Bull Run River (Oregon)
The Bull Run River is a 21.9-mile tributary of the Sandy River in the U. S. state of Oregon. Beginning at the lower end of Bull Run Lake in the Cascade Range, it flows west through the Bull Run Watershed Management Unit, a restricted area meant to protect the river and its tributaries from contamination; the river, impounded by two artificial storage reservoirs as well as the lake, is the primary source of drinking water for the city of Portland, Oregon. It is that Native Americans living along the Columbia River as early as 10,000 years ago visited the Bull Run watershed in search of food. Within the past few thousand years they created trails over the Cascade Range and around Mount Hood, near the upper part of the Bull Run watershed. By the mid-19th century, pioneers used these trails to cross the mountains from east to west to reach the fertile Willamette Valley. In the 1890s, the City of Portland, searching for sources of clean drinking water, chose the Bull Run River. Dam-building, road construction, legal action to protect the watershed began shortly thereafter, Bull Run water began to flow through a large pipe to the city in 1895.
Erosion-resistant basalt underlies much of the watershed, streams passing over it are free of sediments. However, turbidity increases when unstable soils sandwiched between layers of basalt and other volcanic rocks are disturbed and wash into the river during rainstorms. Despite legal protections, about 22 percent of the protected zone was logged during the second half of the 20th century, erosion increased. For a time in 1996, Portland had to shut down the Bull Run supply because of turbidity and switch to water from wells. A law passed that year prohibited most logging in or near the watershed, since the Portland Water Bureau and the United States Forest Service have closed many of the logging roads and removed culverts and other infrastructure contributing to erosion. Mature trees, most of them more than 500 years old and more than 21 inches in diameter, cover about half of the watershed, the rest of the watershed is heavily forested. Annual precipitation ranges from 80 inches near the water supply intake to as much as 170 inches near the headwaters.
More than 250 wildlife species, including the protected northern spotted owl, inhabit this forest. Downstream of the BRWMU, the watershed is far less restricted. In the late 19th century, an unincorporated community, Bull Run, became established near the river in conjunction with a hydroelectric project and a related railroad line. About 6 miles of the lower river is open to fishing and boating, the land at the confluence of the Bull Run and Sandy rivers has been a public park since the early 20th century; the Bull Run River begins at Bull Run Lake, a natural body of water modified by the Portland Water Bureau, near Hiyo Mountain in the Mount Hood Wilderness. Originating in Clackamas County north of Forest Road 18, its unnamed headwater tributaries enter the lake. Flowing northwest from the lake, the river enters Multnomah County and continues northwest for about 5 miles. Along this stretch, the river flows by a United States Geological Survey stream gauge at river mile 20.9 or river kilometer 30.6, passes under Forest Road 1025 and Forest Road 10 and receives Blazed Alder Creek from the left and Log Creek and Falls Creek, both from the right.
The river turns southwest and passes another stream gauge just before entering Bull Run River Reservoir 1 at RM 15. Entering the reservoir are Fir Creek from the left, North Fork Bull Run River from the right Deer and Bear creeks, all from the right; the Bull Run River exits the reservoir via a spillway 11 miles from the river mouth. Forest Road 10 runs parallel to the right bank of the river from near the headwaters to Southwest Bull Run Road, near the mouth. Entering Bull Run River Reservoir 2, the river receives Camp Creek from the left, re-enters Clackamas County, receives South Fork Bull Run River from the left; the river exits the reservoir via a spillway at about RM 6. Below Reservoir 2, Forest Road 10 is on the river's right bank, Forest Road 14 is on the left; the river flows by a stream gauge at RM 4.7 and passes under Forest Road 14 before receiving the Little Sandy River from the left at about RM 2. The river turns northwest, passes under an unnamed road and under Southeast Bull Run Road near the unincorporated community of Bull Run, on the river's right, the defunct powerhouse of the Bull Run Hydroelectric Project, on the left.
