SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bunhill Fields

Bunhill Fields is a former burial ground in central London, in the London Borough of Islington, just north of the City of London boundary. The site is managed as a public garden by the City of London Corporation, it is about 1.6 hectares in extent, although it was much larger. It was in use as a burial ground from 1665 until 1854, by which date 123,000 interments were estimated to have taken place. Over 2,000 monuments remain, it was nondenominational, in practice was favoured by nonconformists. It contains the graves of many notable people, including John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress. Bunhill Fields is listed Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. On the far side of Bunhill Row, behind the residential tower Braithwaite House, is a Quaker burial ground, sometimes known by the name Bunhill Fields and was in use from 1661 to 1855. George Fox, one of the founders of the Quaker movement, was among those buried here, its remains are Quaker Gardens, managed by the London Borough of Islington.

Bunhill Fields was part of the Manor of Finsbury, which has its origins as the prebend of Halliwell and Finsbury, belonging to St Paul's Cathedral and established in 1104. In 1315 the prebendary manor was granted by commonalty of London; this act enabled more general public access to a large area of fen or moor stretching from the City of London's boundary, to the village of Hoxton. In 1498 part of the otherwise unenclosed landscape was set aside to form a large field for military exercises of archers and others; this part of the manor still bears the name "Artillery Ground". Next to this lies Bunhill Fields; the name derives from "Bone Hill", a reference to the district having been used for occasional burials from at least Saxon times, but more derives from the use of the fields as a place of deposit for human bones—amounting to over 1,000 cartloads—brought from St Paul's charnel house in 1549 when that building was demolished. The dried bones were capped with a thin layer of soil; this built up a hill across the otherwise damp, flat fens, such that three windmills could safely be erected in a spot that came to be known as Windmill Hill.

In keeping with this tradition, in 1665 the City of London Corporation decided to use some of the fen as a common burial ground for the interment of bodies of inhabitants who had died of the plague and could not be accommodated in the churchyards. Although enclosing walls for the burial ground were completed, Church of England officials never consecrated the ground or used it for burials. A Mr Tindal took over the lease, he allowed extramural burials in its unconsecrated soil, which became popular with nonconformists—those Protestant Christians who practised their faith outside the Church of England: unlike Anglican parish churchyards, the burial ground was open for interment to anyone who could afford the fees. It appears on Rocque's Map of London of 1746, elsewhere, as "Tindal's Burying Ground". An inscription at the eastern entrance gate to the burial ground reads: "This church-yard was inclosed with a brick wall at the sole charges of the City of London, in the mayoralty of Sir John Lawrence, Knt.

Anno Domini 1665. Anno Domini, 1666." The present gates and inscription date from 1868, but the wording follows that of an original 17th-century inscription at the western entrance, now lost. The earliest recorded monumental inscription was that to "Grace, daughter of Leeds. February 1666"; the earliest surviving monument is believed to be the headstone to Theophilus Gale: the inscription reads "Theophilus Gale MA / Born 1628 / Died 1678". In 1769 an Act of Parliament gave the City of London Corporation the right to continue to lease the ground from the prebendal estate for 99 years; the City authorities continued to let the ground to their tenant as a burial ground. So many important Protestant nonconformists chose this as their place of interment that the 19th-century poet and writer Robert Southey characterised Bunhill Fields in 1830 as the ground "which the Dissenters regard as their Campo Santo"; this term was later applied to its "daughter" cemetery established at Abney Park in Stoke Newington.

In 1852 the Burial Act was passed. An Order for Closure for Bunhill Fields was made in December 1853, the final burial took place on 5 January 1854. Occasional interments continued to be permitted in existing vaults or graves: the final burial of this kind is believed to have been that of a Mrs Gabriel of Brixton in February 1860. By this date 123,000 interments had taken place in the burial ground. Two decades before, a group of City nonconformists led by George Collison secured a site for a new landscaped alternative, at part of Abney Park in Stoke Newington; this was named Abney Park Cemetery and opened in 1840. All parts were available for the burial of any person, regardless of religious creed. Abney Park Cemetery was the only Victorian garden cemetery in Britain with "no invidious dividing lines" and a unique nondenominational chapel, designed b

