Cape Capricorn Light
Cape Capricorn Light is an active heritage-listed lighthouse located on Cape Capricorn, a coastal headland on the northeast point of Curtis Island, in Gladstone Region, Central Queensland, Australia. The lighthouse, constructed in 1964, is the third at this site, following a timber frame lighthouse constructed in 1875 and a concrete lighthouse constructed around 1937, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 31 August 2001. The separation of the colony of Queensland from New South Wale took place with the signing of Letters Patent by Queen Victoria in 1859; the need for pilot assistance accessing the mouth of Fitzroy River and the Port of Rockhampton necessitates the construction of a pilot station on Curtis Island. The first permanent station was established on Cape Capricorn as early as 1861. Though it was moved to Grassy Hill three years the need for a lighthouse at Cape Capricorn remained a priority. Plans for a lighthouse and cottages were prepared in early 1874 by the office of F. D. G. Stanley, Queensland Colonial Architect, with an estimated cost of £1460 for the lighthouse and cottages.
The lighthouse, a typical Queensland timber framed and iron clad structure, was to be prefabricated and built in Brisbane. However, the only response to the first tender was an overpriced offer of £2850; the second tender was more successful, the winning offer being by James Midson for £1046/10/-. The construction was completed some time in October 1874, an additional contract was granted to Midson for the erection of the structures on the site for the sum of £753. Quite remarkably, a last minute change in the order of the lantern from England meant that no lamp room was ordered. An urgent request for an additional £180 was made by Stanley for construction of a lamp room from timber framing with iron plating, instead of the planned cast iron one; the lighthouse was operational around late July 1875. The original light source was an oil wick burner. An 1895 survey reports two additional auxiliary lights on Cape Capricorn, to the north and southeast of the main lighthouse. Supplying the station was done from Rockhampton, was quite a difficult task.
Supplies were brought to the base of the hill by steamboat and manually winched up over 91 metres on a tramway. An assessment made by Commander Brewis in 1912 recommended increasing the power of the light, adjusting the eastern auxiliary light, renovating the dwellings, repairing the tramway and supplying steam winches. However, this recommendation was to be followed slowly and partially. However, in July 1915 the lighthouse was transferred to the control of the federal government, it took eight more years until in 1923 the light source was replaced with a 55 millimetres incandescent vapourised kerosene mantle. In January 1936 plans were prepared for electrification of the light. However, it is not clear if this change was made, as in the same year it was decided to replace the tower. In 1936 the Commonwealth government decided to replace the tower with a new concrete block lighthouse, plans were prepared in September 1937; the new tower was a 6-metre-high square structure, with an adjoined power house.
The tower was topped by a small circular lantern. At the same time the residences and service buildings were replaced with timber framed asbestos clad structures; the new lighthouse was made operative with electric power in 1938. However, from undetermined reasons this lighthouse was to be short-lived, surviving only 26 years more to be replaced by a new structure in 1964. Plans for a new powerhouse and lighthouse were made in July 1963 respectively. By 1964 construction was complete and the new light was operational, it was the first of a group of seven concrete towers erected between 1964 and 1979, followed by New Caloundra Light, Point Danger Light, New Burnett Heads Light, Fitzroy Island Light, Point Cartwright Light and Archer Point Light. In 1968 the light source was converted to 240 V AC operation. Since its construction and until 1978, Cape Capricorn lightstation served as the base radio station for a network of lighthouses in the area including North Reef Light, Lady Elliot Island Light, Pine Islet Light and Dent Island Light.
On 18 December 1978 this role was transferred to Bustard Head Light. On 8 December 1983, the House Standing Committee on Expenditure tabled its report on the inquiry into lightstations entitled "Lighthouses: Do we keep the keepers?". The report recommended the demanning of 24 lightstation, including Cape Capricorn. In 1988 the station was converted to solar power; the lantern has been removed, a self-contained beacon was installed. Ownership of the station was transferred to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority in 1991, back to the Australian Maritime Safety Authority in 1995 and to the Queensland Government in July 1997, which employs a caretaker at one of the residences; the rest are leased. The light characteristic shown is one flash every five seconds, white/red depending on sector. White is shown 005°-307°, visible for 16 nautical miles. Red is shown 307°-005°, visible for 12 nautical miles; the light source is a 120 Volt tungsten-halogen lamp, fed from diesel alternators. The current tower is 6.4 metres high, constructed of concrete blocks in a square plan with chamfered corners, with a small porch at the base.
