A bulldozer is a tractor equipped with a substantial metal plate used to push large quantities of soil, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and equipped at the rear with a claw-like device to loosen densely compacted materials. It is a crawler tractor. Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites and quarries, military bases, heavy industry factories, engineering projects and farms; the term "bulldozer" refers only to a tractor fitted with a dozer blade. Bulldozers are large and powerful tracked heavy equipment; the tracks give them excellent ground holding capability and mobility through rough terrain. Wide tracks help distribute the bulldozer's weight over a large area, thus preventing it from sinking in sandy or muddy ground. Extra wide tracks are known as LGP tracks. Bulldozers have transmission systems designed to take advantage of the track system and provide excellent tractive force; because of these attributes, bulldozers are used in road building, mining, land clearing, infrastructure development, any other projects requiring mobile and stable earth-moving equipment.

Another type of bulldozer is the wheeled bulldozer, which has four wheels driven by a 4-wheel-drive system and has a hydraulic, articulated steering system. The blade is mounted forward of the articulation joint, is hydraulically actuated; the bulldozer's primary tools are the ripper. The word "bulldozer" is sometimes used inaccurately for other similar construction vehicles such as a large front loader; the bulldozer blade is a heavy metal plate on the front of the tractor, used to push objects, shove sand, soil and sometimes snow. Dozer blades come in three varieties: A straight blade, short and has no lateral curve and no side wings and can be used for fine grading. A universal blade, tall and curved, has large side wings to carry more material. An "S-U" combination blade, shorter, has less curvature, smaller side wings; this blade is used for pushing piles of large rocks, such as at a quarry. Blades can be fitted straight across the frame, or at an angle, sometimes using additional'tilt cylinders' to vary the angle while moving.

The bottom edge of the blade can be sharpened. Sometimes a bulldozer is used to push another piece of earth moving equipment known as a "scraper"; the towed Fresno Scraper, invented in 1883 by James Porteous, was the first design to enable this to be done economically, removing the soil from the cut and depositing it elsewhere on shallow ground. Many dozer blades have a reinforced center section with this purpose in mind, are called "bull blades". In military use, dozer blades are fixed on combat engineering vehicles and can optionally be fitted on other vehicles, such as artillery tractors such as the Type 73 or M8 Tractor. Dozer blades can be mounted on main battle tanks, where it can be used to clear antitank obstacles and dig improvised shelters. Combat applications for dozer blades include clearing battlefield obstacles and preparing fire positions; the ripper is the long claw-like device on the back of the bulldozer. Rippers can come in groups of two or more. A single shank is preferred for heavy ripping.

The ripper shank is fitted with a replaceable tungsten steel alloy tip, referred to as a'boot'. Ripping rock breaks the ground surface rock or pavement into small rubble easy to handle and transport, which can be removed so grading can take place. With agricultural ripping, a farmer breaks up rocky or hard earth, otherwise unploughable, in order to farm it. For example, much of the best land in the California wine country consists of old lava flows; the grower shatters the lava with heavy bulldozers so surface trees can be planted. Some bulldozers are equipped with a less common rear attachment referred to as a stumpbuster, a single spike that protrudes horizontally and can be raised to get it out of the way. A stumpbuster is used to split a tree stump. A bulldozer with a stumpbuster is used for landclearing operations, is equipped with a brush-rake blade. Bulldozers have been further modified over time to evolve into new machines which can work in ways that the original bulldozer cannot. One example is that loader tractors were created by removing the blade and substituting a large volume bucket and hydraulic arms which can raise and lower the bucket, thus making it useful for scooping up earth and loading it into trucks, these are known as a Drott, trackscavator or track loader.

Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making it smaller to let it operate in small work areas where movement is limited, such as in mining. Some lightweight form of bulldozer are used in snow removal and as a tool for preparing winter sports areas for ski and snowboard sports. A small light bulldozer is sometimes called a "calfdozer". In an angledozer the blade can be pushed forward at one end to make it easier to push material away to the side; the original earthmoving bulldozers are still irreplaceable as their tasks are concentrated in deforestation, ground levelling, road carving. Heavy bulldozers are employed to level the terrain to prepare it for construction; the construction, however, is done by small bulldozers and loader tractors. Bulldozers employed for combat engineering roles are fitted with

Tommaso Fantacci

Tommaso Fantacci is an Italian football player. He plays for Empoli. On 27 July 2016, Fantacci was loaned to Serie C side Padova on a season-long loan deal. On 3 September he made his professional debut in Serie C for Padova as a substitute replacing Lius Maria Alfageme in the 79th minute of a 1–1 home draw against AlbinoLeffe. On 24 September, Fantacci played his first match as a starter for Padova, a 1–0 away win over Gubbio, he was replaced by Domenico Germitale in the 46th minute. Fantacci ended his season-long loan to Padova with only 5 appearances, only 1 as a starter, all in Serie C. On 18 August 2017, Fantacci was signed by Serie C club Prato on a season-long loan deal. On 27 August he made his debut for Prato as a substitute replacing Alberto Marini in the 51st minute of a 3–1 away defeat against Viterbese Castrense. On 3 September, Fantacci played his first match as a starter for Prato, a 1–1 home draw against Livorno, he was replaced by Matteo Cavagna in the 61st minute. On 4 October he played his first entire match for a 5 -- 2 home defeat against Carrarese.

On 5 November, Fantacci scored his first professional goal, as a substitute, in the 79th minute of a 4–1 home defeat against Piacenza. On 12 November he scored his second goal in the 60th minute of a 2–2 home draw against Arzachena. On 11 February 2018 he scored his third goal in the 3rd minute of a 2–2 home draw against Pisa. Fantacci ended his loan to Prato with 32 appearances, 5 goals and 2 assist, but Prato was relegated in Serie D. On 17 August 2018, Fantacci was loaned to Serie B club Carpi on a season-long loan deal; however his loan was terminated during the 2018–19 season winter break leaving Carpi with any appearances. On 12 January 2019, Fantacci was loaned to Serie C side Pistoiese on a 6-month loan deal. Eight days on 20 January, he made his debut for Pistoiese in a 1–0 away defeat against Lucchese, he was replaced by Emmanuel Latte Lath after 68 minutes. Eight days on 28 January, he played his first entire match for the club, a 1–0 away win over Gozzano. On 25 February he received a red card in the 54th minute of a 2–0 home defeat against Robur Siena.

Fantacci ended his loan to Pistoiese with 14 appearances, all as a starter, 1 assist. Fantacci represented Italy at Under-16, Under-17, Under-18 and Under-19 level. On 21 March 2012, Fantacci made his debut at U-15 level as a substitute replacing Federico Bonazzoli in the 70th minute of a 1–0 home win over Russia U-15. On 6 September 2012 he made his debut at U-16 level in a 3–1 away win over Switzerland U-16, he was replaced by Claudio Zappa in the 73rd minute. On 28 August 2013 he made his debut at U-17 level in a 3–2 away win over Turkey U-17, he was replced by Nicolò Barella in the 64th minute. On 12 May 2015, Fantacci made his debut at U-18 level as a substitute replacing Giuseppe Panico in the 46th minute of a 2–0 home win over Iran U-18. On 12 August 2015, Fantacci made his debut at U-19 level in a 2–1 away win over Croatia U-18, he was replaced by Andrea Favilli in the 46th minute; as of 12 June 2019 Tommaso Fantacci at Soccerway

Pageant of Oregon History

Pageant of Oregon History, or A Pageant of Oregon History, is a 300-square-foot mural by Erich Lamade, painted on the interior of Abernethy Elementary School in southeast Portland, Oregon's Hosford-Abernethy neighborhood, in the United States. Erich Lamade's Pageant of Oregon History is a 300-square-foot mural, painted on four walls of the school's library, it depicts the history of Oregon in chronological order. The mural was commissioned by the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s as part of Federal Project Number One, completed in 1940, it was covered by six coats of interior paint starting in the mid 1950s. The painting was uncovered in 2007, preservation efforts began. In 2017, the city's Heritage Conservation Group and the school's Parent-Teacher Association led a fundraising campaign to fund a $71,274 restoration project. Financial contributors included $20,000 from the Oregon Heritage Commission, $15,000 from the National Trust for Historic Preservation, $5,000 from the Autzen Foundation.

The restoration began during mid 2018, starting with the room's south and southeast walls using methods developed by Portland State University's Regional Laboratory for the Science of Cultural Heritage Conservation. Restoration work cannot be completed during the academic calendar, is slated to begin again during mid 2019. Local historian Chet Orloff supports the mural's restoration