Edward Cayley

Edward Stillingfleet Cayley was a British Liberal Party politician. He was elected at the 1832 general election as a member of parliament for North Riding of Yorkshire, held the seat until his death in 1862, at the age of 59, he advocated free trade in Parliament and went to Rugby School and Brasenose College, thus breaking the Cayley tradition of going to Cambridge. After graduating from Oxford, Cayley took up residence in North Yorkshire where he engaged in farming, he undertook studies in history and philosophy to supplement his "dead language" formal education. Caley became a "barrister-at-law" with membership in the Inner Temple; as a magistrate and barrister, his doors were always open for counsel. He promoted other agricultural societies as a speaker and writer. Thus, Cayley became well-known and respected by the farmers of his district, so much so that they called on him to represent them in Parliament. At the 1832 general election he stood for election in the two-member county constituency of North Riding of Yorkshire as an independent of Liberal sympathies and a friend of the interests of small agriculturalists,'unassisted by the aristocracy on either side' and was elected a member of parliament, behind William Duncombe a Tory with major landholdings in the Riding, but ahead of John Charles Ramsden a former Whig MP for Yorkshire who had the support of the Whigs but was a West Riding industrialist.

Cayley held the seat until his death in 1862, at the age of 59. As an independent member of Parliament, Cayley fought against "inequalities of taxation", he served on the Agricultural distress and Hand-loom weavers committeesCayley died of heart disease while making the arduous trip to London. The Farmer’s Magazine gave Caley a glowing obituary as a "farmers' friend", who "stood with the farmers, by the farmers, for the farmers." Cayley was born at Newbold Hall near Market Weighton. He died at Dean's Yard, Westminster, his parents John Cayley and Elizabeth Sarah Stillingfleet were both dumb. His mother was descended from Bishop of Worcester, he was a fine cricketer. On 30 August 1823 he married a cousin, Emma Cayley, daughter of Sir George Cayley, the aeronautical baronet, they had three sons: Edward Stillingfleet Cayley, an author and landowner educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He wrote on the European revolutions of 1848 and the Franco-German war of 1870. In 1872 he married Ellen Louisa Awdry, daughter of Ambrose Awdry of Seend, Wiltshire George John Cayley, a barrister educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge.

He had left-wing tendencies and in 1868 stood as the Working Man's candidate for Scarborough in the general election. He published several pieces of light verse, a book on electoral reform and the working classes, a popular book about travels in Spain; the frontispiece of this book shows him with a magnificent mid-Victorian beard. He had a reputation as an accomplished metal-worker, he was an accomplished tennis-player. He had homes at Wydale Hall, North Yorkshire and in Westminster. In 1860 he married Mary Anne Frances Wilmot. Christopher Richardson, A letter to Edward Stillingfleet Cayley, Esq. M. P. with two practical suggestions for the amendment of the Currency Act of 1844 Richard Moorsom, A Letter to Edward Stillingfleet Cayley, Esq. M. P. on the Corn Laws and on the Evil Consequences of an Irregular Supply of Foreign Grain H. I. Dutton and J. E. King, “An Economic Exile: Edward Stillingfleet Cayley, 1802–1862", History of Political Economy Summer 1985 17: 203–218. Edward Stillingfleet Cayley, On Commercial Economy, in Six Essays Edward Stillingfleet Cayley, Reasons for the Formation of the Agricultural Protection Society: Addressed to the Industrious Classes of the United Kingdom Edward Stillingfleet Cayley, The European Revolutions of 1848 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Edward Stillingfleet Cayley Obituary in The Farmer's Magazine

Luther Store

The Luther Store is a historic store at 160 Old Warren Road in Swansea, Massachusetts. It is a 2-1/2 story brick structure with a saltbox profile, its main facade is five bays wide, with entrances in the second and fourth bays, interior chimneys at each end. The store retains original fixtures, including solid mahogany counters, drawers for goods storage, the proprietor's desk; the store was built in 1815 by John Brown Luther, was operated by the Luther family as a store until 1903. The Luther's Corner area was in the mid-19th century the economic center of Swansea, Luther's Store served as post office and library, it was acquired in 1941 by the Swansea Historical Society, which now operates it as a local history museum. The store was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bristol County, Massachusetts