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Hull (watercraft)

A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. The hull may open at the top, or it may be or covered with a deck. Atop the deck may be a deckhouse and other superstructures, such as a funnel, derrick, or mast; the line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. There is a wide variety of hull types that are chosen for suitability for different usages, the hull shape being dependent upon the needs of the design. Shapes range from a nearly perfect box in the case of scow barges, to a needle-sharp surface of revolution in the case of a racing multihull sailboat; the shape is chosen to strike a balance between cost, hydrostatic considerations and special considerations for the ship's role, such as the rounded bow of an icebreaker or the flat bottom of a landing craft. In a typical modern steel ship, the hull will have watertight decks, major transverse members called bulkheads. There may be intermediate members such as girders and webs, minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural arrangement.

The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or "deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or where it sails. In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames and bulkheads, which are further tied together by longitudinal stringers or ceiling, but not always there is a centerline longitudinal member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, or be of a monocoque arrangement. In many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material; the earliest proper hulls were built by the Ancient Egyptians, who by 3000 BC knew how to assemble wooden planks into a hull. Hulls come in many varieties and can have composite shape, but are grouped as follows: Chined and hard-chined.

Examples are the flat-bottom, v-bottom, multi-bottom hull. These types have at least one pronounced knuckle throughout most of their length. Moulded, round soft-chined; these hull shapes all have smooth curves. Examples are the round bilge, semi-round bilge, s-bottom hull. Displacement hull: here the hull is supported or predominantly by buoyancy. Vessels that have this type of hull travel through the water at a limited rate, defined by the waterline length, they are though not always, heavier than planing types. Planing hull: here, the planing hull form is configured to develop positive dynamic pressure so that its draft decreases with increasing speed; the dynamic lift reduces the wetted surface and therefore the drag. They are sometimes flat-bottomed, sometimes V-bottomed and more round-bilged; the most common form is to have at least one chine, which makes for more efficient planing and can throw spray down. Planing hulls are more efficient at higher speeds, although they still require more energy to achieve these speeds.

An effective planing hull must be as light as possible with flat surfaces that are consistent with good sea keeping. Sail boats that plane must sail efficiently in displacement mode in light winds. Semi-displacement, or semi-planing: here the hull form is capable of developing a moderate amount of dynamic lift. At present, the most used form is the round bilge hull. In the inverted bell shape of the hull, with a smaller payload the waterline cross-section is less, hence the resistance is less and the speed is higher. With a higher payload the outward bend provides smoother performance in waves; as such, the inverted bell shape is a popular form used with planing hulls. A chined hull consists of straight, tall, long, or short plates, timbers or sheets of ply, which are set at an angle to each other when viewed in transverse section; the traditional chined hull is a simple hull shape because it works with only straight planks bent into a curve. These boards are bent lengthwise. Plywood chined boats made of 8' x 4' sheets have most bend along the long axis of the sheet.

Only thin ply 3–6 mm can be shaped into a compound bend. Most home-made constructed boats are chined hull boats. Mass-produced chine powerboats are made of sprayed chop strand fibreglass over a wooden mold; the Cajun "pirogue" is an example of a craft with hard chines. Benefits of this type of hull is the low production cost and the flat bottom, making the boat faster at planing. Sail boats with chined hull make use of a dagger keel. Chined hulls may have one of three shapes: Flat-bottom chined hulls Multi-chined hulls V-bottom chined hulls. Sometimes called hard chine; each of these chine hulls use. The flat-bottom hull has high initial stability but high drag. To counter the high drag, hull forms are narrow and sometimes tapered at bow and stern; this leads to poor stability. This is countered by using heavy interior ballast on sailing versions, they are best suited to sheltered inshore waters. Early racing power boats were flat aft; this produced maximum lift and a smooth, fast ride in flat water, but this hull form is unsettled in waves.