Southeast Camp Namanu Road runs parallel to the river along its right bank from here to the mouth. Along this stretch, the river receives Laughing Water Creek from the right and enters the Sandy River at Dodge Park, about 18.5 miles from the larger river's confluence with the Columbia River. The USGS and the water bureau operate a stream gauge at RM 4.7, 1.8 miles downstream from Bull Run Reservoir 2 and the water system intake. Measurements are for the river only and do not include water diverted upstream of the gauge to the city water supply or to a former power plant; the maximum flow at this station was 24,800 cubic feet per second on December 22, 1964, the minimum flow was 1.1 cubic feet per second on October 4, 1974. The drainage area above this gauge is about 77 percent of the whole watershed; the maximum flow occurred during the floods of December 1964 and January 1965, rated by the National Weather Service as one of Oregon's top 10 weather events of the 20th century. Since 1966, the USGS has monito
A flume is a human-made channel for water in the form of an open declined gravity chute whose walls are raised above the surrounding terrain, in contrast to a trench or ditch. Flumes are not to be confused with aqueducts, which are built to transport water, rather than transporting materials using flowing water as a flume does. Flumes route water from a diversion dam or weir to a desired materiel collection location. Many flumes took the form of wooden troughs elevated on trestles following the natural contours of the land. Originating as a part of a mill race, they were used in the transportation of logs in the logging industry, known as a log flume, they were extensively used in hydraulic mining and working placer deposits for gold and other heavy minerals. The term flume comes from the Old French word flum, from the Latin flumen, meaning a river, it was used for a stream, for the tail of a mill race. It is used in America for a narrow gorge running between precipitous rocks, with a stream at the bottom, but more is applied to an artificial channel of wood or other material for the diversion of a stream of water from a river for purposes of irrigation, for running a sawmill, or for various processes in the hydraulic method of gold-mining.
A diversionary flume is used to transfer water from one body to another, such as between two reservoirs. Log flumes use the flow of water to carry cut logs and timber downhill, sometimes many miles, to either a sawmill or location for further transport; some varieties of flumes are used in measuring water flow of a larger channel. When used to measure the flow of water in open channels, a flume is defined as a specially shaped, fixed hydraulic structure that under free-flow conditions forces flow to accelerate in such a manner that the flow rate through the flume can be characterized by a level-to-flow relationship as applied to a single head measurement within the flume. Acceleration is accomplished through a convergence of the sidewalls, a change in floor elevation, or a combination of the two. Flow measurement flumes consist of a converging section, a throat section, a diverging section. Not all sections, need to be present. In the case of the Cutthroat flume, the converging section directly joins the diverging section, resulting in a throat section of no length.
Other flumes omit the diverging section. Flumes offer distinct advantages over sharp-crested weirs: For the same control width, the head loss for a flume is about one-fourth of that needed to operate a sharp-crested weir The velocity of approach is part of the calibration equations for flumes Unauthorized altering of the dimensions of constructed flumes is difficult Most flume styles allow for the passage of sedimentation and floating debris – reducing the time and effort associated with maintaining a flume installationStyles of flow measurement flumes include: Cutthroat, HS / H / HL-type, Montana, RBC, Palmer-Bowlus and Venturi Flume. Flow measurement flumes can be installed in earthen channels, concrete canals, below ground chambers, or factory integrated into Packaged Metering Manholes. In some nineteenth-century canals, a bypass flume diverted water around a lift lock from the level above to the level below the lock, so that the level below would have sufficient water. In competitive swimming, specialized flumes with transparent sides are employed by coaches to analyze a swimmer's technique.
