SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bundestag

The Bundestag is the German federal parliament. It can be compared to the chamber of deputies along the lines of the United States House of Representatives or the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. Through the Bundesrat, the individual states of Germany participate in legislation similar to a second house in a bicameral parliament. According to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany however, these two chambers form constitutional bodies principally separate from each other, so to say not forming the German parliament, but they work together in most aspects of lawmaking on the federal level; the Bundestag was established by article III of the Grundgesetz in 1949 as one of the legislative bodies of Germany and thus the historical successor to the earlier Reichstag. Since 1999 it has met in the Reichstag Building in Berlin. Wolfgang Schäuble is the current President of the Bundestag. Members of the Bundestag are elected every four years by all adult German citizens in a mixed system of constituency voting and list voting.

The constitutional minimum number of seats is 598. The Election Day can be called earlier than four years after the last if the Federal Chancellor loses a vote of confidence and asks the Federal President to dissolve the Bundestag in order to hold new general elections. In the 19th century, the name Bundestag was the unofficial designation for the assembly of the sovereigns and mayors of the Monarchies and Free Cities which formed the German Confederation, its seat was in the Free City of Frankfurt on the Main. Bundestag translates as "League Council" meaning "bound day". "Tag" came to mean "sitting in conference" — another example being Reichstag — because a council gathering would happen on a given day of the week, month, or year. With the dissolution of the German Confederation in 1866 and the founding of the German Empire in 1871, the Reichstag was established as the German parliament in Berlin, the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia. Two decades the current parliament building was erected.

The Reichstag delegates were elected by equal male suffrage. The Reichstag did not participate in the appointment of the Chancellor until the parliamentary reforms of October 1918. After the Revolution of November 1918 and the establishment of the Weimar Constitution, women were given the right to vote for the Reichstag, the parliament could use the no-confidence vote to force the chancellor or any cabinet member to resign. In March 1933, one month after the Reichstag fire, the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, a retired war hero, gave Adolf Hitler ultimate power through the Decree for the Protection of People and State and the Enabling Act of 1933, although Hitler remained at the post of Federal Government Chancellor. After this, the Reichstag met only usually at the Krolloper to unanimously rubber-stamp the decisions of the government, it last convened on 26 April 1942. With the new Constitution of 1949, the Bundestag was established as the new West German parliament; because West Berlin was not under the jurisdiction of the Constitution, a legacy of the Cold War, the Bundestag met in Bonn in several different buildings, including a former waterworks facility.

In addition, owing to the city's legal status, citizens of West Berlin were unable to vote in elections to the Bundestag, were instead represented by 22 non-voting delegates chosen by the House of Representatives, the city's legislature. The Bundeshaus in Bonn is the former parliament building of Germany; the sessions of the German Bundestag were held there from 1949 until its move to Berlin in 1999. Today it houses the International Congress Centre Bundeshaus Bonn and in the northern areas the branch office of the Bundesrat, which represents the Länder – the federated states); the southern areas became part of German offices for the United Nations in 2008. The former Reichstag building housed a history exhibition and served as a conference center; the Reichstag building was occasionally used as a venue for sittings of the Bundestag and its committees and the Bundesversammlung, the body which elects the German Federal President. However, the Soviets harshly protested against the use of the Reichstag building by institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany and tried to disturb the sittings by flying supersonic jets close to the building.

Since April 19, 1999, the German parliament has again assembled in Berlin in its original Reichstag building, built in 1888 based on the plans of German architect Paul Wallot and underwent a significant renovation under the lead of British architect Lord Norman Foster. Parliamentary committees and subcommittees, public hearings and parliamentary group meetings take place in three auxiliary buildings, which surround the Reichstag building: the Jakob-Kaiser-Haus, Paul-Löbe-Haus and Marie-Elisabeth-Lüders-Haus. In 2005, a small aircraft crashed close to the German Parliament, it was decided to ban private air traffic over Central Berlin. Together with the Bundesrat, the Bundestag is the legislative branch of the German political system. Although most legislation is initiated by the executive branch, the Bundestag considers the legislativ

Stadion Lokomotiv (Gorna Oryahovitsa)

Stadion Lokomotiv is a multi-purpose stadium in Gorna Oryahovitsa, Bulgaria. Predominantly used for football matches, the stadium has been the home ground of the local football club FC Lokomotiv Gorna Oryahovitsa since 1956; the venue has a seating capacity of 10,500 spectators. In 2016, following Lokomotiv GO's promotion to the top flight, the stadium underwent major renovations to meet the licensing criteria of the Bulgarian Football Union; as a result, part of the stands were rebuilt, the floodlight system of the stadium was restored and the grass surface was improved. The stadium was opened in December 2016 for Lokomotiv GO's domestic league match against CSKA Sofia, attracting an attendance of 9,000 spectators; the record attendance of the stadium is 19,500 and was achieved at a game between Lokomotiv GO and Levski Sofia

George Armstrong (Manitoba politician)

George Armstrong was a politician and labour activist in Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1920 to 1922, is notable as the only member of the Socialist Party of Canada to serve in that institution. Armstrong was born in East York and educated in Ellesmere, he trained as a carpenter, practiced his trade in Winnipeg. Armstrong was a member of the Fair Wage Board for Manitoba, he first ran for the Manitoba legislature in the 1910 provincial election, in the constituency of Winnipeg West. At the time, the Socialist Party represented the left-wing of the labour movement in Manitoba, with the reformist Manitoba Labour Party representing its moderate voice. Armstrong was known in this period as a leading figure in the SPC's "impossibilist" wing, opposing any cooperation with moderate labour. In electoral terms, the Socialist Party was a marginal force in the city. Armstrong received 246 votes in Winnipeg West, against 2,578 for the victorious candidate, Liberal Thomas Johnson.

In the 1914 provincial election, Armstrong ran in Winnipeg Centre "B" against Fred Dixon, an independent candidate supported by both the Liberals and the Labour Representation Committee, a successor to the MLP. A Conservative candidate contested the seat. Armstrong and his supporters disrupted Dixon's rallies throughout the campaign, accusing him of being a "fake" in his advocacy of working-class causes. Dixon's supporters, in turn, argued that the SPC was receiving help from the Conservatives to split the labour vote. Armstrong finished a distant third with 928 votes, while Dixon received 8,205 votes for a convincing victory. Armstrong ran against Dixon again in the 1915 election, again lost by a significant margin; the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 brought Armstrong and the SPC into cooperation with the city's labour movement. Along with other prominent labour organizers in the city, Armstrong was brought to trial after the strike's suppression on charges of seditious conspiracy, he was convicted, spent two years in prison with fellow strikers such as William Ivens and John Queen.

Many observers at the time, many since, have regarded the charges against the strikers as unjust and politically motivated. As the Socialist Party was declining in the rest of the country, the spirit of labour unity generated by the strike and the arrests brought the SPC in Winnipeg into a temporary alliance with the city's other labour parties. Armstrong an opponent of "popular front" strategies, became the SPC's star candidate on Winnipeg's united labour list for the 1920 provincial election. For this election, following a change in the province's electoral laws, Winnipeg became a single constituency which elected ten members to the legislature by a single transferable ballot. Labour and the SPC joined with two other parties for a slate of ten candidates, ran a united campaign. Armstrong, still serving his prison sentence, finished third on the first count and was declared elected to the city's eighth position on the final count, he served in the legislature with the labour group under F. J. Dixon's leadership.

Despite their philosophical differences and Armstrong were able to cooperate with one another in this period. The Socialist Party of Canada split in 1921, with many of its members joining the newly formed Communist Party. Armstrong remained a member of the SPC though the party was having difficulty maintaining a national presence by this time. During the 1922 provincial election, Armstrong was heckled by Communist candidates who accused him of being a "sell out" to the social gospellers in the mainstream labour movement, he finished ninth on the first count, but failed to win a seat. The SPC ceased to exist a few years and Armstrong withdrew from provincial politics for a time. Armstrong ran for the Manitoba legislature again in the 1932 provincial election as the candidate of the Socialist Party of Canada, he was unsuccessful, being eliminated on the tenth. Armstrong was a popular figure in his carpenter's union though his views were to left most other members. In his years, he relocated from Manitoba to California