The multi chine hull approximates a

Francis Webb (engineer)

Francis William Webb was an English railway engineer, responsible for the design and manufacture of locomotives for the London and North Western Railway. Webb was born in Tixall Rectory, near the second son of William Webb, Rector of Tixall. Showing early interest in mechanical engineering, on 11 August 1851 at the age of fifteen he was articled as a pupil of Francis Trevithick at Crewe Works. Webb joined the drawing office at the end of his training, he became Chief Draughtsman on 1 March 1859. On 1 September 1861 he was appointed Works Manager at Chief Assistant to John Ramsbottom. Whilst Works Manager Webb was responsible for the installation of Bessemer converters and the start of steel production at Crewe. In July 1866 Webb moved to the Bolton Iron and Steel Co. as the manager. It has been suggested that this move was arranged by the LNWR management to enable him to gain experience of steel making. Ramsbottom gave 12 months notice of his resignation in September 1870. Shortly afterwards the Works Manager, Thomas Stubbs, died aged 34.

Stubbs may have been Ramsbottom's intended successor. The Chairman of the LNWR, Richard Moon, invited him to return to Crewe. In October 1870 Moon was able to inform Webb that his appointment as Locomotive Superintendent had been approved. Webb's salary was set at £2,000 for the first year, £3,000 for the second and subsequent years. Webb took up his position on 1 October 1871. Webb became Chief Mechanical Engineer, it appears. At the same time he became President of the Crewe Mechanics' Institute, where he had for some time taught engineering drawing during his first stay at Crewe. Webb remained as CME of the LNWR until 1 July 1903, having tendered his resignation in November 1902, his successor, George Whale, was appointed in April 1903. Whale took over Webb's position somewhat earlier than planned, as Webb became ill in June. Webb was responsible throughout his career for some successful standard locomotive classes, all built at Crewe in considerable numbers. Notable amongst these is the Precedent class of 2-4-0, an 0-6-0 general purpose freight design, its 0-6-2 variant, a celebrated 0-6-0 mixed traffic design, an 0-8-0 freight locomotive with two compound variants and a simple expansion version produced in parallel, The last-mentioned was continuously developed and built down to LMS days, most earlier locomotives being rebuilt to conform.

There does however remain some controversy over Webb's own two distinct compound systems applied to a number of locomotive designs, which are reputed to have given considerable trouble in service. The Webb Experiment or Improved Precedent class were withdrawn by his successor George Whale soon after he succeeded Webb in 1903. An obituary in The Engineer criticised his express compound design, which used un-coupled high and low pressure cylinders, a design promoted by Webb alone; the article caused open debate in the pages of the journal based on the perceived flaw of not utilising coupling rods. In the 20 June edition the editor of the journal continued the attack on the deceased engineer, stating: It is a noteworthy fact that no railway authority in Great Britain and Ireland believed in these engines. On what evidence that faith was based we have never been able to discover Webb was responsible for the remodelling of Crewe station which involved the building of four tracks in underpasses on the west side of the station to carry freight trains.

He received over 80 patents. He was Vice-President of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Webb took a great interest in local politics and was an Alderman on the Crewe Town Council and had been Mayor twice, he was an Alderman on Cheshire County Council. In Crewe he was for many years remembered as a major benefactor of the "Webb Orphanage", a beautiful red-brick building with extensive playing fields behind the railway works and fronting on Victoria Avenue. Together with Richard Moon, Chairman of the LNWR, he presented, to the Crewe Corporation, on behalf of the railway company, Queen's Park, a large and beautifully landscaped park with attractive entrance gates and lodges and fronting on Victoria Avenue. "Frank Webb Avenue", a much Crewe residential street recalls his name. He retired in 1903 to Bournemouth, he died in Bournemouth in 1906 aged 70. He had never married. A complex man, with great capabilities, deep sensitivity and tolerance yet sometimes an unapproachable martinet, blind to the faults of his compound locomotives.

John Hick "Francis William Webb",

Rufous elephant shrew

The rufous elephant shrew, rufous sengi or East African long-eared elephant-shrew is a species of elephant shrew in the family Macroscelididae. Found in Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda, its natural habitats are dry savanna and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland. Elephantulus rufescens occupies the drywood grassland zone of East Africa. Elephantulus rufescens exhibits no sexual dimorphism; the proboscis is flexible. The species' tails can be long up to its head-to-tail length. Both adults and juveniles are similar in color; the dorsal fur is of fine texture and the coloring is brown, reddish-brown in color, or buff while the ventral fur coloring is white. The coloration of the dorsal fur is influenced by the color of the soil in which the E. rufescens lives. However, adults have white feet; the large eye is surrounded by a white ring, interrupted by a dark patch which extended towards the rear of the animal. The ears are large and without fur. A sternal gland is present on both females.

The sternal gland is indicated by fringed white hairs. Females have three pair of teats and the males have internal testes. Rufous elephant shrews are active throughout the day, with peaks in activity at dusk and dawn while having a midday rest. A mating male and female will build trails beneath leaf litter; the trails act as shelter and protection because the rufous elephant shrew does not build or use shelters or burrows. Throughout the trails are several rest spots for scent-marking and sunbathing. Moving the forefoot laterally to push aside leaf litter and other loose debris, E. rufescens constructs and maintains trails. The males spend most of their time cleaning the foraging trails. Except for foraging, all activities are performed in these trails. Trails act. Insects form the major food resource of their diet in the dry season, while seeds are consumed during periods of rain. E. Rufescens has not been observed sleeping with closed eyes, but has been observed resting with eyes closed for a period of 1 – 2 minutes.

During these rest periods, which occur in rest spot along the trails, E. rufescens keeps their feet under their body to allow for a quick escape. This species takes flight when the smallest noise is heard; this species is monogamous. They live in a matriarchal society in which the female of the pair dominates the male; the rufous elephant shrew gives birth to two precocial young per litter. The female gives birth by fallen tree limbs beside the trails, she does not stay will the neonates and only nurses them in infrequently and for only a short amount of time. The neonates remain in the parental trails, expanding their familiarity of the parental territory up to 14 days after birth. If the young wander into any neighboring rufous elephant shrew trails, the residing residents chase them out of their trails. Before the next litter is born, parents chase the previous litter for the trails resulting in dispersal or death of the previous litter. Olfactory communication between young E. rufescens and their parents is achieved through apocrine glands located on the underside of the young's feet.

Neonates less than five days old have been observed back-rubbing one of its parents. Parents crouch down, allowing the neonates to climb on their backs and vigorously rub their four feet in the fur in a rapid vibrating motion. Cooperation between the neonates and adults is necessary or the neonates will fall off; the act of back-rubbing allows neonates to deposit pedal gland products on the fur of the parents and in turn transfer parental odors to their own fur. The mixture of the scents creates a family odor. BBC Wildlife Finder - with video clip from Life Elephantulus rufescens at the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Mamar Kassey

Mamar Kassey is a jazz-pop-ethnic band from Niger. It is named after a legendary warrior; the band's leader is flautist Yacouba Moumouni. The group combines traditional Hausa, Djerma and Songhai rhythms, instruments such as the molo, modern instruments such as the electric bass, their sound incorporates western jazz and Latin music. An eight-piece group formed by Moumouni and guitarist Abdallah Alhassane in 1995, Mamar Kassey have released two albums internationally and toured Europe and the United States multiple times, they came to attention in France after an appearance at the Festival des Nuits Atypiques in Langon in 1998. They are one of the few Nigerien musical acts known internationally, much beloved in their home country. In 2004-2005, musicians from Mamar Kassey toured with a group of Breton folk musicians under the name Makida Palabre; the collaboration included Breton musicians Pierre-Yves Prothais, Ronan Le Gourierec, Laurent Carré, Youen Paranthoen playing Breton/Celtic, western jazz, West African instruments.

The members of the band have changed over the course of the group's existence. The group that performed at the Festival des nomades in Benin in 2000 included: Abdoulaye ALASSANE,: guitar. Adamou DAOUDA,: kalangou. Boubacar Souleyman MAIGA,: percussion, calabash. Harouna ABDOU: electric bass guitar. Housseïni Namata CHIBAKOU: molo lute. Yacouba MOUMOUNI: flute, vocals. Denké-Denké, Harmonia Mundi, Daqui, Harmonia Mundi, World Village WV470003 Via Campesina, Harmonia Mundi On va voir ça, Harmonia Mundi Niger, Innacor Records, collection of reviews and interviews for Mondomix program, at TV5Monde. Includes extensive history of the group Interview by Pierre René-Worms, 2006, Radio France International. At the Ferveur Gnaoua Festival in Mogador, Morocco. BBC: Mamar Kassey Alatoumi. Reviewed by Peter Marsh. 20 November 2002. Afropop Worldwide: Mamar Kassey, Alatoumi. Reviewed by Banning Eyre, 2001. SONG OF THE SAHEL. Dan Maley, Macon Telegraph,2004-09-03, Page 3. Video and biography at TV5Monde. Photos from the Fêt'arts festival in Burkina Faso, 2003.

Performance at the Alliance Franco-Marocaine d'El Jadida, Morocco. Radio programs and performance photos, 2006 at Radio France International

List of American game shows

The following is a list of game shows in the United States. Current shows are in bold type. 1 vs. 100 2 Minute Drill 3 for the Money 10 Seconds 20Q 25 Words or Less 50 Grand Slam 100 Grand 100% 101 Ways to Leave a Game Show 500 Questions $1,000 Reward The $10,000 Pyramid The $20,000 Pyramid The $25,000 Pyramid The $50,000 Pyramid The $100,000 Pyramid Pyramid The Pyramid $50,000 a Minute The $1,000,000 Chance of a Lifetime @midnight About Faces Across the Board The Ad-Libbers Add a Line Adivinelo con Señas All About Faces All About the Opposite Sex All-Star Blitz All Star Secrets Almost Anything Goes All-Star Anything Goes The Almost Impossible Gameshow Alumni Fun The Amazing American America Says The American Bible Challenge American Gladiators American Gladiators Americana American Ninja Warrior Amne$ia Animal Crack-Ups Answer Yes or No Anybody Can Play Anyone Can Win Anything For Money Anything You Can Do Are You a Genius? Are You Smarter Than a 5th Grader? The Art Ford Show The Art Linkletter Show The Ask-It Basket Auction Quiz Auction-Aire Baby Game Balance Your Budget Balderdash Bank on the Stars Bargain Hunters The Baron and the Bee Battle Dome Battle of the Ages Battle of the Ages Battle of the Network Stars Battle of the Sexes Battlestars and its revival, The New Battlestars Beach Clash Beat Shazam Beat the Band Beat the Clock Beat the Geeks Beat the Odds Ben Bernie's Musical Quiz The Better Half The Better Sex Bid'N' Buy Big Fan The Big Game The Big Moment The Big Payoff The Big Showdown The Big Surprise Binge Thinking Black Card Revoked Blackout Blade Warriors Blank Check Blankety Blanks Blockbusters Boardwalk and Baseball's Super Bowl of Sports Trivia Bobcat's Big Ass Show Boggle: The Interactive Game Boom!

Born Lucky Bowling for Dollars Bowling Headliners Braingames Brain Games Brains and Brawn Break the Bank Break the Bank Break the Bank Broadway to Hollywood Broke Ass Game Show Bruce Forsyth's Hot Streak Bullseye Bumper Stumpers Caesars Challenge Call My Bluff Calling All Detectives Camouflage Camouflage Can Do Candy Crush Card Sharks The Carnation Family Party Cash and Carry Cash Cab Cash Cab: After Dark Cash Cab: Chicago Catch Me if You Can Hit the Jackpot Catchphrase CBS Television Quiz Celebrity Billiards Celebrity Bowling The Celebrity Game Celebity Golf Celebrity Lanes Celebrity Name Game Celebrity Sweepstakes Celebrity Tennis Chain Letter Chain Reaction The Chair The Challenge The Chamber Chance for Romance Chance of a Lifetime Charade Quiz Charge Account The Chase The Cheap Show Child Support Child's Play Dame la Pista Choose Up Sides Cinderella Inc. Clash! Vs. Come Closer Comedy of Errors Common Knowledge Concentration Classic Concentration Coronet Quick Quiz Correction Please Couch Potatoes County Fair Cram Crossword The Cross-Wits and its revival, The New Cross Wits Merv Griffin's Crosswords The Cube Daily Dilemmas Dance Machine Darts for Dough Deal or No Deal Vas o No Vas Deal

1991 in jazz

This is a timeline documenting events of Jazz in the year 1991. 22 – The 18th Vossajazz started in Voss, Norway. 17 – The 20th Moers Festival started in Moers, Germany. 22 – The 19th Nattjazz started in Bergen, Norway. 2 – 25th Montreux Jazz Festival started in Switzerland. 11 – The 16th North Sea Jazz Festival started in The Hague. 16 – The 8th Brecon Jazz Festival started in Brecon, Wales. 20 – The 34th Monterey Jazz Festival started in Monterey, California. Carla Bley divorced Michael Mantler. Carla Bley was married to Steve Swallow. January4 Eddie Barefield, American saxophonist and arranger. Leo Wright, American alto saxophonist and clarinetist. 10 – Bob Wallis, British trumpeter. 14 – Miles Copeland Jr. American musician. February26 – Slim Gaillard, American singer, pianist, guitarist and tenor saxophonist. March3 – Sal Nistico, American tenor saxophonist. 15 – Bud Freeman, American tenor saxophonist, clarinetist and composer. 20 – Billy Butler, American guitarist. 25 – Rusty Bryant, American tenor and alto saxophonist.

31 – John Carter, American clarinetist and flautist. April1 Bjarne Nerem, Norwegian tenor saxophonist, alto saxophonist, clarinetist. Jon Eardley, American trumpeter. 16 – Ove Lind, Swedish clarinetist. 19 – Barry Rogers, American trombonist. May3 – Harry Gibson, American pianist and songwriter. 8 – Kenny Trimble, American trombonist. June6 – Stan Getz, American saxophonist. 23 – Masayuki Takayanagi, Japanese guitarist. 29 – Richard Holmes, American organist. July24 – Tullio Mobiglia, Italian saxophonist and bandleader. 31 – Charlie Beal, American pianist. August4 – Jeri Southern, American pianist and singer. 10 – Buster Smith, American alto saxophonist. September4 – Charlie Barnet, American saxophonist and bandleader. 28 – Miles Davis American trumpeter and composer. October1 – Stu Williamson, American trumpeter and valve trombonist. November9 – Lance Hayward, Bermudan-American pianist. December8 – Buck Clayton, American trumpeter. 12 – Ronnie Ross, British baritone saxophonist. 18 – King Kolax, American trumpeter and bandleader.

22 – Beaver Harris, American drummer. 31 – Pat Patrick, American baritone saxophonist, alto saxophonist, guitar bassist. Unknown dateTío Tom, Afro-Cuban musician. February4 – Kjetil Mulelid, Norwegian pianist and composer. April10 – Andreas Skår Winther, Norwegian drummer. 23 – Jean Rondeau, French harpsichordist. 26 – Will Heard, English singer and multi-instrumentalist. May10 – Jimmy Macbride, American drummer and composer. July26 – Nathan Hartono, Indonesian multi-instrumentalist and vocalist. September21 – Ai Kuwabara, Japanese pianist. 25 – Per Kamfjord, Norwegian drummer. October20 – Henrik Lødøen, Norwegian drummer. Unknown dateBendik Baksaas, Norwegian electronica artist. Magnus Bakken, Norwegian saxophonist. Olli Soikkeli, Finnish guitarist. 1990s in jazz List of years in jazz 1991 in music History Of Jazz Timeline: 1991 at All About Jazz