The speed of the flow is variable to accommodate the full spectrum of ability. Acequia Aqueduct Canal Leat Log flume Mill race http://www.openchannelflow.com/blog/article/sections-of-a-flume-their-location-and-function Sections of a Flume - Their Location and Function http://www.openchannelflow.com/blog/article/anatomy-of-a-flume Anatomy of a Flume Clemmens, Albert. Water Measurement with Flumes and Weirs. ISBN 978-1887201544. Akers, Peter. Weirs and Flumes for Flow Measurement. ISBN 978-0471996378. Pictures of flow measurement flumes
Little Sandy River (Oregon)
The Little Sandy River is a tributary 15 miles long, of the Bull Run River in the U. S. state of Oregon. Forming west of Mount Hood in the Mount Hood National Forest, it flows west parallel to the Sandy River to the south, its entire course lies in Clackamas County, most of its main stem and tributaries are within the Bull Run Watershed Management Unit, a restricted zone that protects Portland's main water supply. In 2008, Portland General Electric removed the Little Sandy Dam, the only dam on the river, while decommissioning its Bull Run Hydroelectric Project; this made possible, for the first time in nearly a century, the return of migratory salmon and steelhead to the river. In 2009, both types of fish were reported spawning above the former dam site. Arising southeast of Hickman Butte in the Mount Hood National Forest, the river flows northwest between North Mountain on the left and Goodfellow Lakes on the right. Turning west, it passes south of Aschoff Buttes before receiving its only named tributaries, Bow Creek and Arrow Creek, both from the right.
As the river nears a United States Geological Survey stream gauge at river mile 1.95 or river kilometer 3.14, a ridge, the Devil's Backbone, separates the Little Sandy from the Sandy River to the south. Just below the stream gauge, the Little Sandy passes the former Little Sandy Dam; the river enters the Bull Run River about 2 miles from the larger stream's confluence with the Sandy River. Falling 2,934 feet between source and mouth, the river's average loss of elevation is about 196 feet per mile. Most of the course of the river lies within the BRWMU, a federally protected area of 143 square miles surrounding the main drinking water supply for Portland. Access to the BRWMU is limited to government employees and guests on official business, security guards keep watch on its three gated entrances. In 1996, the U. S. Congress banned commercial logging on all federal lands in the Bull Run River watershed and, through the Little Sandy Act of 2001, extended the ban to include all federal lands draining into the Little Sandy River and the lower Bull Run River.
The USGS monitors the flow of the Little Sandy River at a stream gauge 1.95 miles from the mouth of the river. The average flow at this gauge over the 89 years from 1920 to 2008 was 143 cubic feet per second; this was from a drainage area of 22.3 square miles. The maximum flow recorded there was 5,320 cubic feet per second on November 20, 1921, the minimum flow was 8 cubic feet per second on August 20 and September 16 and 17, 1940. From 1912 through 2008, the river's flow was altered by the Bull Run Hydroelectric Project, which diverted water from the Sandy River at the Marmot Dam to the Little Sandy River at the Little Sandy Dam. Water was diverted from the Little Sandy River to Roslyn Lake through a wood box flume; the artificial lake supplied the 22-megawatt Bull Run hydroelectric powerhouse and emptied into the Bull Run River. Engineers demolished the 47-foot high Marmot Dam for PGE in July 2007 and the 16-foot high Little Sandy Dam in 2008, Roslyn Lake ceased to exist; the decommissioning restored the Little Sandy River to steelhead and salmon runs for the first time in nearly a century.
PGE, the dams' owner, donated 1,500 acres of land near the dams to the Western Rivers Conservancy for a nature reserve and recreation area. In May 2009, a fish biologist reported that salmon and steelhead were spawning upstream of the former dam. List of rivers of Oregon Sandy River Basin Watershed Council
A fish screen is designed to prevent fish from swimming or being drawn into an aqueduct, cooling water intake, intake tower, dam or other diversion on a river, lake or waterway where water is taken for human use. They are intended to supply debris-free water without harming aquatic life. Fish screens are installed to protect endangered species of fishes that would otherwise be harmed or killed when passing through industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, farm irrigation water and municipal drinking water treatment plants. However, many fish are injured on screens or elsewhere in the intake structures. Fish screens may be behavioral barriers. Most behavioral barriers are experimental and of unproven effectiveness. Positive barriers are effective at keeping aquatic organisms from entering a cooling system, but may kill them by impinging them on the screens; these barrier types are used and include: Modified traveling screens Fish handling and return systems Horizontal, flat-plate screens with bypass water return systems Cylindrical wedgewire screens Fine-mesh screens Fish net barriers.
Besides preventing fish from passing, fish screens are designed to minimize stress and injury that occur when fish impact the screen or are subjected to changes in water velocity and direction caused by the diversion. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated other barrier technologies and identified some as effective, although not demonstrated: Aquatic microfiltration barriers Angled and modular inclined screens Velocity caps; some fish screens are designed to protect a single species of fish and are not effective at protecting other fish species. Some screens are capable of protecting type of life. Additionally, some screens may protect juvenile and adult fish, but not fish eggs and larvae; the cost of a fish screen varies from thousands of US dollars for small, low-flow-rate screens to millions of US dollars in the case of large custom-designed systems that filter a large flow of water. Maintenance costs can be significant, including repairs, removing trash, adjusting the equipment for changes in stream conditions.
For some low volume, non-industrial water diversion applications, there are screens available that have no moving parts, do not require electricity, have little need for maintenance. Many power plants and other industries in the U. S. continue to use screens. For example, the cooling system at the Indian Point Energy Center in New York kills over a billion fish eggs and larvae annually. At the Bay Shore Power Plant in Ohio, 46 million fish were killed over an 18-month period. Organisms that pass through the screens are killed or stressed as they become entrained in the cooling system. 208 million fish eggs and over 2 billion small and larval fish were entrained at the Bay Shore plant over the same 18 months. EPA estimates that billions of fish and other organisms are killed each year in cooling water intakes. In the United States, the National Marine Fisheries Service, a division of NOAA, mandates positive-barrier fishscreens in most new diversions from waterways where endangered or threatened fish species occur.
Some existing unscreened diversions whose construction pre-dates fish-screen mandates are allowed to continue operating by grandfather rule. The U. S. Clean Water Act requires EPA to issue regulations on industrial cooling water intake structures; the agency issued regulations for new facilities in 2001, for existing facilities in 2014. Fish ladder Fish weir Cooling Water Intakes - U. S. EPA regulatory program Farmers Screen: The Installation Process - Time lapse video of a small modular fish screen being installed in Idaho
Sandy River (Oregon)
The Sandy River is a 56-mile tributary of the Columbia River in northwestern Oregon in the United States. The Sandy joins the Columbia about 14 miles upstream of Portland. Issuing from Reid Glacier on the southwest flanks of Mount Hood in the Cascade Range, the Sandy River flows west and north for 57 miles through Clackamas County and Multnomah County to the Columbia River at Troutdale. In its first 12 miles, the Sandy River flows across Old Maid Flat, north of Zigzag Mountain in the Mount Hood Wilderness of the Mount Hood National Forest. In this initial stretch near the headwaters, it receives Rushing Water Creek from the left, Muddy Fork from the right Lost Creek and Horseshoe Creek from the left, crosses under Lolo Pass Road just before receiving Clear Creek from the right. At about 41 miles from the mouth, the Zigzag River enters from the left near the unincorporated community of Zigzag. From here the river runs parallel to U. S. Route 26, on its left for about the next 20 miles. Just below Zigzag, the Sandy River passes the unincorporated community of Wemme on the left.
At about 39 miles from the mouth, the river receives Hackett Creek from the right, passes the unincorporated community of Brightwood shortly thereafter, receives North Boulder Creek from the right. Barlow Trail County Park and remnants of the Barlow Road lie to the right along this stretch of the river. Between 38 miles and 37 miles from the mouth, the Salmon River enters from the left. 4 miles Wildcat Creek enters from the left and Alder Creek and Whiskey Creek from the left. The river passes the Marmot gauging station operated by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with Portland General Electric at river mile 29.8. The unincorporated community of Marmot lies to the right of the river on a ridge—the Devil's Backbone—separating the Sandy River from the Little Sandy River to the north. About 4 miles below the Marmot gauge, the river receives Badger Creek from the left, it passes under Ten Eyck Road about 24 miles from the mouth, flowing by the city of Sandy on the left, shortly thereafter and receiving Cedar Creek, home of the Sandy Fish Hatchery, from the left.
At about 22 miles from the mouth, the river turns away from Highway 26 and flows north-northwest for the rest of its course. About 3 miles further downstream, the river passes Dodge Park on the right, receives the Bull Run River from the right and passes a second USGS gauge at RM 18.4. Shortly thereafter, Walker Creek enters from the right. Between 17 miles and 16 miles from the mouth, the Sandy River enters Multnomah County, curves back into Clackamas County, re-enters Multnomah County. About 1 mile further downstream, Bear Creek enters from the left, the river flows around Indian John Island. Soon Trout Creek, Gordon Creek, Buck Creek all enter from the right as the river winds through Oxbow Regional Park between 14 miles and 11 miles from the mouth. Passing Camp Collins about 1 mile the river receives Big Creek from the right. Dabney State Recreation Area is on the right about 4 miles later. Lewis and Clark State Recreation Site is on the right and Troutdale on the left at about 3 miles from the mouth, where Beaver Creek enters from the left.
Shortly thereafter, the river passes under Interstate 84 and flows by Portland-Troutdale Airport, on the left about 2 miles from the mouth. The Sandy River joins the Columbia River about 120 miles from where the larger river enters the Pacific Ocean; the confluence is about 14 miles east near the lower end of the Columbia River Gorge. Measured by a United States Geological Survey gauge downstream of the Sandy's confluence with the Bull Run River, 18.4 miles from the mouth, the river's average discharge is 2,300 cubic feet per second. The maximum daily recorded flow is 84,400 cubic feet per second, the minimum is 45 cubic feet per second. Archeological evidence suggests that Native Americans lived along the lower Columbia River as early as 10,000 years ago; the area near what became The Dalles, on the Columbia east of the mouth of the Sandy River became an important trading center. The Indians established villages on floodplains and traveled seasonally to gather huckleberries and other food on upland meadows, to fish for salmon, to hunt elk and deer.
Although no direct evidence exists that these lower-Columbia Indians traveled up the Sandy, it is that they did. Traces of these people include petroglyphs carved into the rocks of the Columbia River Gorge. More within the past few thousand years, Indians created trails across the Cascade Range around Mount Hood; the trail network linked the trading center at Wascopam, near The Dalles, to settlements in the Willamette Valley. One popular trail crossed over Lolo Pass and another, which became the Barlow Road, met the Lolo Pass trail where the Zigzag and Salmon rivers enter the Sandy. Indians from villages along the Columbia and other rivers traveled by water to the lower Sandy River area to fish for salmon and to gather berries and roots. In 1792 William Robert Broughton of the Vancouver Expedition explored the lower Columbia River, he named the Sandy River "Baring River", but noted the existence of a large sand bank that nearly blocked the Columbia River at the mouth of the Sandy River. In 1805 and again in 1806, members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition explored the lower stretches of the Sandy River as they traveled down the Columbia to the Pacific Ocea
Portland General Electric
Portland General Electric is a Fortune 1000 public utility based in Portland, Oregon. It distributes electricity to customers in parts of Multnomah, Marion, Yamhill and Polk counties - 44% of the inhabitants of Oregon. Founded in 1888 as the Willamette Falls Electric Company, the company has been an independent company for most of its existence, though was owned by the Houston-based Enron Corporation from 1997 until 2006 when Enron divested itself of PGE during its bankruptcy. Notably, PGE does not serve all of Portland, its service territory comprises most of Portland west of the Willamette River, sharing most of the city east of the river with Pacific Power. PGE produces and purchases energy from coal and natural gas plants, as well as hydroelectric power from dams on the Clackamas and Deschutes rivers. Between 1976 and 1993, PGE operated the only nuclear power plant in Oregon. Trojan was the subject of three Oregon initiatives to shut it down; the company elected to close the plant twenty years early.
The utility was founded in 1888 by Parker F. Morey and Edward L. Eastham as Willamette Falls Electric Company. On June 3, 1889 it sent power generated by one of four brush arc light dynamos at Willamette Falls over a 14-mile electric power transmission line to Portland, the first US power plant to do so. On August 6, 1892, Frederick Van Voorhies Holman, Henry Failing formed the Portland General Electric Company, it was funded by General Electric and the investment arm of Old Colony Trust, with $4.25 million in capital. The newly formed PGE Company purchased Willamette Falls Electric and the Albina Light & Water Company in 1892. Less than a year in May 1893, PGE purchased the City-Eastside Electric Light Plant, a municipal power company. E. Kimbark MacColl, who chronicled the history of Portland, referred to it "a generous gift to a private company at the expense of future taxpayers" since it was constructed for a cost of $40,342 and sold 15 months for $27,000. In 1903, Henry W. Goode, the president of PGE, decided to make PGE a "popular public utility."
His vision was for the company to light the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in 1905. in 1903, he traveled to the east coast to raise three thousand dollars from shareholders. His plan went through, Thomas H. Wright was put in charge of designing the lighting for the fair. PGE purchased the Union Power Company in 1905, the Vancouver Electric Light & Power Company in 1906. In 1906, PGE, Portland Railway Company, Oregon Water Power & Railway Company merged, becoming the Portland Railway and Power Company, it was the only streetcar operator within Portland city limits, the predecessor of the modern PGE. The company name became Portland Electric Power Company in 1932, it was reorganized in 1948 as PGE. On March 1, 1939, PEPCO defaulted on interest bonds, issued in March 1934; the bonds were pledged with PGE and Portland Traction Company as collateral, with Guaranty Trust as trustee. PEPCO filed for Chapter X bankruptcy on April 3, 1939, was assigned District Judge James Alger Fee; the proceedings were called "one of the most prolonged and complicated series of legal proceedings in Portland's history".
The reorganization and bond default was brought on by PGE's difficult negotiations with Bonneville Power Administration, the death of Seattle City Light's visionary J. D. Ross, the indecision created by the possible creation of a public utility district in PGE's territory; the Columbia Valley Authority project would have allowed CVA to purchase utilities such as PGE. PGE survived bankruptcy through cheap power purchases from BPA beginning in the fall of 1939, by the end of 1941 they showed net profits. In the meantime, Ormond R. Bean, the Oregon Public Utility Commissioner, forced PGE to lower its rates. PEPCO and PGE were saved by World War II, which led to the construction of three Kaiser Shipyards and of Vanport City, Oregon to support them. By 1945, PGE derived nearly $400,000 in revenue from the two Kaiser shipyards in Oregon. In August 1946, after the war, they were able to sell Portland Traction for $8 million in cash. Judge Fee ruled the bankruptcy reorganization complete on June 29, 1946.
On July 1, 1997, Enron Corporation bought PGE for $2 billion in stock and $1.1 billion in assumed debt. In 1999, again in 2001, Enron attempted to sell PGE to other investor-owned utilities including Portland-based NW Natural; the corporate officers of PGE claimed that this utility was not involved in the financial mis-dealings of its owner, pointing to the fact that many of its employees suffered when Enron froze the 401 retirement plan and were unable to sell the declining stock. However, Ken Harrison and Joseph Hirko, PGE's CEO and CFO at the time of the Enron merger were charged on several felony level counts related to financial misrepresentation regarding Enron Broadband Services which had its headquarters within the World Trade Center complex that comprises PGE's corporate offices. In addition Tim Belden, head of the West Coast Trading Desk and John Forney, an energy trader who invented various electricity trading strategies such as the Death Star, operated from the trading floor in the PGE corporate offices and were convicted of financial crimes related to the California Electricity Crisis.
Ballot measures have been filed by citizens several times since the 1960s to convert some or all of PGE into a Public Utility District, the latest of these being in 2003. Most were unsuccessful, but an exception was in 1999, when PGE announced it was selling its customer base in St. Helens and Columbia City
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups