A porte-cochère, coach gate or carriage porch is a covered porch-like structure at a main or secondary entrance to a building through which a horse and carriage and today a motor vehicle can pass to provide arriving and departing occupants protection from the elements. Portes-cochère are still found on such structures as major public buildings and hotels, providing covered access for visitors and guests arriving by motorized transport. Portes-cochère, which are for vehicle passage, are confused with porticos, columned porches or entries for human traffic; the porte-cochère was a feature of many late 18th - and public buildings. A well-known example is at Buckingham Palace in London. A portico at the White House in Washington, D. C. is confused with a porte-cochère, where a raised vehicle ramp gives an architectural portico the functionality of the latter. Today portes-cochère are found at both elaborate private homes and such public buildings as churches, health facilities, schools. Portes-cochère differ from carports in that the vehicles pass through for passengers to board or exit rather than being parked beneath the covered area.
Guard stones are found at the foot of portes-cochère, acting as protective bollards to prevent vehicles from damaging the structure
In architecture, a vault is a self-supporting arched form of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof. The simplest kind of vault is the barrel vault, semicircular in shape; the barrel vault is the length being greater than its diameter. As in building an arch, a temporary support is needed while rings of voussoirs are constructed and the rings placed in position; until the topmost voussoir, the keystone, is positioned, the vault is not self-supporting. Where timber is obtained, this temporary support is provided by centering consisting of a framed truss with a semicircular or segmental head, which supports the voussoirs until the ring of the whole arch is completed. With a barrel vault, the centering can be shifted on to support the next rings; the parts of a vault exert lateral thrust. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required. However, when the vault is built above ground, various replacements are employed to supply the needed resistance.
An example is the thicker walls used in the case of barrel or continuous vaults. Buttresses are used to supply resistance. Amongst the earliest known examples of any form of vaulting is to be found in the neolithic village of Khirokitia on Cyprus. Dating from ca. 6000 BCE, the circular buildings supported beehive shaped corbel domed vaults of unfired mud-bricks and represent the first evidence for settlements with an upper floor. Similar Beehive tombs, called tholoi, exist in Northern Iraq, their construction differs from that at Khirokitia in that most appear buried and make provision for a dromos entry. The inclusion of domes, represents a wider sense of the word vault; the distinction between the two is that a vault is an arch, extruded into the third dimension, whereas a dome is an arch revolved around its vertical axis. Pitched-brick vaults are named for their construction, the bricks are installed vertically and are leaning at an angle: This allows their construction to be completed without the use of centering.
Examples have been found in archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia dating to the 2nd and 3rd millennium BC which were set in gypsum mortar. A barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault and resembles a barrel or tunnel cut lengthwise in half; the effect is that of a structure composed of continuous pointed sections. The earliest known examples of barrel vaults were built by the Sumerians under the ziggurat at Nippur in Babylonia, built of fired bricks cemented with clay mortar; the earliest barrel vaults in ancient Egypt are thought to be those in the granaries built by the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, the ruins of which are behind the Ramesseum, at Thebes. The span was 12 feet and the lower part of the arch was built in horizontal courses, up to about one-third of the height, the rings above were inclined back at a slight angle, so that the bricks of each ring, laid flatwise, adhered till the ring was completed, no centering of any kind being required. A similar system of construction was employed for the vault over the great hall at Ctesiphon, where the material employed was fired bricks or tiles of great dimensions, cemented with mortar.
Assyrian palaces used pitched-brick vaults, made with sun-dried mudbricks, for gates, subterranean graves and drains. During the reign of king Sennacherib they were used to construct aqueducts, such as those at Jerwan. In the provincial city Dūr-Katlimmu they were used to created vaulted platforms; the tradition of their erection, would seem to have been handed down to their successors in Mesopotamia, viz. to the Sassanians, who in their palaces in Sarvestan and Firouzabad built domes of similar form to those shown in the Nimrud sculptures, the chief difference being that, constructed in rubble stone and cemented with mortar, they still exist, though abandoned on the Islamic invasion in the 7th century. In all the instances above quoted in Sumer and Egypt the bricks, whether burnt or sun-dried, were of the description to which the term "tile" would now be given; the earliest Egyptian examples of regular voussoirs in stone belong to the XXVIth Dynasty in the additions made to the temple of Medinet Habu, here it is probable that centering of some kind was provided, as the vaults are built in rings, so that the same centering could be shifted on after the completion of each ring.
The earliest example of shaped voussoirs, of about the same date, is found in the cloaca at Graviscae in Etruria, with a span of about 14 feet, the voussoirs of which are from 5 to 6 feet long. The cloaca maxima in Rome, built by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus to drain the marshy ground between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills, was according to Commendatore Boni vaulted over in the 1st century B. C. the vault being over 800 feet long, 10 feet in span, with three concentric rings of voussoirs. The enormous Eyvan-e Khosro at Ctesiphon was built over 1,500 years ago during the Persian Sasanian period as a throne room; the arch is about
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture; some wall paintings are painted on large canvases, which are attached to the wall. Whether these works can be called "murals" is a subject of some controversy in the art world, but the technique has been in common use since the late 19th century. Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the cave paintings in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Borneo, Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France. Many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs, the Minoan palaces, the Oxtotitlán cave and Juxtlahuaca in Mexico and in Pompeii. During the Middle Ages murals were executed on dry plaster; the huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco. In Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting.
In modern times, the term became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement. There are many different techniques; the best-known is fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, in parts. The colors lighten; the marouflage method has been used for millennia. Murals today are painted in a variety of ways; the styles can vary from abstract to trompe-l'œil. Initiated by the works of mural artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-l'oeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a wall mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas, pasted to a wall surface to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene. In the history of mural several methods have been used: A fresco painting, from the Italian word affresco which derives from the adjective fresco, describes a method in which the paint is applied on plaster on walls or ceilings.
The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster. After this the painting stays for a long time up to centuries in brilliant colors. Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. Mezzo-fresco is painted on nearly-dry plaster, was defined by the sixteenth-century author Ignazio Pozzo as "firm enough not to take a thumb-print" so that the pigment only penetrates into the plaster. By the end of the sixteenth century this had displaced the buon fresco method, was used by painters such as Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo; this technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work. In Greco-Roman times encaustic colors applied in a cold state were used. Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods in mural painting. In tempera, the pigments are bound in an albuminous medium such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.
In 16th-century Europe, oil painting on canvas arose as an easier method for mural painting. The advantage was that the artwork could be completed in the artist's studio and transported to its destination and there attached to the wall or ceiling. Oil paint may be a less satisfactory medium for murals because of its lack of brilliance in colour; the pigments are yellowed by the binder or are more affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more subject to rapid deterioration than a plaster ground. Different muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, whether that be oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints applied by brush, roller or airbrush/aerosols. Clients will ask for a particular style and the artist may adjust to the appropriate technique. A consultation leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a price quote that the client approves before the muralist starts on the work; the area to be painted can be gridded to match the design allowing the image to be scaled step by step.
In some cases the design is projected straight onto the wall and traced with pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without any prior sketching, preferring the spontaneous technique. Once completed the mural can be given coats of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work from UV rays and surface damage. In modern, quick form of muralling, young enthusiasts use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give desired models on a canvas board; the canvas is set aside to let the clay dry. Once dried, the canvas and the shape can be painted with your choice of colors and coated with varnish; as an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural, digitally printed murals can be applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and be reproduced
Mary Jane "Mae" West was an American actress, playwright, screenwriter and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades, known for her lighthearted bawdy double entendres and breezy sexual independence. West was active in vaudeville and on the stage in New York City before moving to Hollywood to become a comedian and writer in the motion picture industry, as well as appearing on radio and television; the American Film Institute named her 15th among the greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Using a husky contralto voice, West was one of the more controversial movie stars of her day and encountered many problems censorship, she bucked the system, making comedy out of conventional mores, the Depression-era audience admired her for it. When her cinematic career ended, she wrote books and plays and continued to perform in Las Vegas, in the United Kingdom, on radio and television and to record rock and roll albums, she was once asked about the various efforts to impede her career, to which she replied: "I believe in censorship.
I made a fortune out of it." Mary Jane West was born on August 1893, in Kings County, New York. She was delivered at home by an aunt, a midwife, she was the eldest surviving child of Mathilde "Tillie" Delker. Tillie and her five siblings emigrated with their parents and Christiana Doelger from Bavaria in 1886. West's parents married on January 18, 1889, in Brooklyn, to the pleasure of the groom's parents and the displeasure of the bride's parents and raised their children as Protestants, although John West was of mixed Catholic–Protestant descent and Tillie was of at least partial Jewish descent. West's father was a prizefighter known as "Battlin' Jack West" who worked as a "special policeman" and had his own private investigations agency, her mother was a former fashion model. Her paternal grandmother, Mary Jane, for whom she was named, was of Irish Catholic descent and West's paternal grandfather, John Edwin West, was of English–Scots descent and a ship's rigger, her eldest sibling, died in infancy.
Her other siblings were Mildred Katherine West known as Beverly, John Edwin West II. During her childhood, West's family moved to various parts of Woodhaven, as well as the Williamsburg and Greenpoint neighborhoods of Brooklyn. In Woodhaven, at Neir's Social Hall, West first performed professionally. West was five when she first entertained a crowd at a church social, she started appearing in amateur shows at the age of seven, she won prizes at local talent contests. She began performing professionally in vaudeville in the Hal Clarendon Stock Company in 1907 at the age of 14. West first performed under the stage name "Baby Mae", tried various personas, including a male impersonator, she used the alias "Jane Mast" early in her career. Her trademark walk was said to have been inspired or influenced by female impersonators Bert Savoy and Julian Eltinge, who were famous during the Pansy Craze, her first appearance in a Broadway show was in a 1911 revue A La Broadway put on by her former dancing teacher, Ned Wayburn.
The show folded after eight performances, but at age 18, West was singled out and discovered by The New York Times. The Times reviewer wrote that a "girl named Mae West, hitherto unknown, pleased by her grotesquerie and snappy way of singing and dancing". West next appeared in a show called Vera Violetta. In 1912, she appeared in the opening performance of A Winsome Widow as a "baby vamp" named La Petite Daffy, she was encouraged as a performer by her mother, according to West, always thought that anything Mae did was fantastic. Other family members were less encouraging, including her paternal grandmother, they are all reported as having disapproved of her choices. In 1918, after exiting several high-profile revues, West got her break in the Shubert Brothers revue Sometime, opposite Ed Wynn, her character Mayme danced the shimmy and her photograph appeared on an edition of the sheet music for the popular number "Ev'rybody Shimmies Now". She began writing her own risqué plays using the pen name Jane Mast.
Her first starring role on Broadway was in a 1926 play she entitled Sex, which she wrote and directed. Although conservative critics panned the show, ticket sales were strong; the production did not go over well with city officials, who had received complaints from some religious groups, the theater was raided, with West arrested along with the cast. She was taken to the Jefferson Market Court House, where she was prosecuted on morals charges, on April 19, 1927, was sentenced to 10 days for "corrupting the morals of youth". Though West could have paid a fine and been let off, she chose the jail sentence for the publicity it would garner. While incarcerated on Welfare Island, she dined with his wife. West got great mileage from this jail stint, she served eight days with two days off for "good behavior". Media attention surrounding the incident enhanced her career, by crowning her the darling "bad girl" who "had climbed the ladder of success wrong by wrong", her next play, Th
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. Bronze is an alloy containing copper, but instead of zinc it has tin. Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium and silicon; the distinction is historical. Modern practice in museums and archaeology avoids both terms for historical objects in favour of the all-embracing "copper alloy". Brass is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance, it is used in zippers. Brass is used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than zinc; the low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses.
The density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre. Today 90% of all brass alloys are recycled; because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are extruded into the desired form and size; the general softness of brass means that it can be machined without the use of cutting fluid, though there are exceptions to this. Aluminium makes brass more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium causes a beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide to be formed on the surface, thin and self-healing. Tin has a similar effect and finds its use in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant. To enhance the machinability of brass, lead is added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a lower melting point than the other constituents of the brass, it tends to migrate towards the grain boundaries in the form of globules as it cools from casting.
The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available lead surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching. In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface; these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content. In October 1999 the California State Attorney General sued 13 key manufacturers and distributors over lead content. In laboratory tests, state researchers found the average brass key, new or old, exceeded the California Proposition 65 limits by an average factor of 19, assuming handling twice a day. In April 2001 manufacturers agreed to reduce lead content to 1.5%, or face a requirement to warn consumers about lead content. Keys plated with other metals are not affected by the settlement, may continue to use brass alloys with higher percentage of lead content. In California, lead-free materials must be used for "each component that comes into contact with the wetted surface of pipes and pipe fittings, plumbing fittings and fixtures."
On January 1, 2010, the maximum amount of lead in "lead-free brass" in California was reduced from 4% to 0.25% lead. The so-called dezincification resistant brasses, sometimes referred to as CR brasses, are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards. Applications with high water temperatures, chlorides present, or deviating water qualities play a role. DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems; this brass alloy must be produced with great care, with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long-term failures. The high malleability and workability good resistance to corrosion, traditionally attributed acoustic properties of brass, have made it the usual metal of choice for construction of musical instruments whose acoustic resonators consist of long narrow tubing folded or coiled for compactness. Collectively known as brass instruments, these include the trombone, trumpet, baritone horn, tenor horn, French horn, many other "horns", many in variously-sized families, such as the saxhorns.
Other wind instruments may be constructed of brass or other metals, indeed most modern student-model flutes and piccolos are made of some variety of brass a cupronickel alloy similar to nickel silver/German silver. Clarinets low clarinets such as the contrabass and subcontrabass, are sometimes made of metal because of limited supplies of the dense, fine-grained tropical hardwoods traditionally preferred for smaller woodwinds. For the same reason, some low clarinets and contrabassoons feature a hybrid construction, with long, straight sections of wood, curved joints, and/or bell of metal; the use of metal avoids the risks of exposing wooden instruments to changes in temperature or humid
Dame Angela Brigid Lansbury is an English-Irish-American actress who has appeared in theater and film. Her career has spanned eight decades, much of it in the United States, her work has attracted international acclaim. Lansbury was born to Irish actress Moyna Macgill and English politician Edgar Lansbury, an upper-middle-class family in Regent's Park, central London. To escape the Blitz, in 1940 she moved to the United States with her mother and two brothers, studied acting in New York City. Proceeding to Hollywood in 1942, she signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and obtained her first film roles, in Gaslight and The Picture of Dorian Gray, earning her two Oscar nominations and a Golden Globe Award, she appeared in eleven further films for MGM in supporting roles, after her contract ended in 1952 she began supplementing her cinematic work with theatrical appearances. Although seen as a B-list star during this period, her appearance in the film The Manchurian Candidate received widespread acclaim and is cited as being one of her finest performances.
Moving into musical theatre, Lansbury gained stardom for playing the leading role in the Broadway musical Mame, which earned her a range of awards. Amid difficulties in her personal life, Lansbury moved from California to County Cork, Ireland in 1970, continued with a variety of theatrical and cinematic appearances throughout that decade; these included leading roles in the stage musicals Gypsy, Sweeney Todd, The King and I, as well as in the hit Disney film Bedknobs and Broomsticks. Moving into television, she achieved worldwide fame as fictional writer and sleuth Jessica Fletcher in the American whodunit series Murder, She Wrote, which ran for twelve seasons from 1984 until 1996, becoming one of the longest-running and most popular detective drama series in television history. Through Corymore Productions, a company that she co-owned with her husband Peter Shaw, Lansbury assumed ownership of the series and was its executive producer for the final four seasons, she moved into voice work, thereby contributing to animated films such as Disney's Beauty and the Beast and 20th Century Fox's Anastasia.
Since she has toured in a variety of international theatrical productions and continued to make occasional film appearances. Lansbury has received an Honorary Oscar and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts and has won five Tony Awards, six Golden Globes, an Olivier Award, she has been nominated for numerous other industry awards, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress on three occasions, various Primetime Emmy Awards on eighteen occasions, as well as a Grammy award for her work on the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack for the 1994 Disney animated film Beauty and the Beast. In 2014, Lansbury was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II, she has been the subject of three biographies. Lansbury was born to an upper middle class family on October 16, 1925. Although her birthplace has been given as Poplar, East London, she has rejected this, asserting that while she had ancestral connections to Poplar, she was born in Regent's Park, Central London.
Her mother was Belfast-born actress Moyna Macgill, who appeared on stage in the West End and who had starred in several films. Her father was the wealthy English timber merchant and politician Edgar Lansbury, a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain and former mayor of the Metropolitan Borough of Poplar, her paternal grandfather was the Labour Party leader and anti-war activist George Lansbury, a man whom she felt "awed" by and considered "a giant in my youth." Angela had an older half sister, the daughter of Moyna's previous marriage to writer and director Reginald Denham. In January 1930, when Angela was four, her mother gave birth to twin boys and Edgar, leading the Lansburys to move from their Poplar flat to a house in Mill Hill, North London; when Lansbury was nine, her father died from stomach cancer. In 2014, Lansbury described this event as "the defining moment of my life. Nothing before or since has affected me so deeply." Facing financial difficulty, her mother became engaged to a Scottish colonel, Leckie Forbes, moved into his house in Hampstead, with Lansbury receiving an education at South Hampstead High School from 1934 until 1939.
She considered herself self-educated, learning from books and cinema. She became a self-professed "complete movie maniac", visiting the cinema and imagining herself as certain characters. Keen on playing the piano, she studied music at the Ritman School of Dancing, in 1940 began studying acting at the Webber Douglas School of Singing and Dramatic Art in Kensington, West London, first appearing onstage as a lady-in-waiting in the school's production of Maxwell Anderson's Mary of Scotland; that year, Angela's grandfather died, with the onset of the Blitz, Macgill decided to take Angela and Edgar to the United States. Macgill secured a job supervising sixty British children who were being evacuated to North America aboard the Duchess of Athol, arriving with them in Montreal, Canada, in mid-August. From there, she proceeded by train to New York City, where she was financially sponsored by a Wall Street businessman, Charles T. Smith, moving in with his family at t
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was an English film director and producer regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. Known as "the Master of Suspense", he directed over 50 feature films in a career spanning six decades, becoming as well known as any of his actors thanks to his many interviews, his cameo roles in most of his films, his hosting and producing of the television anthology Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Born in Leytonstone, Hitchcock entered the film industry in 1919 as a title card designer after training as a technical clerk and copy writer for a telegraph-cable company, he made his directorial debut with the silent film The Pleasure Garden. His first successful film, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, helped to shape the thriller genre, while his 1929 film, was the first British "talkie". Two of his 1930s thrillers, The 39 Steps and The Lady Vanishes, are ranked among the greatest British films of the 20th century. By 1939 Hitchcock was a filmmaker of international importance, film producer David O. Selznick persuaded him to move to Hollywood.
A string of successful films followed, including Rebecca, Foreign Correspondent, Shadow of a Doubt, The Paradine Case. His 53 films have grossed over US$223.3 million worldwide and garnered a total of 46 Oscar nominations and six wins. The "Hitchcockian" style includes the use of camera movement to mimic a person's gaze, thereby turning viewers into voyeurs, framing shots to maximise anxiety and fear; the film critic Robin Wood wrote that the meaning of a Hitchcock film "is there in the method, in the progression from shot to shot. A Hitchcock film is an organism, with the whole implied in every detail and every detail related to the whole." By 1960 Hitchcock had directed four films ranked among the greatest of all time: Rear Window, North by Northwest, Psycho. In 2012 Vertigo replaced Orson Welles's Citizen Kane as the British Film Institute's greatest film made. By 2018 eight of his films had been selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, including his personal favourite, Shadow of a Doubt.
He received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1979 and was knighted in December that year, four months before he died. Hitchcock was born on 13 August 1899 in the flat above his parents' leased grocer's shop at 517 High Road, Leytonstone, on the outskirts of east London, the youngest of three children: William, Ellen Kathleen, Alfred Joseph, his parents, Emma Jane Hitchcock, née Whelan, William Hitchcock, were both Roman Catholics, with partial roots in Ireland. There was a large extended family, including Uncle John Hitchcock with his five-bedroom Victorian house on Campion Road, complete with maid, cook and gardener; every summer John rented a seaside house for the family in Kent. Hitchcock said that he first became class-conscious there, noticing the differences between tourists and locals. Describing himself as a well-behaved boy—his father called him his "little lamb without a spot"—Hitchcock said he could not remember having had a playmate. One of his favourite stories for interviewers was about his father sending him to the local police station with a note when he was five.
The experience left him, with a lifelong fear of policemen. When he was six, the family moved to Limehouse and leased two stores at 130 and 175 Salmon Lane, which they ran as a fish-and-chips shop and fishmongers' respectively, it seems that Hitchcock was seven when he attended his first school, the Howrah House Convent in Poplar, which he entered in 1907. According to Patrick McGilligan, he stayed at Howrah House for at most two years, he attended a convent school, the Wode Street School "for the daughters of gentlemen and little boys", run by the Faithful Companions of Jesus. The family moved again when he was 11, this time to Stepney, on 5 October 1910 Hitchcock was sent to St Ignatius College in Stamford Hill, Tottenham, a Jesuit grammar school with a reputation for discipline; the priests used a hard rubber cane on the boys, always at the end of the day, so the boys had to sit through classes anticipating the punishment once they knew they'd been written up for it. He said; the school register lists his year of birth as 1900 rather than 1899.
While biographer Gene Adair reports that Hitchcock was "an average, or above-average, pupil", Hitchcock said he was "usually among the four or five at the top of the class". His favourite subject was geography, he became interested in maps, railway and bus timetables, he told Peter Bogdanovich: "The Jesuits taught me organization, control and, to some