SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bungee jumping

Bungee jumping spelt bungy jumping, is an activity that involves a person jumping from a great height while connected to a large elastic cord. The launching pad is erected on a tall structure such as a building or crane, a bridge across a deep ravine, or on a natural geographic feature such as a cliff, it is possible to jump from a type of aircraft that has the ability to hover above the ground, such as a hot-air-balloon or helicopter. The thrill comes from the rebound; when the person jumps, the cord stretches and the jumper flies upwards again as the cord recoils, continues to oscillate up and down until all the kinetic energy is dissipated. The land diving of Pentecost Island in Vanuatu is an ancient ritual in which young men jump from tall wooden platforms with vines tied to their ankles as a test of their courage and passage into manhood. Unlike in modern bungee-jumping, land-divers intentionally hit the ground, but the vines absorb sufficient force to make the impact non-lethal; the land-diving ritual on Pentecost has been claimed as an inspiration by AJ Hackett, prompting calls from the islanders' representatives for compensation for what they view as the unauthorised appropriation of their cultural property.

A similar practice, only with a much slower pace for falling, has been practised as the Danza de los Voladores de Papantla or the "Papantla flyers" of central Mexico, a tradition dating back to the days of the Aztecs. A tower 4,000 feet high with a system to drop a "car" suspended by a cable of "best rubber" was proposed for the Chicago World Fair, 1892–1893; the car, seating two hundred people, would be shoved from a platform on the tower and bounce to a stop. The designer engineer suggested that for safety the ground below "be covered with eight feet of feather bedding"; the proposal was declined by the Fair's organizers. The word "bungee" originates from West Country dialect of English language, meaning "Anything thick and squat", as defined by James Jennings in his book "Observations of Some of the Dialects in The West of England" published 1825. In 1928, the word started to be used for a rubber eraser; the Oxford English Dictionary records early use of the phrase in 1938 relating to launching of gliders using an elasticated cord, as "A long nylon-cased rubber band used for securing luggage"."Bungy" is the usual spelling in New Zealand and other countries.

The first modern bungee jumps were made on 1 April 1979 from the 250-foot Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol, by David Kirke, Simon Keeling, members of the Oxford University Dangerous Sports Club, Geoff Tabin, a professional climber who tied the ropes for the jump. Present was Jeff De Oundle, president of Bristol Polytechnic Guild of Lift Engineers & Deckchair balancers The students had come up with the idea after discussing a "vine jumping" ritual carried out by certain residents of Vanuatu; the jumpers were arrested shortly after, but continued with jumps in the US from the Golden Gate Bridge and the Royal Gorge Bridge, spreading the concept worldwide. By 1982, they were jumping from mobile hot air balloons. Organised commercial bungee jumping began with the New Zealander, A J Hackett, who made his first jump from Auckland's Greenhithe Bridge in 1986. During the following years, Hackett performed a number of jumps from bridges and other structures, building public interest in the sport, opening the world's first permanent commercial bungee site, the Kawarau Bridge Bungy at the Kawarau Gorge Suspension Bridge near Queenstown in the South Island of New Zealand.

Hackett remains one of the largest commercial operators, with concerns in several countries. Several million successful jumps have taken place since 1980; this safety record is attributable to bungee operators rigorously conforming to standards and guidelines governing jumps, such as double checking calculations and fittings for every jump. As with any sport, injuries can still occur, there have been fatalities. A common mistake in fatality cases is to use a cord, too long; the cord should be shorter than the height of the jumping platform to allow it room to stretch. When the cord becomes taut and is stretched, the tension in the cord progressively increases; the tension is less than the jumper's weight and the jumper continues to accelerate downwards. At some point, the tension equals the jumper's weight and the acceleration is temporarily zero. With further stretching, the jumper has an increasing upward acceleration and at some point has zero vertical velocity before recoiling upward. See Potential energy for a discussion of the spring constant and the force required to distort bungee cords and other spring-like objects.

The Bloukrans River Bridge was the first bridge to be used as a bungee jump launch spot in Africa when Face Adrenalin introduced bungee jumping to the African continent in 1990. Bloukrans Bridge Bungy has been operated commercially by Face Adrenalin since 1997, is the highest commercial bridge bungy in the world. In April 2008, a 37-year-old Durban man, Carl Mosca Dionisio, made bungee jumping history when he jumped off a 30 m tower attached to a bungee cord made of 18,500 condoms; the elastic rope first used in bungee jumping, still used by many commercial operators, is factory-produced braided shock cord. This special bungee cord consists of many latex strands enclosed in a tough outer cover; the outer cover may be applied when the latex is pre-stressed, so that the cord's resistance to extension is significant at the cord's natural length. This gives a sharper bounce; the braided cover provides sign

Siddeley-Deasy R.T.1

The Siddeley Deasy R. T.1 was designed in 1917 as a R. E.8 replacement. Like the R. E.8, it was a two-seat single engined biplane built for reconnaissance work. During World War I, the car makers Siddeley-Deasy had been one of several manufacturers of the Royal Aircraft Factory R. E.8. Though this aircraft was produced in large numbers, it was rumoured that the upper wing could fail in dives and that its spinning characteristics were dangerous; the R. T.1, the first of Siddeley Deasy's own designs set out to answer these criticisms in an aircraft of better performance. The main difference between the R. T.1 and the R. E.8 was in the wings, which were new. The large overhang of the R. E.8's upper wing, the source of the structural concerns, was gone and the R. T.1 was a two bay biplane with equal span constant chord wings, though the lower ones were narrower than the upper. There were only small changes to the R. E.8 fuselage: the decking aft of the gunner, together with his gun-ring were raised, the fin and rudder were larger and more rounded.

Only three R. T. 1s were built. The first and third were powered by a 200 hp Hispano-Suiza and the second by the 150 hp RAF 4A used in the R. E.8. The Hispano-Suiza installations differed in their nose and radiator arrangements: the first used a rectangular nose radiator like that of the S. E.5, whereas the third had a neatly rounded nose with a small chin radiator. The ailerons on the third aircraft were extended beyond the wing-tips to allow horn balancing. Direct comparisons of the RAF 4A powered R. T.1 and the R. E.8 showed the former had much the same top speed but better climb and ceiling because of its lower wing loading. The more powerful engine in the third R. T. 1 increased the speed by the ceiling by 2000 ft over the second machine. The R. T.1 flew well and one went for service trials on the Front, the other two going to training units, but with the war at its end there was no chance of further orders. Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 27 ft 8 in Wingspan: 41 ft 9 in Height: 11 ft 7 in Wing area: 433 sq ft Empty weight: 1,803 lb Gross weight: 2,707 lb Fuel capacity: 37.5 imp gal Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8 water-cooled V-8 engine, 200 hp Performance Maximum speed: 108 mph at 10,000 ft Service ceiling: 18,000 ft Rate of climb: 540 ft/min Armament Guns: 1× forward-firing Lewis gun mounted above upper wing 1× Lewis gun on scarff ring in rear cockpit Bruce, J.

M.. British Aeroplanes 1914–18. London: Putnam. Tapper, Oliver. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0-370-10004-2

Kirby Stone Four

The Kirby Stone Four were an American vocal ensemble popular in the 1950s and early 1960s. Kirby Stone founded the group in the years after World War II and began playing clubs in the New York area, they won slots on local television, including The Ed Sullivan Show, soon after signed to Columbia Records. Several LPs followed, including Baubles and Beads. S. in 1958, reaching No. 50 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song was nominated for a Grammy Award. On the strength of the single, the album reached No. 13 on the Billboard 200. Among the backing musicians that played on Kirby Stone Four albums were Jimmy Carroll's orchestra, the Kai Winding Quartet, Alvino Rey, Shelly Manne, Al Klink, their style, which melded swing jazz and early rock and roll, was referred to as "The Go Sound". They made many appearances on U. S. television shows such as The Dean Martin Show into the mid-1960s. By that time their sound was taken over by the Ray Conniff Orchestra and Singers. In 1966, they recorded a roll album with the Tokens as the United States Double Quartet.

During this time Stone directed. Some of their output has been re-released on CD by Collectables Records. Kirby Stone Eddie Hall Mike Gardner Larry Foster Man, I Flipped When I Heard the Kirby Stone Four Baubles and Beads The Go Sound The Kirby Stone Touch Get That Ball! Guys And Dolls Rippin' n' Soarin' Wow! My Fair Lady Swings Things Are Swinging Show Time! Kirby Stone Four Singalong Kirby Stone Four & The Tokens: Life Is Groovy