The rock ptarmigan is a medium-sized gamebird in the grouse family. It is known as the ptarmigan in the UK and in Canada, where it is the official bird for the territory of Nunavut and the official game bird for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. In Japan, it is known as the raichō, which means "thunder bird", it is the official bird of Gifu and Toyama Prefectures and is a protected species nationwide. The ptarmigan's genus name, Lagopus, is derived from Ancient Greek lagos, meaning "hare", + pous, "foot", in reference to the bird's feathered legs; the species name, comes from New Latin and means "mute", referring to the simple croaking song of the male. It was for a long time misspelt mutus, in the erroneous belief that the ending of Lagopus denotes masculine gender. However, as the Ancient Greek term λαγώπους lagṓpous is of feminine gender, the species name has to agree with that, the feminine muta is correct; the word ptarmigan comes from the Scottish Gaelic tàrmachan croaker.
The silent initial p was added in 1684 by Robert Sibbald through the influence of Greek pteron, "wing", "feather", or "pinion". The rock ptarmigan is 34–36 cm long with a wingspan of 54–60 cm, it is smaller than the willow ptarmigan by about 10%. The male's "song" is a loud croaking; the rock ptarmigan is seasonally camouflaged. The breeding male has greyish upper parts under parts. In winter, its plumage becomes white except for the black tail, it can be distinguished from the winter willow ptarmigan by habitat—the rock ptarmigan prefers higher elevations and more barren habitat. The rock ptarmigan is a sedentary species which breeds across arctic and subarctic Eurasia and North America on rocky mountainsides and tundra, it is widespread in the Arctic Cordillera and is found in isolated populations in the mountains of Scotland, the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Urals, the Pamir Mountains, the Altay Mountains, Japan—where it occurs only in the Japan Alps and on Hakusan mountain. Because of the remote habitat in which it lives, it has only a few predators—such as golden eagles—and it can be approachable.
It has been introduced to New Zealand, South Georgia, the Kerguelen Islands, the Crozet Islands. The small population living on Franz Josef Land in the Russian High Arctic overwinters during the polar night and survives by feeding on rich vegetation on and underneath high cliffs where seabird colonies are located in summer. During the last ice age, the species was far more widespread in continental Europe; the rock ptarmigan feeds on birch and willow buds and catkins when available. It eats various seeds, leaves and berries of other plant species. Insects are eaten by the developing young. Apart from the comb, the male rock ptarmigan has no ornaments or displays that are typical for grouses in temperate regions. Studies on other grouses have shown that much variation in comb size and colour exists between the species, that the comb is used in courtship display and aggressive interactions between males. Many studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between the comb size and the level of testosterone in males.
The male's comb has been the focus of studies regarding sexual selection. Studies of a population of male rock ptarmigans in Scarpa Lake, have shown that during the first year, mating success among males was influenced by comb size and condition, bigamous males had larger combs than monogamous males; the correlation to size disappeared after the first year, but the correlation to comb condition remained. This is consistent with another study of the same population of L. muta that showed that mating success overall is correlated to comb condition. Exceptions were first-time breeders; the rock ptarmigan becomes sexually mature at six months of age and has up to six chicks. Because of this high breeding rate, the size of the population is affected little by factors such as hunting. Rock ptarmigan meat is a popular part of festive meals in Icelandic cuisine. Hunting of rock ptarmigans was banned in Iceland in 2004 due to its declining population. Hunting has been allowed again since 2005, but is restricted to selected days, which are revised yearly and all trade of rock ptarmigan is illegal.
In Thomas Bewick's A History of British Birds the species is named as "White Grouse" with alternatives "White Game, or Ptarmigan". The birds feed, records Bewick, "on the wild productions of the hills, which sometimes give the flesh a bitter, but not unpalatable taste: it is dark coloured, has somewhat the flavour of the hare." The Rock ptarmigan is the official territorial bird of Canada. Its Inuktitut name is aqiggiq atajulik, it is the official game bird of Labrador. Stamps: Rock Ptarmigan. Avibase. Montin. Phys. Sälsk. Kandl. 1: 155
The urumi is a sword with a flexible whip-like blade, originating from the Indian subcontinent, notable in what is now southern India and Sri Lanka. It is thought to have existed from as early as the Sangam period; the urumi is considered one of the most difficult weapons to master due to the risk of injuring oneself. It is treated as a steel whip and therefore requires prior knowledge of that weapon as well as the sword. For this reason, the urumi is always taught last in Indian martial arts; the word urumi is of Keralite origin. In the state's southern region, it is more called a chuttuval, from the words for coiling or spinning and sword. Alternative Tamil names for the weapon are surul katti surul surul pattakatti; the urumi hilt is constructed from iron or brass and is identical to that of the talwar, complete with a crossguard and a slender knucklebow. The typical handle is termed a "disc hilt" from the prominent disc-shaped flange surrounding the pommel; the pommel has a short decorative spike-like protrusion projecting from its centre.
The blade is fashioned from flexible edged steel measuring three-quarters to one inch in width. Ideally, the length of the blade should be the same as the wielder's armspan between 4 feet to 5.5 feet. Multiple blades are attached to a single handle; the Sri Lankan variation can have up to 32 blades and is dual-wielded, with one in each hand. The urumi is handled like a flail arm but requires less strength since the blade combined with centrifugal force is sufficient to inflict injury; as with other "soft" weapons, urumi wielders learn to follow and control the momentum of the blade with each swing, thus techniques include spins and agile maneuvres. These long-reaching spins make the weapon well suited to fighting against multiple opponents; when not in use, the urumi is worn coiled around the waist like a belt, with the handle at the wearer's side like a conventional sword. A peptide found in the mucus of a South Indian frog is termed as urumin; this name is inspired from the urumi. Angampora Bagh nakh Kalaripayat Katara Silambam
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae. In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family those of the genus Macropus: the red kangaroo, antilopine kangaroo, eastern grey kangaroo, western grey kangaroo. Kangaroos are indigenous to Australia; the Australian government estimates that 34.3 million kangaroos lived within the commercial harvest areas of Australia in 2011, up from 25.1 million one year earlier. As with the terms "wallaroo" and "wallaby", "kangaroo" refers to a paraphyletic grouping of species. All three refer to members of the same taxonomic family and are distinguished according to size; the largest species in the family are called "kangaroos" and the smallest are called "wallabies". The term "wallaroos" refers to species of an intermediate size. There is the tree-kangaroo, another genus of macropod, which inhabits the tropical rainforests of New Guinea, far northeastern Queensland and some of the islands in the region. A general idea of the relative size of these informal terms could be: wallabies: head and body length of 45–105 cm and tail length of 33–75 cm.
Kangaroos have large, powerful hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, a long muscular tail for balance, a small head. Like most marsupials, female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development; the large kangaroos have adapted much better than the smaller macropods to land clearing for pastoral agriculture and habitat changes brought to the Australian landscape by humans. Many of the smaller species are rare and endangered, while kangaroos are plentiful; the kangaroo is a symbol of Australia and appears on the Australian coat of arms and on some of its currency and is used by some of Australia's well known organisations, including Qantas and the Royal Australian Air Force. The kangaroo is important to both Australian culture and the national image, there are numerous popular culture references. Wild kangaroos are shot for meat, leather hides, to protect grazing land. Although controversial, kangaroo meat has perceived health benefits for human consumption compared with traditional meats due to the low level of fat on kangaroos.
The word "kangaroo" derives from the Guugu Yimithirr word gangurru. The name was first recorded as "kanguru" on 12 July 1770 in an entry in the diary of Sir Joseph Banks. Cook first referred to kangaroos in his diary entry of 4 August. Guugu Yimithirr is the language of the people of the area. A common myth about the kangaroo's English name is that "kangaroo" was a Guugu Yimithirr phrase for "I don't understand you." According to this legend and Banks were exploring the area when they happened upon the animal. They asked a nearby local; the local responded "Kangaroo", meaning "I don't understand you", which Cook took to be the name of the creature. This myth was debunked in the 1970s by linguist John B. Haviland in his research with the Guugu Yimithirr people. Kangaroos are colloquially referred to as "roos". Male kangaroos are called bucks, jacks, or old men; the collective noun for kangaroos is troop, or court. There are four extant species that are referred to as kangaroos: The red kangaroo is the largest surviving marsupial anywhere in the world.
It occupies the semi-arid centre of the country. The highest population densities of the red kangaroo occur in the rangelands of western New South Wales. Red kangaroos are mistaken as the most abundant species of kangaroo, but eastern greys have a larger population. A large male weighs 90 kg; the eastern grey kangaroo is less well-known than the red, but the most seen, as its range covers the fertile eastern part of the country. The range of the eastern grey kangaroo extends from the top of the Cape York Peninsula in north Queensland down to Victoria, as well as areas of south-eastern Australia and Tasmania. Population densities of eastern grey kangaroos peak near 100 per km2 in suitable habitats of open woodlands. Populations are more limited in areas of land clearance, such as farmland, where forest and woodland habitats are limited in size or abundance; the western grey kangaroo is smaller again at about 54 kg for a large male. It is found in the southern part of Western Australia, South Australia near the coast, the Darling River basin.
The highest population densities occur in the western Riverina district of New South Wales and in western areas of the Nullarbor Plain in Western Australia. Populations may have declined in agricultural areas; the species has a high tolerance to the plant toxin sodium fluoroacetate, which indicates a possible origin from the south-west region of Australia. The antilopine ka
Parachute cord is a lightweight nylon kernmantle rope used in the suspension lines of parachutes. This cord is useful for many other tasks and is now used as a general purpose utility cord by both military personnel and civilians; this versatile cord was used by astronauts during the 82nd Space Shuttle mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope. The braided sheath has a high number of interwoven strands for its size, giving it a smooth texture; the all-nylon construction makes paracord elastic. Current technical standards for the manufacture of cord for use in parachutes are published by the Parachute Industry Association; the US military MIL-C-5040H standard required the material to be nylon. Similar styles of cord are manufactured with other materials such as polyester. Associated with airborne units and divisions, paracord is today used by many military units in any situation where light cordage is needed. Typical uses include attaching equipment to harnesses, as dummy cords to avoid losing small or important items, tying rucksacks to vehicle racks, securing camouflage nets to trees or vehicles, so forth.
When threaded with beads, paracord may be used as a pace counter to estimate ground covered by foot. The yarns of the core can be removed when finer string is needed, for instance as sewing thread to repair gear, or to be used as fishing line in a survival situation. For applications requiring a thinner or less elastic cord, such as shoelaces, users remove the yarn in the core and use the nylon sheath alone; the ends of the cord can be crimped to prevent fraying. There are modern versions of parachute cord that include non-traditional survival strands within the core such as fishing line, fire tinder, snare wire. In addition to purely utility functions, paracord can be used to fashion knotted or braided bracelets, lanyards and other decorative items; these are sometimes tied in a fashion that can be unraveled for use in a survival situation. Some companies use paracord in conjunction with other survival components to create everyday wearable survival kits; the same properties which soldiers appreciate in paracord are useful in civilian applications.
After World War II parachute cord became available to civilians, first as military surplus and as a common retail product from various surplus stores and websites. A given product labelled as paracord may not correspond to a specific military type and can be of differing construction, color, or strength. Poor quality examples may have fewer strands in the sheath or core, cores constructed of bulk fiber rather than individual yarns, or include materials other than nylon. Paracord has been used for whipmaking; the durability and versatility of this material has proved beneficial for performing whip crackers and enthusiasts. Since nylon does not rot or mildew, it has become known as an all-weather material for whipmaking. Hikers and outdoor sports enthusiasts sometimes use "survival bracelets" made of several feet of paracord, woven into a compact and wearable form; such bracelets are meant to be unraveled when one needs rope for whatever purpose — securing cargo, lashing together poles, fixing broken straps or belts, or assisting with water rescues.
Young survivalists are taught the importance of using the paracord as a survival tool. On the other hand, the paracord is a poor choice for an emergency tourniquet as its small diameter will crush tissue without applying the needed pressure to stop bleeding. Another use of parachute cord is in the stringing of mallet percussion instruments, such the xylophone, marimba, or vibraphone. A similar usage niche is nylon webbing, a strong, economical fabric woven as a flat strip or tube often used in place of rope. Additional uses for parachute cord are in the manufacture of items such as lanyards, dog leashes and key chains; this is becoming more popular. U. S. military issue paracord was purchased with reference to a technical standard MIL-C-5040H, inactivated in 1997. This standard described six types: I, IA, II, IIA, III, IV; the core consists of several yarns, the number is determined by the cord type, each yarn is made up of two or three or three smaller nylon fibers twisted together. Types IA and IIA differ from II counterparts in that they have no core.
Type III, a type found in use, is nominally rated with a minimum breaking strength of 550 pounds, thus the nickname "550 cord". All six types are specified to have a minimum elongation of 30%; the US military specification for paracord gives strength and construction parameters to which the final product must conform, as well as requirements for packaging and marking. Although the standard contains specific denier figures for the sheath strands and inner yarns, there are no overall diameter requirements for the cord itself. Below is a table of selected elements from the specification. Military-specification type III cord may be thicker than commercial grade due to it requiring three nylon fibers per inner core as opposed to the two fibers per core of the commercial version. Military cord will be closer to a 4 millimetres thickness, whereas commercial versions are closer to a 3 millimetres thickness; this will vary if the Type III uses 7, 8, or 9 inner cores. The most common on the commercial market is seven cores.
While the US military has no overall diameter requirements in its specifications, in the field, Type III cord measures 5⁄32 inc
Whip It (Devo song)
"Whip It" is a song by American rock band Devo from their third album Freedom of Choice. It is a new wave and synth-pop song that features a synthesizer, electric guitar, bass guitar, drums in its instrumentation; the nonsensical lyrics have a common theme revolving around the ability to deal with one's problems by "whipping it". Co-written by bassist Gerald Casale and singer Mark Mothersbaugh, Devo recorded "Whip It" with producer Robert Margouleff at the Record Plant in Los Angeles. Although "Whip It" was released as the second single from Freedom of Choice, Warner Bros. Records did not expect it to be a hit, due to its nonstandard tempo and strange lyrics; the disc jockey Kal Rudman took an interest in the song and it was soon being played on several radio stations in the Southeastern United States. Peaking at number fourteen on the Billboard Hot 100, "Whip It" became a hit single and found chart success in several countries. Mothersbaugh believes the song sold well because some people assumed the lyrics are about masturbation or sadomasochism.
An accompanying music video depicts these sexual themes. Despite some claims of misogynistic undertones, the video became popular on the fledgling television channel MTV. Devo's 1979 album Duty Now for the Future was considered a disappointment by critics and band members. A: We Are Devo! and the band members blamed the formulaic sound on the album's producer Ken Scott. Warner Bros. Records was unhappy with Duty Now for the Future and issued to Devo an ultimatum that they needed to produce a successful follow-up album or be dropped from the label; the band members believed a hit single would bolster the next album's popularity and give them radio exposure. In late 1979, audio engineer Robert Margouleff was brought on to produce "Whip It" and its parent album Freedom of Choice."Whip It" was written by bassist Gerald Casale and singer/keyboardist Mark Mothersbaugh between August and October 1979. Howard Siegal engineered the song, it was mastered by Ken Perry at Capitol Studios. The song was recorded using API mixing consoles, 3M tape machines, Minimoog and Prophet-5 synthesizers.
Throughout the song, there are whipcracking noises that were recorded using an Electrocomp 500 synthesizer and Neumann KM 84 and U 87 microphones. The music for "Whip It" was crafted by taking elements from four different demo tapes that Casale had collected. Mothersbaugh composed. On another tape, Mothersbaugh played. One of Captain Beefheart's drummers created a beat. Casale layered them to create a smooth, consistent time signature. Mothersbaugh created the main riff in "Whip It" by taking the riff used in Roy Orbison's song "Oh, Pretty Woman" and changing the ending slightly. "Whip It" is a new wave and synth-pop song, built around a consistent 4/4 beat known as a motorik beat. It is constructed in verse -- chorus form. With a chord progression of D-A-E7sus4 in the verses and C-G-D in the choruses, the song is written in the key of E major. "Whip It"'s main riff alternates between a five-note ascension and a three-note descension, is played with a synthesizer, electric guitar, bass guitar. The chorus features two synthesizer notes that are a half step apart, which creates what AllMusic's Steve Huey describes as "a disorienting aural effect".
As the song progresses, a guitar lick in the main riff becomes more prominent. During the instrumental break, the riff temporarily recofigures to a nonstandard 6/4 beat before returning to the original 4/4 beat. Casale and Mothersbaugh sing the vocals of "Whip It" with a vocal range of A4-F#5; the singers take alternate turns on vocals. The use of two vocalists is a call and response that Casale said is "kind of like white boys rapping"; the lyrics of "Whip It" are nonsensical. For example, its central theme revolves around the ability to solve one's problems by "whipping it". Casale wrote the lyrics, he took inspiration from communist propaganda posters and Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon, a 1973 novel that contains satirical limericks about capitalist can-do clichés. Casale incorporated lyrics. Mothersbaugh offered a different interpretation of the lyrics, saying they were written in the form of a subtle pep talk for United States President Jimmy Carter during the 1980 presidential election.
The members of Devo supported Carter and feared the Republican candidate Ronald Reagan would win the election. Mothersbaugh jokingly once said in an interview: "Come on Jimmy, get your shit together". Huey notes, he describes the process of whipping it to solve one's problems as "a sardonic portrait of a general, problematic aspect of the American psyche: the predilection for using force and violence to solve problems, vent frustration, prove oneself to others". "Whip It" is one of four songs from Freedom of Choice to be released as a single. Warner Bros. favored the commercial viability of the first single "Girl U Want"
The sjambok or litupa is a heavy leather whip. It is traditionally made from an adult hippopotamus or rhinoceros hide, but is commonly made out of plastic. A strip of the animal's hide is cut and carved into a strip 0.9 to 1.5 metres long, tapering from about 25 mm thick at the handle to about 10 mm at the tip. This strip is rolled until reaching a tapered-cylindrical form; the resulting whip is both durable. A plastic version was made for the South African Police Service, used for riot control; the sjambok was used by the Voortrekkers driving their oxen while migrating from the Cape of Good Hope, remains in use by herdsmen to drive cattle. They are available in South Africa from informal traders to regular stores from a variety of materials and thicknesses, they are an effective weapon to kill snakes and ward off dogs and other attackers and are still carried in public by many South Africans for self-defense. In South Africa use of the sjambok by police is sometimes seen as synonymous with the apartheid era, but its use on people started much earlier.
It is sometimes used outside the official judiciary by those who mete out discipline imposed by extralegal courts. In 1963, an enquiry into the police force of Sheffield in the United Kingdom found that rhino whips had been used on suspects to produce confessions where there was no apparent evidence to link them to the crimes; the name seems to have originated as cambuk in Indonesia, where it was the name of a wooden rod for punishing slaves, where it was derived from the Persian chabouk or chabuk. When Malay slaves arrived in South Africa in the 1800s, the instrument and its name were imported with them, the material was changed to hide, the name was incorporated into Afrikaans, spelled as sambok; the instrument is known as imvubu, kiboko and as mnigolo. In the Portuguese African colonies and Congo Free State it was called a chicote, from the Portuguese word for whip. In the Belgian Congo, the instrument was known as fimbo and was used to force labour from local people through flogging, sometimes to death.
The official tariff for punishment in this case was lowered in time from twenty strokes to eight six, progressively four and two, until flogging was outlawed in 1955. In North Africa Egypt, the whip was called a kurbash, after the Arabic for whip; the term shaabuug is used in the Somali language. In the film Would You Rather, players are given the option to whip a fellow contestant with a sjambok. In Willard Price's Elephant Adventure, the cruel Arab slaver known as the Thunder Man enjoys flogging captives with a sjambok made from hippopotamus hide