A round gallery surrounded with a metal rail overhangs the tower. A self-contained beacon is installed on top of the gallery; the keeper's residence includes two cottages, timber framed, clad with asbestos cement sheets and timber battens, painted white. The gabled roofs are clad with corrugated iron, painted green. Other constructed structures at the premis
Point Danger Light
Point Danger Light known as the Captain Cook Memorial Light, is an active lighthouse located on Point Danger, a headland between Coolangatta and Tweed Heads, New South Wales, marking the border between New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. It lays claim to be the first lighthouse in the world to experiment with laser as a light source. Point Danger Light was the third of a group of seven concrete towers erected between 1964 and 1979 in Queensland, in order of erection Cape Capricorn Light, New Caloundra Light, New Burnett Heads Light, Fitzroy Island Light, Point Cartwright Light and Archer Point Light. Constructed in 1971, it commemorates the bicentennial of Captain Cook's first voyage, the voyage along the east coast of Australia in 1770, it was first exhibited on 18 April 1971. The original light source was an experimental laser based light, the lighthouse may well be the first in the world to experiment with this light source. However, the experiment failed, the light source was replaced in 1975 by a regular electric lamp.
The light characteristic shown is two white flashes every ten seconds, visible at 170°-330° for 11 nautical miles. The light source is an electric lamp, fed by a battery float charged from the mains electricity; the lighthouse is constructed of four concrete columns, marked with the four cardinal directions, a bronze sculpture hung between the columns. Near-by is a one-story building housing the Marine Rescue NSW Point Danger station; the light is operated by Maritime Services. The site is accessible. List of lighthouses and lightvessels in Australia
Old Caloundra Light
Old Caloundra Light known as Old Caloundra Head Light or Cape Caloundra Light, is an inactive lighthouse located in Caloundra on the Sunshine Coast in South East Queensland, Australia. It is the oldest surviving building in Caloundra; the lighthouse was active between 1896 and 1968. The tower was relocated twice. In 1970 it was relocated from its original location to Woorim Park in Caloundra, in 1999 it was returned to its original site on Canberra Terrace near downtown Caloundra, where it stands today; the need for a lighthouse at Caloundra Head arose in 1879 with the sounding of the North West Channel, a deep water channel into Moreton Bay and the Port of Brisbane, the principal port of Queensland. The channel went from Caloundra Head along the eastern shore of Bribie Island. Although the channel became the most used entry channel into the port, it was only lit in 1896, when a pair of mobile leading lights were established on Bribie Island, the Caloundra Head Light was constructed. Tenders were called in 1896, the stations were constructed by day labor.
Materials for construction were shipped by barge from Brisbane. The lighthouse was the fifth in a group of eight lighthouses of its type, made of hardwood frame clad with corrugated iron, which included, by order of establishment Little Sea Hill Light, Grassy Hill Light, Goods Island Light, Bay Rock Light, North Point Hummock Light, Gatcombe Head Light and Bulwer Island Light. Though the main purpose of the light was to mark the entrance to the North West Channel it served as a harbour light; the light was lit in September 1896. The original lens was a fourth order Chance Brothers dioptric apparatus, the original light source was a fixed kerosene lamp, it was attended by a single lighthouse keeper. The keeper's house served as a postal office with telegraph service, the light keeper served as the telegraph office keeper; the telegraph service was discontinued in 1910, but telephone service was installed in 1912, so the post office remained at the site until 1934. The keeper's cottage hosted the first Caloundra for a few months.
In 1910 the apparatus was upgraded to an incandescent vapour kerosene lamp purchased from Chance Brothers, the first of its type in Queensland. Its intensity was 1,400 cd and it was visible for at least 22–25 nautical miles. By the 1930s the channel became more popular and the lighthouse became a symbol of Caloundra, being used on maps and other promotional material. During World War II the lighthouse was controlled by the Royal Australian Navy which set up an observation post within the grounds. In 1942 it was converted to electricity from the mains with a petrol operated engine-generator as backup; the lighthouse was automated and demanned and the cottage was occupied by the Coastal Artillery forces, which attended the light. After the war, the light remained unmanned, being connected to Brisbane by phone and attended from there. However, the connection to the mains proved quite unreliable, a local, Charlie Bigg, was engaged to attend the light from his nearby residence; the keeper's cottage was sold and moved down the hill in 1946.
By 1950 the nearby ground were opened as a public park and the lighthouse was fenced off. The lighthouse's image continued to be used on promotional material as well crests and logos of local establishments. Changes in the shipping industry in the 1960s caused an increase in large container ships, which made the channel more important. In May 1966 permission was granted for the construction of New Caloundra Light, a modern structure comprising a combined lighthouse, signal station and radar station, it was erected in 1967 right next to the old lighthouse. By 1968 it became operational and the old lighthouse was deactivated; the lighthouse's last active power source was a 500 Watt 110 Volt Philips lamp, fed by the Mains electricity. It showed a white light, with red showing in a sector. Having an intensity of 250,000 cd the white light was visible for 19 nautical miles while the red one was visible for 9 nautical miles; the light was shown at a focal height of 52 metres. The lighthouse remained at location until 1970 under constant threats of demolition.
In 1970 volunteers from the Golden Beach Power Boat Club relocated it to Woorim Park, near their clubhouse. As funds for preservation were not provided, the tower continued deteriorating, the iron cladding rusted, water leaking weakened the timber frames. At some point the lighthouse was concrete rendered to seal it. In the late 1990s it became apparent. In order to get the tower funded it needed to be registered by the Queensland Heritage Register, but as it was not in its original location it was not eligible; as the new lighthouse was deactivated in 1992, relocating the lighthouse back to its original location became an option. After a two-year campaign by local residents and the Caloundra City Council a lease on the original location was obtained and A$50,000 were granted by the Council to facilitate the relocation. However, a relocation attempt made on 22 March 1999 was disastrous. Though the lantern was detached, as the tower was lifted about a metre off the ground a section below the first floor broke away due to the brittleness of the timber studs and the lighthouse fell to the ground.
As the move was insured, the lighthouse could be saved. The tower was subsequently braced and repaired, on 11 June it was transported to its original location, where a new base has been built over the original one; that year the tower and the lantern were restored, the lantern w
Sea Hill Light
Sea Hill Lighthouse known as Sea Hill Point Light or Little Sea Hill Light, is a lighthouse on the northwest point of Curtis Island, Gladstone Region, Australia. Its purpose was to mark the east side of the entrance to Keppel Bay, on passage to Fitzroy River and Port Alma; the first lighthouse at the locations was constructed in 1873 or 1876, moved in the 1920s, is now on display at the Gladstone Maritime Museum. A second lighthouse was constructed in 1895 and its state is unclear; the need for a lighthouse at this location was identified in 1864. The first lighthouse, constructed in 1873 or 1876, was the first in Queensland of its design, made of a hardwood frame clad with corrugated iron; this design was used in seven more lighthouses, by order of establishment, Grassy Hill Light, Goods Island Light, Bay Rock Light, Old Caloundra Light, North Point Hummock Light, Gatcombe Head Light and Bulwer Island Light. With the installation of the second lighthouse in 1895 it became the front light in the range.
In the 1920s, the lighthouse was relocated to Station Point, about 6 kilometres northeast. It stood there until it was deactivated in the 1960s and sold into private hands, it is on display at the Gladstone Maritime Museum at 23°50′4″S 151°15′37″E. The lighthouse is rather short, only 20 feet in height. Unlike the other seven Queensland lighthouse towers of the corrugated iron clad type, it is hexagonal in plan, rather than round. A gallery and a lantern top the tower, much like other Queensland lighthouses, it is painted white with a red dome; the second lighthouse was constructed for a while served as the rear light in the range. It is a 12-metre-high, timber framed zinc-annealed, corrugated iron clad tower, with a lantern and a balcony; the original optical apparatus was a 4th order fixed lens with kerosene wick burner. In 1930 the light was converted to an open flame acetylene gas burner, with sun valve and flasher, which operated at least until 1975. By 1977 the original lens had been removed and a solar powered Tideland ML-300 electric beacon installed.
A pilot station was established on the foreshore nearby in 1919 and was closed in 1963. The current state of the lighthouse is unclear. There are reports that the lighthouse was deactivated in 2006. While there were reports that it was demolished in early 2009, other reported that it was standing in 2014; the 2018 List of Lights lists a light at the location, 39-foot-high with a focal plane of 109 feet, displaying a light characteristic of two white flashes every six seconds. List of lighthouses and lightvessels in Australia
North Reef Light
North Reef Light is an active lighthouse located on North Reef, a 5.6 square kilometres planar reef, about 120 kilometres northeast of Gladstone, Australia in the Capricorn and Bunker Group. The lighthouse was constructed on a migratory patch of sand inside a fringing coral reef, which over the years disappeared and reappeared, as sand was washed away and accumulated, is now a vegetated sandy island, its construction is unique, having a hollow concrete base that both gives it resistance to the shifting nature of the sandbar and serves as a fresh water tank. As such, it is considered one of the major achievement in Australian lighthouse construction, it is notable in that due to the harsh conditions, only bachelors were allowed to serve as lighthouse keepers. At 24 metres it is the tallest of Queensland's timber framed iron clad lighthouses; the recommendation to establish a lighthouse on North Reef was made by a select parliamentary committee in 1864. The site was a small sandbank on a coral reef.
The proposal called for a cast iron cylindrical tower, 12 metres in diameter and 15 metres tall, which would rest on the coral, penetrating the sand. A hollow base would be formed by pouring concrete into the cylinder, which would serve as a fresh water tank, a residence surrounding it. Tenders were called in January 1876, the winning offer was for £7,964 by Walker and Company of Maryborough. Construction was to be completed in by July 1877 but delays, first in approval of the money, in construction, delayed the completion until November 1878; the base of the tower, 13 metres in diameter and 4.6 metres high, was constructed of bolted cast iron segments. Both the tower and the residence were constructed of timber frame, clad in galvanized iron; the original optical apparatus was a second order lens. Conditions at the lighthouse were harsh; the location is remote, the quarters cramped, the shifting sands sometimes left the lighthouse surrounded by water. The lighthouse keepers chosen were therefore unmarried men.
The light source was upgraded twice, in 1923 and in 1929. In 1977 the light was converted to electricity and it was demanned in January 1978; the final upgrade was on 28 September 1987 when the light was converted to solar power and six solar panels were installed on the roof of the quarters, facing north. The current light characteristic is two white flashes, separated by five seconds, every 15 seconds, visible for 17 nautical miles. A racon on the tower transmits morse code "Q"; the apparatus is a VRB-25, rotating at 2 rpm, the light source is a 12 Volt 35 Watt Halogen lamp with an intensity of 35,050 cd. As mentioned above, the lighthouse base is made of bolted cast iron segments, 13 metres in diameter and 4.6 metres high. The tower is 18 metres from the base to the lantern, conical in shape, with four intermediate floor levels, it is built of an internal timber frame, painted white. On top of the tower is a Chance Brothers 10 feet 9 inches diameter lantern, housing the VRB-25 beacon; the dome of the lantern is painted red.
The lighthouse keepers' residence surrounds the base of the tower. They comprise a ring of eight rooms, three bed rooms, two sitting rooms, two kitchens, a store room, they are constructed of a timber frame with galvanised iron roof. The external walls are covered with corrugated galvanised iron sheets; the site and the light are operated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. The island is accessible by boat. List of lighthouses and lightvessels in Australia Searle, Garry. "List of Lighthouses - Queensland". Lighthouses of Australia. SeaSide Lights
Flat Top Island Light
Flat Top Island Light is an inactive lighthouse located on Flat Top Island, a small island off the entrance to Mackay harbor at the mouth of Pioneer River, about 6.5 kilometres east of Mackay, Australia. It used to mark the river entrance for shipping and the direction of the port, as well as highlighting close-by shoals at Shoalwater Point and a reef off Hay Point. At 6 metres from the ground to the lantern floor, it is the shortest of Queensland's timber framed iron clad lighthouses. Tenders for the construction of the lighthouse were called in February 1877, the tender accepted on September of that year was by Archibald McIntyre. Construction commenced on December 1877 and complete in May 1878. However, the lighthouse was not lit, as the permanent apparatus was not available and a temporary one was used; the light was lit only on 27 December 1879 with the installation of the permanent apparatus. As typical for lighthouses of that period in Queensland, the tower is conical in shape, built of an internal timber frame, clad with galvanized iron plates.
The foundation was 17 feet wide, made of stone and concrete. The lighthouse diameter is 11 feet 3 inches at the bottom and 7 feet at the top; the height of the tower is 20 feet from the ground to the balcony, making it the shortest of the composite lighthouses built in Queensland. From the ground to the top the height reported on construction was 31 feet, with the light being shown at 23 feet. However, the height was no hindrance; the permanent light installed was a fixed fourth order dioptric and was visible for 19 nautical miles. It showed white light for directions clear of red over danger. An additional red sector was installed to show further dangerous locations; the lighthouse is painted white with a red dome. In January 1918 the lighthouse was the only structure on the island and the only aid to navigation to survive the 1918 Mackay cyclone; the lighthouse was automated around 1920. In 1991, the light source was still an open flame acetylene gas burner; the light was discontinued in March 2007 and it is conserved on site.
The last light characteristic displayed was four flashes every twenty seconds and white depending on the direction. The lighthouse is inactive. Before that, it was operated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority; the island is accessible only by boat. It is unclear whether public access to the tower are available. List of lighthouses and lightvessels in Australia Searle, Garry. "List of Lighthouses - Queensland". Lighthouses of Australia. SeaSide Lights. "The Flat Top Island Lighthouse". Lighthouses of Queensland. Lighthouses of Australia Inc