A commuter town is a town whose residents normally work elsewhere, although they live and sleep in these neighborhoods. The name suggests that these communities have little commercial or industrial activity beyond a small amount of retail, oriented toward locals. A commuter town may be known as an exurb, or a community, bedroom town or bedroom suburb. The phrase bedroom town has adopted into the Japanese wasei-eigo word bed town. Suburbs and commuter towns often coincide, but not always, similar to college town, resort town, and mill town, the term commuter town describes the municipalitys predominant economic function. A suburb, in contrast, is a community of size, political power. A towns economic function may change, for example when improved transport brings commuters to industrial suburbs or railway towns in search of suburban living, commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, with a ring of green space separating them from the larger city or town. Where urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas, commuter towns can arise for a number of different reasons.
Sometimes, as in Sleepy Hollow, New York or Tiburon, California, in other cases, a pleasant small town, such as Warwick, New York, over time attracts more residents but not large businesses to employ them, requiring denizens to commute to employment centers. Another cause, particularly relevant in the American South and West, is the growth of once-small cities. Owing largely to the creation of the Interstate Highway System. As a result, many cities were absorbed into the suburbs of these larger cities. Often, commuter towns form when workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work, the late 20th century dot-com bubble and United States housing bubble drove housing costs in Californian metropolitan areas to historic highs, spawning exurban growth in adjacent counties. For example, most cities in western Riverside County, California can be considered exurbs of Orange County and Los Angeles County, as of 2003, over 80% of the workforce of Tracy, California was employed in the San Francisco Bay Area.
A related phenomenon is common in the towns of the American West that require large workforces, yet emphasize building larger single-family residences. In certain major European cites, such as Berlin and London, around London, several towns – such as Basildon, Crawley and Stevenage – were built for this purpose by the Commission for New Towns. In some cases, commuter towns can result from negative economic conditions, Ohio, for instance, had its own regional identity along with neighboring Weirton, West Virginia until the collapse of the steel industry in the 1980s. In 2013, Jefferson County, Ohio was added to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area as part of its larger Combined Statistical Area, long-time residents may be displaced by new commuter residents due to rising house prices
Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory is the federal district in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales. Its only city is Canberra, the city of Australia. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. The need for a territory was flagged by colonial delegates during the Federation conventions of the late 19th century. Section 125 of the Australian Constitution provided that, following Federation in 1901, the territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by the state of New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the naming of Canberra as the national capital in 1913. The floral emblem of the ACT is the royal bluebell and the emblem is the gang-gang cockatoo. The economic activity of the Australian Capital Territory is heavily concentrated around Canberra and this trend continued into 2016, when the territory was ranked the third best performing out of all of Australias states and territories. There is a proportion of young adults in the region compared with other Australian states or territories.
Approximately one-fifth of ACT residents were born outside of Australia, mainly in the United Kingdom, almost one-fifth speak a language other than English at home, the most common being Chinese. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory contains agricultural land, small townships and communities located within the ACT include Williamsdale, Uriarra and Hall. There are a range of mountains and creeks in the Namadgi National Park. These include the Naas and Murrumbidgee Rivers, Canberra is noted for its warm to hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the mountains in the territorys south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm, with rainfall highest in spring and summer, the highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C at Acton on 11 January 1939.
The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971, notable geological formations in the Australian Capital Territory include the Canberra Formation, the Pittman Formation, Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale. In the 1840s fossils of brachiopods and trilobites from the Silurian period were discovered at Woolshed Creek near Duntroon, at the time, these were the oldest fossils discovered in Australia, though this record has now been far surpassed. Other specific geological places of interest include the State Circle cutting, the oldest rocks in the ACT date from the Ordovician around 480 million years ago
The Year My Voice Broke
The Year My Voice Broke is a 1987 coming of age drama film written and directed by John Duigan and starring Noah Taylor, Loene Carmen, and Ben Mendelsohn. Although the trilogy never came to fruition, it was followed by a sequel and it was the recipient of the 1987 Australian Film Institute Award for Best Film, a prize which Flirting won in 1990. In the 1960s, Danny, a thin, socially awkward adolescent, falls in love with his best friend Freya in rural New South Wales, Australia. Unfortunately, she is attracted to Trevor, a school rugby star, larrikin. Danny offers to marry her and claim that the child is his, Trevor breaks out of detention, steals another car, and severely wounds a store clerk during an armed robbery. Trevor returns to town long enough to reunite with Freya at the abandoned house, the police arrive at Trevors hiding place, but Danny warns him, and Trevor is able to escape. The police run his car off the road during the course of the pursuit, Freya disappears, and suffers a miscarriage and hypothermia until Danny finds her and takes her to the hospital.
