A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition, expelled from the gun barrel during shooting. The term is from Middle French and originated as the diminutive of the word boulle, which means "small ball". Bullets are made of a variety of materials such as copper, steel, polymer and wax, they are available either singly as in muzzleloading and cap and ball firearms or as a component of paper cartridges, but much more in the form of metallic cartridges. Bullets are made in varied shapes and constructions depending on the intended applications, including specialized functions such as hunting, target shooting and combat. Although the word "bullet" is used incorrectly in colloquial language to refer to a cartridge round, a bullet is not a cartridge but rather a component of one. A round of ammunition cartridge is a combination package of the bullet, the case, the propellant and the primer; this use of the term "bullet" when intending to describe a cartridge leads to confusion when the components of a cartridge are referred to.

Bullet sizes are expressed by their weights and diameters in both imperial and metric measurement systems. For example: 55 grain.223 caliber bullets are of the same weight and caliber as 3.56 gram 5.56mm caliber bullets. The bullets used in many cartridges are fired at muzzle velocities faster than the speed of sound — about 343 metres per second in dry air at 20 °C — and thus can travel a substantial distance to a target before a nearby observer hears the sound of the shot; the sound of gunfire is accompanied with a loud bullwhip-like crack as the supersonic bullet pierces through the air creating a sonic boom. Bullet speeds at various stages of flight depend on intrinsic factors such as its sectional density, aerodynamic profile and ballistic coefficient, extrinsic factors such as barometric pressure, air temperature and wind speed. Subsonic cartridges fire bullets slower than the speed of sound; this means that a subsonic cartridge, such as.45 ACP, can be quieter than a supersonic cartridge such as the.223 Remington without the use of a suppressor.

Bullets do not contain explosives, but damage the intended target by transferring kinetic energy upon impact and penetration. While the first recorded use of gunpowder in Europe was in 1247, it was invented in China during the 9th century; the cannon appeared in 1327. In 1364, the hand cannon appeared. Early projectiles were made of stone, it was discovered that stone would not penetrate stone fortifications, which led to the use of denser metals as projectiles. Hand cannon projectiles developed in a similar manner; the first recorded instance of a metal ball from a hand cannon penetrating armor was in 1425. Shot retrieved from the wreck of the Mary Rose are of different sizes, some are stone while others are cast iron; the development of the hand culverin and matchlock arquebus brought about the use of cast lead balls as projectiles. The original round musket ball was smaller than the bore of the barrel, it was loaded into the barrel first, just resting upon the powder, using some sort of material as a wadding, between the ball and the powder as well as over the ball to keep it in place, it held the bullet in the barrel and against the powder.

The loading of muskets was, easy with the old smooth-bore Brown Bess and similar military muskets. The original muzzle-loading rifle, was loaded with a piece of leather or cloth wrapped around the ball, to allow the ball to engage the grooves in the barrel. Loading was a bit more difficult when the bore of the barrel was fouled from previous firings. For this reason, because rifles were not fitted for a bayonet, early rifles were not used for military purposes; the first half of the nineteenth century saw a distinct change in the shape and function of the bullet. In 1826, Henri-Gustave Delvigne, a French infantry officer, invented a breech with abrupt shoulders on which a spherical bullet was rammed down until it caught the rifling grooves. Delvigne's method, deformed the bullet and was inaccurate. Square bullets have origins that pre-date civilization and were used by slingers in slings, they were made out of copper or lead. The most notable use of square bullet designs was done by James Puckle and Kyle Tunis who patented them, where they were used in one version of the Puckle gun.

The early use of these in the black-powder era was soon discontinued due to irregular and unpredictable flight patterns. Delvigne continued to develop bullet design and by 1830 had started to develop cylindro-conical bullets, his bullet designs were improved by Francois Tamisier with the addition of "ball grooves" which are known as "cannelures", these moved the resistance of air behind the center of gravity of the bullet. Tamisier developed progressive rifling; the rifle grooves were deeper toward the breech, becoming shallower as they progressed toward the muzzle. This causes the bullet to be progressively molded into the grooves which increased range and accuracy; the Thouvenin rifle barrel had a forcing plug in the breech of the barrel to mold the bullet into the rifling with the use of a special ramrod. While successful in increasing accuracy it was hard to clean; these improvements were

Umar ibn Hubayra

Umar ibn Hubayra al-Fazari was a prominent Umayyad general and governor of Iraq, who played an important role in the Qays–Yaman conflict of this period. A Qaysi from the Jazira, Umar claimed to belong to the traditional Arab nobility by virtue of his maternal grandfather, chief of the Banu Adi tribe. However, the family is unknown from the sources until the emergence of Umar himself in 696, when he served in Iraq under Sufyan ibn al-Abrad al-Kalbi. Umar participated in the campaigns against the Byzantine Empire in the 710s, under the command of Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, commanded the Muslim fleet in 715/716, during the initial stages of the unsuccessful campaign to capture the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. In the next year, Maslama sent him as envoy to Leo III the Isaurian. Despite the failure of the campaign, he was appointed governor of the Jazira, about a year after the accession of Yazid II, he was named governor of Iraq, replacing his patron Maslama; this was a post of critical importance, encompassing at the time the entire eastern Caliphate, including all of Iran and Khurasan.

In Khurasan, on the Caliph's instructions, he appointed first his fellow Qaysi, Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi, as deputy governor. Al-Harashi proved a capable commander against the Soghdian rebels, but too harsh in his dealings with domestic quarrels executing prisoners whose life Umar had guaranteed; as a result, he was replaced by the Bakri Muslim ibn Sa'id ibn Aslam ibn Zur'a. In 721, Umar led a campaign into the Byzantine province of Armenia IV, where he seized 700 prisoners. Yazid II's accession marked a renewed ascendancy of the Qaysi party at court, a return to the oppressive policies of the notorious al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, interrupted only by the brief reformist reign of Umar II. In the wake of the suppression of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab's rebellion in Iraq, the province was held down in virtual occupation by the regime's trusted Qaysi Syro-Jaziran troops, Umar appointed exclusively his fellow north Arab Qaysis to provincial governorships excluding the south Arab tribes, traditionally dominant in Iraq, from power.

His partisanship was so blatant that the contemporary Iraqi poet al-Farazdaq called him the "glory and supreme support" of the northern Arabs. Indeed, when Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik came to power in 724, one of his first acts was to dismiss Umar from his post, replace him with Khalid al-Qasri, whose tribal origin made him neutral in the Qays–Yaman conflict. Umar was tortured and freed only after giving up a considerable part of his fortune, his followers arranged for him to flee to Syria, where he was given shelter by Maslama and by Caliph Hisham himself. He died sometime between 724 and 726; the Islamic scholar Jean-Claude Vadet assesses Umar's governorship thus: "Harsh in his treatment of those he conquered, Ibn Hubayra seems to have governed in the name of Arabism and Islam, regarded as a religion of the sword. His methods of governing, were not above reproach, although in fact this great Arab nobleman, proud of belonging to the Ghatafan, was accused more of cynicism than of corruption."

The historian Hugh Kennedy calls him a "Qaysi thug", "violent and brutal" in his persecution of Yamani leaders. As a result of his fervent championship of the Qays in the Qays–Yaman conflict, both he, his son, who would serve as governor of Iraq under Marwan II, receive a negative treatment in the sources; the only exception are a series of more intimate anecdotes preserved by Ibn Asakir, showing Umar dealing with poets and religious scholars, as well as showing mercy to enemies. It is unclear, whether this material is contemporary or represents attempts to rehabilitate his legacy. Blankinship, Khalid Yahya; the End of the Jihâd State: The Reign of Hishām ibn ʻAbd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1827-7. Crone, Patricia. Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52940-9. Judd, Steven C.. "ʿUmar b. Hubayra". In Fleet, Kate. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online.

Doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_30822. ISSN 1873-9830. Kennedy, Hugh; the Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century. Oxford and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-78761-2. Vadet, J.-C.. "Ibn Hubayra". In Lewis, B.. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume III: H–Iram. Leiden: E. J. Brill. P. 802. OCLC 495469525

Boy Girl Dog Cat Mouse Cheese

Boy Girl Dog Cat Mouse Cheese is an animated television series for the BBC that premiered on CBBC on 31 October 2019. The series was developed from an original concept by Jeff Harter, is a co-production between Cloudco Entertainment, WatchNext Media, Kavaleer Productions; the show centers around a boy, a girl, a dog, a cat, a mouse, a piece of cheese, all named after what they are, who are living together as a dysfunctional family. In June 2019, the series was renewed for a second season. Boy is an anxious boy, he is the oldest and tries to be the most mature of the group, but finds himself at odds with his unique siblings. Girl is a rambunctious, girl, she challenges his authority. Dog is a male dog. Cat is a female cat who possesses unique abilities. Cat cannot talk and meows all the time. Mouse is a male mouse, he is rational. Cheese is a female anthropomorphic piece of cheese, she is dramatic and a diva. She enjoys writing fantasy novels. Boy Girl Dog Cat Mouse Cheese is produced by Cloudco Entertainment in the United States, WatchNext Media in France, Kavaleer Productions in Ireland.

Boy Girl Dog Cat Mouse Cheese premiered on CBBC in the United Kingdom on 31 October 2019, daily episode premieres continued 19 November. On January 6, 2020, the series premiered on Family Channel in Canada.. Boy Girl Dog Cat Mouse Cheese on CBBC