchester Street at the Christchurch City Council Demolition cam

Zabłudów Synagogue

Zabłudów Synagogue - a former wooden synagogue building, located in Zabłudów, was erected in the 2nd quarter of the 17th century. It was burned to the ground by the German occupying authorities in June 1941 after their conquest of the town.. In the 17th century the town was owned by the Radziwiłł family. In 1635 permission was granted by Krzysztof Radziwiłł for the construction of the synagogue. Most this was built by his son Janusz Radziwiłł in 1640. Over the years it was permanently altered; the last alterations took place between 1895 and 1923. It was burnt down by German soldiers in the first days of the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. A replica of the Zabłudów synagogue was made in 2004 at the University of Wisconsin in the course study; the main hall was nearly square in plan. The walls had a height of height 6.50m. The main hall would have been lit by 8 two-light windows, 2 in each wall. Following addition of a women's prayer room on the upper level, the west windows were removed.

In 1646 it had been decided to build a women's room at ground level. In years 2 corner pavilions were added. In 1765 restoration of the entire building was undertaken and at the beginning of the 18th century the vestibule was enlarged and a women's room was constructed above it; the shape of the roof was altered several times. The Holy Ark was elevated on 2 levels and composed of elements of varied artistic and material quality; the Bimah was an octagonal little building-chapel with 2 porches over the stairs. It was located near the entrance. Https://sztetl.org.pl/en/towns/z/845-zabludow/112-synagogues-prayer-houses-and-others/90250-our-ancient-synagogue-zabludow