A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an aeroplane. Other kinds of partition elements within a ship are deckheads; the word bulki meant "cargo" in Old Norse. Sometime in the 15th century sailors and builders in Europe realized that walls within a vessel would prevent cargo from shifting during passage. In shipbuilding, any vertical panel was called a "head". So walls installed abeam in a vessel's hull were called "bulkheads". Now, the term bulkhead applies except for the hull itself. Bulkhead partitions are considered to have been a type of ship. Song Dynasty author Zhu Yu wrote in his book of 1119 that the hulls of Chinese ships had a bulkhead build; the 5th-century book Garden of Strange Things by Liu Jingshu mentioned that a ship could allow water to enter the bottom without sinking. Archaeological evidence of bulkhead partitions has been found on a 24 m long Song Dynasty ship dredged from the waters off the southern coast of China in 1973, the hull of the ship divided into twelve walled compartmental sections built watertight, dated to about 1277.
Texts written by Western writers such as Marco Polo, Niccolò Da Conti, Benjamin Franklin describe the bulkhead partitions of East Asian shipbuilding. An account of the early fifteenth century describes Indian ships as being built in compartments so that if one part was damaged, the rest remained intact — a forerunner of the modern day watertight compartments using bulkheads. Bulkhead partitions became widespread in Western shipbuilding during the early 19th century. Benjamin Franklin wrote in a 1787 letter that "as these vessels are not to be laden with goods, their holds may without inconvenience be divided into separate apartments, after the Chinese manner, each of these apartments caulked tight so as to keep out water." A 19th century book on shipbuilding attributes the introduction of watertight bulkheads to Charles Wye Williams, known for his steamships. Bulkheads in a ship serve several purposes: increase the structural rigidity of the vessel, divide functional areas into rooms and create watertight compartments that can contain water in the case of a hull breach or other leak. some bulkheads and decks are fire-resistance rated to achieve compartmentalisation, a passive fire protection measure.
On an aircraft, bulkheads divide the cabin into multiple areas. On passenger aircraft a common application is for physically dividing cabins used for different classes of service On combination cargo/ passenger, or "combi" aircraft, bulkhead walls are inserted to divide areas intended for passenger seating and cargo storage. Openings in fire-resistance rated bulkheads and decks must be firestopped to restore the fire-resistance ratings that would otherwise be compromised, if the openings were left unsealed; the authority having jurisdiction for such measures varies depending upon the flag of the ship. Merchant vessels are subject to the regulations and inspections of the Coast Guards of the flag country. Combat ships are subject to the regulations set out by the navy of the country. Bulkheads and decks of warships may be grounded as a countermeasure against damage from EMI and EMP due to nuclear or electromagnetic bomb detonations near the ship, which could damage the vital electronic systems on a ship.
In the case of firestops, cable jacketing is removed within the seal and firestop rubber modules are internally fitted with copper shields, which contact the cables' armour in order to ground the seal. The term was applied to other vehicles, such as railroad cars, hopper cars, automobiles, aircraft or spacecraft, as well as to containers, intermediate bulk containers and fuel tanks. In some of these cases bulkheads are airtight to prevent the spread of a fire; the term may be used for the "end walls" of bulkhead flatcars. Mechanically, a partition or panel through which connectors pass, or a connector designed to pass through a partition. In architecture the term is used to denote any boxed in beam or other downstand from a ceiling and by extension the vertical downstand face of an area of lower ceiling beyond; this usage derives from experience on boats where to maintain the structural function personnel openings through bulkheads always retain a portion of the bulkhead crossing the head of the opening.
Head strikes on these downstand elements are commonplace hence in architecture any overhead downstand element comes to be referred to as a bulkhead. Britannica definition Merriam-Webster definition WIPO Bulkhead for motor vehicle Canadian Armed Forces Glossary, see Fire Zone, page 5 of 14 Det Norske Veritas Type Approval for a fire damper inside and A60 bulkhead Subject-related patent by Free Patents Online An example treatise on the use of A60 bulkheads onboard tankers
The 99 Percent Declaration or 99% Declaration is a not-for-profit organization based in Kentucky that originated from a working group of the Occupy Wall Street movement in Zuccotti Park, New York City, in October 2011. The organization published a document calling for a "National General Assembly" to be held beginning the week of July 4, 2012 in Philadelphia, rejected by the general assemblies of OWS and Occupy Philadelphia; the Declaration includes demands for an immediate ban on all monetary and gift contributions to all politicians, implementation of a public financing system for political campaigns, the enactment of an amendment to the United States Constitution overturning the Supreme Court's Citizens United v. FEC decision; the Occupy Wall Street movement began as an advertised demonstration which posed the question "What is our one Demand?", inviting protesters to identify and rally around a particular cause. This led several individuals and groups to propose various demands including the 99 Percent Declaration."Occupy" protesters from across the country have said that the 99 Percent Declaration group "is co-opting the'Occupy' name", Occupy Wall Street has not endorsed the 99% Declaration, which "generated more controversy than consensus" at the New York General Assembly and was "flat out rejected by the Philadelphia General Assembly."
The Occupy Philadelphia General Assembly stated that "We do not support the 99% Declaration, its group, its website, its National GA and anything else associated with it." Occupy Wall Street released a statement indicating that "he group's plans blatantly contradict OWS' Statement of Autonomy, as passed by the General Assembly at Occupy Wall Street," and clarifying that any statement issued outside of the New York City General Assembly's website "should be considered independent of Occupy Wall Street." A Washington Times editorial criticized the group's proposed restrictions on political contributions and speech, saying they "would leave us less free and show a woeful contempt for the First Amendment."Attorney Michael Pollok had issued a press release representing himself as the group's co-founder and publicizing its plans expressing understanding that the NY General Assembly "fears'co-opting' by Occupy spin-off groups like ours", but indicating his belief that "occupations and protests will not end the corporate state" and that a petition for redress of grievances is the best way to achieve the "dismantling corporate control of our country".
Michael Pollok has stated on his earliest websites and Facebook pages that he came into contact with OWS through providing legal representation to several of the people who were arrested on September 30, 2011 during a march of 700 protesters across the Brooklyn Bridge. None of those protesters has come forward to verify this. Early on, the group was fraught with contention among participants and went through several incarnations of leadership before the actual event that took place the weekend of July 4, 2012. Little is known about how the actual voting process was conducted, how many voters or delegates there were, or whether the group exists any longer. A national general assembly, the Continental Congress 2.0, was announced in March 2012. It was organized by the 99% Declaration working group; the Congress was to comprise 878 delegates, from all 435 Congressional districts, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia. Only about 76 delegates were elected and present at the gathering, which lasted from July 2 to 4.
The Congress drafted and ratified a 21st-century petition for the redress of grievances, in accordance with the right to petition guaranteed by the First Amendment of the Constitution. The petition was to be publicly presented to the American people and copies were to be served to the United States Congress, Supreme Court and President Barack Obama; the Occupy National Gathering movement was protesting in Philadelphia during the gathering. Occupy Wall Street Liberty Square Blueprint We are the 99% Lobby 99 "Occupy Wall Street Demands: The 99 Percent Declaration Calls for July 4 General Assembly in Philadelphia - International Business Times". Ibtimes.com. Retrieved 2012-03-05. "'Occupy' to hold national conference in Philly –". Usatoday.com. 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2012-03-05. Da Silva, Chantal. "Has Occupy Wall Street Changed America?". Newsweek. Official Website — Archived 2012-02-18 at the Wayback Machine Copy of Official Website A Declaration of the 99% A short documentary of the 2012 Philadelphia event by Eliot Hochberg of INDHD.com https://web.archive.org/web/20120403043222/http://www.the99declaration.org/
Madan Mohan Mishra was a Nepalese author and humorist known for his epic poetry, satirical writings and children's songs. He wrote in Nepal Bhasa and English. Mishra was born to mother Maheswari Mishra in Lalitpur, he was educated in Sanskrit. Mishra has written more than two dozen books including scholarly works on art and sculpture, his Gajiguluya Mhagasay Pashupatinath, published in 1975, is one of his most loved works in Nepal Bhasa. The first edition was confiscated by the Panchayat regime, he wrote on Newar cultural-oral history for different papers, including Amalekh Weekly. He has been honored with the title of Khyali Ratna by Khyaligulu Guthi, an association of humorists