Hesitantly, Danny reveals the identity of Freyas mother to her, realising the stigma now hanging over her, Freya decides to leave on the night train for the city. At the station, Danny gives her his lifes savings to support herself and sees her off - promising their friendship to one another and to keep in touch. Later Danny travels to their favourite hangout spot and carves Freyas, the film is a series of interconnected segments narrated by Danny who recollects how he and Freya grew apart over the course of one year. Dannys history continues in the 1991 film Flirting, John Duigan wrote a script based on his experiences going to a boarding school in the mid 60s called Flirting. He was unable to get the film funded so wrote a prequel, Duigan had worked with Kennedy Miller making the mini series Vietnam and they agreed to make the film as one of four tele movies they were making for the Channel Ten network. Duigan was allowed to make the film on 35mm, the film had several working titles, including Reflections of a Golden Childhood and Museum of Desire.
The film was shot, but not set, in Braidwood, New South Wales, the main theme used in the film is The Lark Ascending by English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. At a 2005 special event screening in Sydney, director John Duigan stated that he chose the piece as he felt it complemented Dannys adolescent yearning, the movie was entered in the AFI Awards, despite protests that it was a tele movie. However it was allowed in because Duigan argued it was shot in 35mm, the movie won five AFI Awards, which led to Hoyts picking it up and releasing it as a feature film. The Year My Voice Broke grossed $1,513,000 at the box office in Australia, the US Box office was $213,901. A 21st Anniversary Special Edition DVD was released in December 2008, Special features include an introduction by George Miller and a 50-minute retrospective, with Duigan intervewing Loene Carmen and Ben Mendelsohn in Australia and Noah Taylor in England
Cobb & Co
Cobb & Co was the name of a successful coaching company in Australia, established in 1853. The company name was used in New Zealand and South Africa. The last Australian Cobb & Co stagecoach ran in Queensland in August 1924, Cobb & Co has become an established part of Australian folklore, and the company has been commemorated in art, literature and on screen. Today the name is used by a number of Australian bus operators, initially the company traded as the American Telegraph Line of Coaches, a name that emphasized speed and progressiveness. With financial support from another newly arrived US businessman George Train, they arranged the importation of several US-built wagons, by early 1854, the Company operated a daily service to Forest Creek and Bendigo, and soon afterwards, expanding the service to Geelong and Ballarat other goldfields. In common with many operatives, Cobb & Cos horses were changed every 10–15 miles along a stagecoach line, as Historian Susan Priestley notes, Coach lines did not attempt to compete with.
Instead, as rail lines extended, coaches were transferred to routes and were timetabled to link in with trains. Within a few years, Cobb & Co had established a reputation for efficiency and reliability, in May 1856, the four partners sold out. Cobb and Lamber returned to the US while Swanton continued in coaching for a few more years, John Peck stayed in Melbourne, eventually to establish a stock and station agency. Rutherfords partners included Alexander William Robertson, John Wagner, Walter Russell Hall, William Franklin Whitney, Rutherford re-organised and extended the Victorian services and won a monopoly on major mail contracts. By 1870, most of Victoria was serviced by a network of coach routes, in June 1862 Rutherford oversaw the extension of the business into New South Wales following news of the Lambing Flat gold rush. Rutherford moved ten coaches from Bendigo to Bathurst with great publicity, to announce, Bathurst became the headquarters of a new syndicate, led by Rutherford and four others.
Rutherford had intended to spend 6 months in Bathurst, but stayed on to the end of his days, becoming one of the citys leading citizens. Rutherford established a Cobb & Co buggy and coachworks in Bathurst, on the road, Cobb & Co began buying out or forcing out many New South Wales competitors. In 1865 the company expanded, this time into Queensland. The first Cobb & Co service in Queensland was between Ipswich and Brisbane in 1865, services were soon expanded into all parts of Queensland and this allowed for otherwise isolated communities to maintain regular contact with the rest of the world. In 1881 the firm became a company, with a capital of £50,000, running some 3000 horses a total of around 10,000 miles a week, the largest transport company in Queensland. A large coachworks was established at Charleville in the 1886, which turned out a variety of vehicles including over 120 coaches
Kings Highway (Australia)
The Kings Highway is a state highway located within the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales, Australia. The highway connects Canberra and Batemans Bay on the South Coast and it is signed as route B52. The National Route 52 was established in 1974, the Kings Highway links Highway 1 to Canberra, and provides access for residents of Canberra to the NSW South Coast and its beaches. The highway is often busy on weekends, especially during summer, the highway experiences a high number of car accidents, on occasions averaging around one every three days, costing the local community around the highway several million dollars a year. The landscape is generally sheep country, the highway travels from the Southern Tablelands to the South Coast via Clyde Mountain. A small rock cave at Pooh Bears Corner can be found near the top of the Clyde Mountain pass and this was the location of a munitions store during the Second World War that could be detonated to stop passage from the coast to the national capital inland.
Dozens of soft toys are placed in the trees along the stretch of road that connects Queanbeyan. These soft toys were placed there to mark the way to the ACT Nudist Club grounds, following repeated vandalisation, the road through the Clyde Mountain area was surveyed by Thomas Mitchell in 1855. A punt service across the Clyde River was begun at Nelligen in 1895 linking Batemans Bay to Braidwood, the service continued until 1964 when the Nelligen bridge was completed. In 2006 construction commenced on Headquarters Joint Operations Command in the Kowen district of the ACT between Bungendore and Queanbeyan, the facility opened in December 2008, and sections of the highway between the HQJOC turnoff and Queanbeyan have progressively been upgraded to cater for the increased traffic. In 2003, approximately 3,000 vehicles a day were using the highway at Nelligen, from Braidwood there were about 4,200 cars travelling on the road. Out of Bungendore near Burbong,5,600 cars were counted each day, casualty crash rates on the Kings Highway are 85% higher than the NSW average and road fatalities are 8% higher.
A2005 NRMA Motoring and Services road survey found, The rate of people hospitalised after crashes on the Kings Highway is well over the national average,877 crashes were recorded on Kings Highway over a 10-year period, an average of about one crash every four days. Over this time there have been 24 fatal crashes,355 crashes resulting in injury and 488 crashes resulting in property damage, the rate was worse than this in 2004, when there were 103 crashes resulting in six fatalities and 53 injuries. Crashes on the Kings Highway have cost A$42.65 million over the past three years – that’s equivalent to nearly A$39,000 every day, particular concerns over Clyde Mountain, and only 5% of road deemed to provide safe overtaking opportunities. Two blackspots and sixteen blacklengths were identified, the 40 kilometres section of road over the Great Dividing Range – which includes Clyde Mountain – recorded the highest number of crashes, with 22% of all incidents occurring in this area. The most common type of crash – 18% of all incidents – was when a vehicle leaves the road to the left on a right hand bend, head-on collisions made up one in 10 of all crashes.
Crashes occurred most frequently on Sundays and least frequently on Tuesdays, highways in Australia List of highways in New South Wales
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 381,488, it is Australias largest inland city, the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory,280 km south-west of Sydney, and 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran, the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nations capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australias two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being a planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States. Following an international contest for the design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected. The Griffins plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, the citys design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation that have earned Canberra the title of the bush capital. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority, the Australian Armys officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital.
The ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power, the ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, and has its own independent Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states. Compared to the averages, the unemployment rate is lower. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivans Creek floodplain between two mountains as Nganbra. Nganbra or Nganbira could readily have been anglicised to the name Canberry, survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. Although popularly pronounced /ˈkænbərə/ or /ˈkænbɛrə/, the pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was /ˈkæn. brə/. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians, archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements.
Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in the area 21,000 years previously, European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as early as the 1820s. There were four expeditions between 1820 and 1824, white settlement of the area probably dates from 1823, when a homestead or station was built on what is now the Acton peninsula by stockmen employed by Joshua John Moore. He formally applied to purchase the site on 16 December 1826, on 30 April 1827, Moore was told by letter that he could retain possession of 1,000 acres at Canberry. The European population in the Canberra area continued to grow throughout the 19th century
Local government areas of New South Wales
Local government authorities provide a wide range of services. The most important of these are the services of administration, community amenities and culture, roads. Councils provide a range of trading activities, mainly in areas of NSW. These trading activities include water supply, sewerage services, gas services, some areas retain designations they held under prior legislation, even though these titles no longer indicate a legal status. Many councils now choose not to use any title, and simply refer to themselves as councils, e. g. Northern Beaches Council. The smallest local government area by area in the state is the Municipality of Hunters Hill, the formation of local govermment in New South Wales predates the formation of responsible government in the state. The Sydney Corporation was formed in 1842, a body to manage primary services such as street lighting. The Municipalities Act,1858 introduced a system of local government, Municipalities were compulsorily incorporated by legislation in 1876, the third Municipalities Act,1897 consolidated municipal law, and in 1905 legislation was enacted to establish shires.
The Local Government Act,1906 reformed the system, replaced by the Local Government Act,1919. Maximum flexibility was given in respect to provision, with some constraints. In regard to regulatory functions, proper attention had to be given to due process, the NSW Government has undertaken periodic reviews of local government since the early 1900s. Reforms included providing enfranchisement for women and for residents who did not own property in the LGA, standardising land valuation systems, the Barnett Committee Review of Local Government Areas, conducted during 1973-74, sought to create stronger economic LGAs through a substantial reduction in council numbers. The Barnett Report recommended the merging of the 223 existing local government entities into 97 districts. However by 1980 and after references to the NSW Local Government Boundaries Commission. Bains review had major influence on the engagement of more general managers, councillors becoming policy makers. However, only four councils entered into voluntary mergers in order to avoid potential forced amalgamations, the Sproats Inquiry into the structure of local government in eight council areas of the Inner City and Eastern Suburbs of Sydney was commissioned by the state government in October 2000.
The Carr government abandoned its policy of no forced mergers after the 2003 state election, in October 2013, the NSW Government released the findings of an independent review of local government in New South Wales. Included in the report were 65 recommendations to the Government, the IPART proposed a series of council mergers and amalgamation in both metropolitan and regional areas which proposed a reduction in the number of councils from 152 to 112
Bungendore railway station
Bungendore railway station is located on the Bombala line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Bungendore, Bungendore station opened on 4 March 1885 when the Bombala line was extended from Tarago. It served as the terminus until the line was extended to Queanbeyan on 8 September 1887, opposite the platform lies a passing loop. On 17 June 1940, Bungendore became a station when the Captains Flat line opened. Bungendore station was used in the filming of The Year My Voice Broke, Bungendore is served by three daily NSW TrainLink Xplorer services in each direction operating between Sydney and Canberra
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
The river flows to its mouth with the Murrumbidgee River, near Uriarra Crossing. Over its 115 kilometres course the Molonglo River alternates between long broad floodplains and narrow rocky gorges several times, one of these floodplains is called the Molonglo Plain. The rivers name was recorded as the Yeal-am-bid-gie in 1820 by the explorer Charles Throsby and this was probably the collective local Moolinggolah name for the river. The Moolinggolah people of the district around Captains Flat probably gave the Molonglo its name, where the river flowed through what is now Canberra, it was probably known after the Ngambri people, transcribed as Kembury and other transcription variations. The word molongolo is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning like the sound of thunder, the Molonglo was renowned as a beautiful river with excellent fishing for native Murray cod, Macquarie perch and silver perch. This abundance of native fish did not last, despite government funded rehabilitation programs in 1976, some toxic leachates still enter the river from the Captains Flat mine site.
Consequently, when Lake Burley Griffin was built upon the Molonglo and filled in 1964, restocking commenced in the 1970s and continued through 1980s have re-established Murray Cod and Golden Perch in the lake and a short stretch of river upstream. A large stretch of the Molonglo still holds nothing but introduced species and is still waiting for the native fish species to be re-established by stockings. History of Lake Burley Griffin London Bridge Rivers of New South Wales List of rivers of Australia Murrumbidgee and Lake George catchments
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia