Grampians National Park
The Grampians National Park referred to as The Grampians, is a national park located in the Grampians region of Victoria, Australia. The 167,219-hectare national park is situated between Stawell and Horsham on the Western Highway and Dunkeld on the Glenelg Highway, 260 kilometres west of Melbourne and 460 kilometres east of Adelaide. Proclaimed as a national park on 1 July 1984, the park was listed on the Australian National Heritage List on 15 December 2006 for its outstanding natural beauty and being one of the richest indigenous rock art sites in south-eastern Australia; the Grampians feature a striking series of sandstone mountain ranges. Named Gariwerd by one of the local Australian Aboriginal languages, either the Jardwadjali or Djab Wurrung language, the ranges were given their European name in 1836 by Surveyor General of New South Wales Sir Thomas Mitchell after the Grampian Mountains in his native Scotland. After a two-year consultation process, the park was renamed Grampians National Park in 1991, however this controversial formality was reversed after a change of state government in 1992.
The Geographic Place Names Act, 1998 reinstated dual naming for geographical features, this has been subsequently adopted in the park based on Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung names for rock art sites and landscape features with the National Heritage List referring to "Grampians National Park". This area is a distinct physiographic section of the larger Western Victorian Highlands province, which in turn is part of the larger East Australian Cordillera physiographic division; the general form that the ranges take is: from the west, a series of low-angled sandstone ridges running north-south. The eastern sides of the ridges, where the sedimentary layers have faulted, are steep and beyond the vertical in places - notably at Hollow Mountain near Dadswells Bridge at the northern end of the ranges; the most popular walking area for day trippers is the Wonderland area near Halls Gap. In summer the ranges can get hot and dry. Winter and spring are the best times for walking; the Wonderland area is host to "The Grand Canyon" on the "Wonderland Loop" on one of the tracks to the "Pinnacle".
In spring the Grampians wildflowers are an attraction. The area is a rock climbing destination, it is visited by campers and bushwalkers for its many views and its natural environment. Mount William is known within the gliding community for the'Grampians Wave', a weather phenomenon enabling glider pilots to reach extreme altitudes above 28,000 ft; this predominantly occurs during the months of May, June and October when strong westerly winds flow at right angles to the ridge, produce a large-scale standing wave. The rock material that composes the high peaks is sandstone, laid down from rivers during the Devonian period 380 million years ago; this sediment accumulated to a depth of 7 km. Forty million years ago the Southern Ocean reached the base of the northern and western base of the mountain range, the deposition from the range forming the sea floor, now Little Desert National Park; the highest peak is Mount William at 1167 meters. Numerous waterfalls are found in the park and are accessible via a well-developed road network.
To the Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung peoples, Gariwerd was central to the dreaming of the creator and buledji Brambimbula, the two brothers Bram, who were responsible for the creation and naming of many landscape features in western Victoria. Grampians National Park is one of the richest Indigenous rock art sites in south-eastern Australia and was listed on the National Heritage for its natural beauty and its past and continuing Aboriginal cultural associations. Motifs painted in numerous caves include depictions of human hands, animal tracks and birds. Notable rock art sites include: Billimina Jananginj Njani Manja Larngibunja Ngamadjidj Gulgurn Manja; the rock art was created by Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung peoples, while Aboriginal communities continue to pass on knowledge and cultural traditions, much indigenous knowledge has been lost since European settlement of the area from 1840. The significance of the right hand prints at Gulgurn Manja is now unknown. Dual naming of features has been adopted in the Park based on Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung names for rock art sites and landscape features, including: Grampians / Gariwerd Mount Zero / Mura Mura Halls Gap / Budja Budja Halls Gap / Budja Budja is the largest service town in the area and is located at a point equidistant between the towns of Ararat and Stawell.
The town is located towards the eastern side of the park and offers accommodation to the many tourists who visit the area. The Brambuk National Park and Cultural Centre in Halls Gap is owned and managed by Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung people from five Aboriginal communities with historic links to the Gariwerd-Grampians ranges and the surrounding plains. Grampians National Park is home to one of Australia's longest running food and wine festivals, Grampians Grape Escape, held over the first weekend of May in Halls Gap every year. Launched in 1992, the Grampians Grape Escape is a hallmark event for Victoria and provides food and wine offerings by more than 100 local artisan producers, live music and family entertainment. A major bushfire burned out about 50% of the Grampians National Park in January 2006. Soon afterwards the first signs of regeneration were visible with, for example, regrowth of the eucalyptus trees. Many trees exhibit epicormic g
Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology
Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology are the stories traditionally performed by Aboriginal peoples within each of the language groups across Australia. All such myths variously "tell significant truths within each Aboriginal group's local landscape, they layer the whole of the Australian continent's topography with cultural nuance and deeper meaning, empower selected audiences with the accumulated wisdom and knowledge of Australian Aboriginal ancestors back to time immemorial". David Horton's Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia contains an article on Aboriginal mythology observing: "A mythic map of Australia would show thousands of characters, varying in their importance, but all in some way connected with the land; some stayed spiritually in that vicinity. Others came from somewhere else and went somewhere else." "Many were shape changing, transformed from or into human beings or natural species, or into natural features such as rocks but all left something of their spiritual essence at the places noted in their stories."Australian Aboriginal mythologies have been characterized as "at one and the same time fragments of a catechism, a liturgical manual, a history of civilization, a geography textbook, to a much smaller extent a manual of cosmography."
An Australian linguist, R. M. W. Dixon, recording Aboriginal myths in their original languages, encountered coincidences between some of the landscape details being told about within various myths, scientific discoveries being made about the same landscapes. In the case of the Atherton Tableland, myths tell of the origins of Lake Eacham, Lake Barrine, Lake Euramo. Geological research dated the formative volcanic explosions described by Aboriginal myth tellers as having occurred more than 10,000 years ago. Pollen fossil sampling from the silt which had settled to the bottom of the craters confirmed the Aboriginal myth-tellers' story; when the craters were formed, eucalyptus forests dominated rather than the current wet tropical rain forests. Dixon observed from the evidence available that Aboriginal myths regarding the origin of the Crater Lakes might be dated as accurate back to 10,000 years ago. Further investigation of the material by the Australian Heritage Commission led to the Crater Lakes myth being listed nationally on the Register of the National Estate, included within Australia's World Heritage nomination of the wet tropical forests, as an "unparalleled human record of events dating back to the Pleistocene era."Since Dixon has assembled a number of similar examples of Australian Aboriginal myths that describe landscapes of an ancient past.
He noted the numerous myths telling of previous sea levels, including: the Port Phillip myth, describing Port Phillip Bay as once dry land, the course of the Yarra River being once different, following what was Carrum Carrum swamp. The Great Barrier Reef coastline myth in Yarrabah, just south of Cairns, telling of a past coastline which stood at the edge of the current Great Barrier Reef, naming places now submerged after the forest types and trees that once grew there; the Lake Eyre myths, telling of the deserts of Central Australia as once having been fertile, well-watered plains, the deserts around present Lake Eyre having been one continuous garden. This oral story matches geologists' understanding that there was a wet phase to the early Holocene when the lake would have had permanent water. Other volcanic eruptions in Australia may be recorded in Aboriginal myths, including Mount Gambier in South Australia, Kinrara in northern Queensland. There are 900 distinct Aboriginal groups across Australia, each distinguished by unique names identifying particular languages, dialects, or distinctive speech mannerisms.
Each language was used for original myths, from which the distinctive words and names of individual myths derive. With so many distinct Aboriginal groups, languages and practices, scholars cannot attempt to characterise, under a single heading, the full range and diversity of all myths being variously and continuously told, elaborated and experienced by group members across the entire continent; the Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia observes: "One intriguing feature is the mixture of diversity and similarity in myths across the entire continent." The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation's booklet, Understanding Country, formally seeks to introduce non-indigenous Australians to Aboriginal perspectives on the environment. It makes the following generalisation about Aboriginal myths and mythology: "...they describe the journeys of ancestral beings giant animals or people, over what began as a featureless domain. Mountains, waterholes and plant species, other natural and cultural resources came into being as a result of events which took place during these Dreamtime journeys.
Their existence in present-day landscapes is seen by many indigenous peoples as confirmation of their creation beliefs..." "The routes taken by the Creator Beings in their Dreamtime journeys across land and sea... link many sacred sites together in a web of Dreamtime tracks criss-crossing the country. Dreaming tracks can run for hundreds thousands of kilometres, from desert to the coast may be shared by peoples in countries through
The CAC CA-25 Winjeel is an Australian-designed and manufactured three-seat training aircraft. Entering service with the Royal Australian Air Force in 1955 as a basic to advanced trainer, it served in this role until 1975, it was used in the Forward Air Control role for target marking until 1994, after which it was retired from RAAF service. The Winjeel was developed by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation at Fishermans Bend in Victoria to satisfy RAAF technical requirement No. AC.77 issued in 1948. Designed to replace both the Tiger Moth and the CAC Wirraway, the first two prototype CA-22 aircraft were flown in February 1951. However, it proved a stable aircraft making it impossible to spin, with this being a required part of pilot training the tail had to be redesigned as a result. Sixty two production CA-25 aircraft were subsequently built and given the fleet serials A85-401 to A85-462; the first aircraft flew in February 1955, deliveries began that September. The first Winjeel entered service with No. 1 Basic Flying Training School at Uranquinty, near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales.
The last aircraft was delivered in August 1957. For most of its service life, the Winjeel was used as a basic trainer at RAAF Base Point Cook in Victoria, after 1 BFTS was transferred there in 1958; the Winjeel remained in service with the RAAF as a basic trainer until 1968, when the Macchi MB-326 replaced it in this role as part of the RAAF's adoption of an "all through" jet training concept. The failure of this concept ensured that the Winjeel was retained in the training role until 1975, when it was replaced by the New Zealand-built PAC CT/4A Airtrainer. After this, a few Winjeels were used in the Forward Air Control role. Operated by No. 4 Flight, they were equipped with smoke bombs for target marking. By 1994 there were 14 in service with No. 76 Squadron based at RAAF Base Williamtown, but that year they were replaced by the Pilatus PC-9 and subsequently retired. Examples of the aircraft remain in flying condition in private ownership as well as museum displays around Australia. CA-22 Winjeel: Prototypes.
Only two aircraft were built. CA-25 Winjeel: Two-seat basic trainer aircraft for the RAAF. 62 aircraft were built. AustraliaRoyal Australian Air Force Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1955–56General characteristics Crew: two Capacity: two seats side by side under rearward-sliding canopy with provision for a third seat in rear of cabin Length: 29 ft 01⁄2 in Wingspan: 38 ft 71⁄2 in Height: 9 ft 1 in Wing area: 249 sq ft Airfoil: NACA 23015 at root, NACA 23010 at tip Aspect ratio: 6.0:1 Empty weight: 3,289 lb Loaded weight: 4,265 lb Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-2 Wasp Junior nine cylinder radial engine, 445 hp Performance Maximum speed: 186 mph Cruise speed: 165 mph Stall speed: 53 mph Endurance: 3.5 hours at 158 mph Service ceiling: 18,000 ft Rate of climb: 1,500 ft/min Take-off run to 50 ft: 1,110 ft Landing run from 50 ft: 1,000 ft Aircraft of comparable role and era Percival Provost Valmet Vihuri Related lists List of aircraft of the Royal Australian Air Force Citations BibliographyBridgman, Leonard.
Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1955–56. New York: The McGraw Hill Book Company. OCLC 852153403. Dennis, Peter; the Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195517849. Wilson, Stewart. Military Aircraft of Australia. Weston Creek, Australian Capital Territory: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1875671080. Warbirdalley.com dropbears.com raafmuseum.com.au
Altair designated α Aquilae, is the brightest star in the constellation of Aquila and the twelfth brightest star in the night sky. It is in the G-cloud—a nearby interstellar cloud, an accumulation of gas and dust. Altair is an A-type main sequence star with an apparent visual magnitude of 0.77 and is one of the vertices of the Summer Triangle asterism. It is one of the closest stars visible to the naked eye. Altair rotates with a velocity at the equator of 286 km/s; this is a significant fraction of the star's estimated breakup speed of 400 km/s. A study with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer revealed that Altair is not spherical, but is flattened at the poles due to its high rate of rotation. Other interferometric studies with multiple telescopes, operating in the infrared, have imaged and confirmed this phenomenon. Α Aquilae is the star's Bayer designation. The traditional name Altair has been used since medieval times, it is an abbreviation of al-nesr al-ṭā' ir. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalog and standardize proper names for stars.
The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN, which included Altair for this star. It is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names. Along with β Aquilae and γ Aquilae, Altair forms the well-known line of stars sometimes referred to as the Family of Aquila or Shaft of Aquila. Altair is a type-A main sequence star with about 1.8 times the mass of the Sun and 11 times its luminosity. Altair rotates with a rotational period of about 9 hours, its rapid rotation forces Altair to be oblate. Satellite measurements made in 1999 with the Wide Field Infrared Explorer showed that the brightness of Altair fluctuates varying by just a few thousandths of a magnitude with several different periods less than 2 hours; as a result, it was identified in 2005 as a Delta Scuti variable star. Its light curve can be approximated by adding together a number of sine waves, with periods that range between 0.8 and 1.5 hours. It is a weak source of coronal X-ray emission, with the most active sources of emission being located near the star's equator.
This activity may be due to convection cells forming at the cooler equator. The angular diameter of Altair was measured interferometrically by R. Hanbury Brown and his co-workers at Narrabri Observatory in the 1960s, they found a diameter of 3 milliarcseconds. Although Hanbury Brown et al. realized that Altair would be rotationally flattened, they had insufficient data to experimentally observe its oblateness. Altair was observed to be flattened by infrared interferometric measurements made by the Palomar Testbed Interferometer in 1999 and 2000; this work was published by G. T. van Belle, David R. Ciardi and their co-authors in 2001. Theory predicts that, owing to Altair's rapid rotation, its surface gravity and effective temperature should be lower at the equator, making the equator less luminous than the poles; this phenomenon, known as gravity darkening or the von Zeipel effect, was confirmed for Altair by measurements made by the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer in 2001, analyzed by Ohishi et al. and Peterson et al..
A. Domiciano de Souza et al. verified gravity darkening using the measurements made by the Palomar and Navy interferometers, together with new measurements made by the VINCI instrument at the VLTI. Altair is one of the few stars. In 2006 and 2007, J. D. Monnier and his coworkers produced an image of Altair's surface from 2006 infrared observations made with the MIRC instrument on the CHARA array interferometer; the false-color image was published in 2007. The equatorial radius of the star was estimated to be 2.03 solar radii, the polar radius 1.63 solar radii—a 25% increase of the stellar radius from pole to equator. The polar axis is inclined by about 60° to the line of sight from the Earth; the term Al Nesr Al Tair appeared in Al Achsasi al Mouakket's catalogue, translated into Latin as Vultur Volans. This name was applied by the Arabs to the asterism of Altair, β Aquilae, γ Aquilae and goes back to the ancient Babylonians and Sumerians, who called Altair "the eagle star"; the spelling Atair has been used.
Medieval astrolabes of England and Western Europe depicted Vega as birds. The Koori people of Victoria knew Altair as Bunjil, the wedge-tailed eagle, β and γ Aquilae are his two wives the black swans; the people of the Murray River knew the star as Totyerguil. The Murray River was formed when Totyerguil the hunter speared Otjout, a giant Murray cod, when wounded, churned a channel across southern Australia before entering the sky as the constellation Delphinus. In Chinese, the asterism consisting of Altair, β Aquilae, γ Aquilae is known as Hé Gǔ; the Chinese name for Altair is thus Hé Gǔ èr. However, Altair is better known by its other names: Qiān Niú Xīng or Niú Láng Xīng, translated as the cowherd star; these names are an allusion to a love story, The Cowherd and the Weaver
Indigenous Australian art
Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others. It includes works in a wide range of media including painting on leaves, wood carving, rock carving, ceremonial clothing and sand painting; this article discusses works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary Indigenous Australian art by Aboriginal Australians. These have gained much international recognition. There are several types of aboriginal art, methods of making art, including rock painting, dot painting, rock engravings, bark painting, carvings and weaving and string art. A variety of colours are used, except for red, which symbolizes blood and is only used in other types of painting. Indigenous art includes a range of styles of rock painting: The cross-hatch and X-ray art from the Arnhem Land and Kakadu regions of the Northern Territory, in which the skeletons and viscera of the animals and humans portrayed are drawn inside the outline, as if by cross section.
Dot-painting from the Central and Western Deserts through which intricate patterns and stories are created using dots. Stencil art using the motif of a hand print. Wandjina painting from the KimberleysAustralian Indigenous art is the oldest unbroken tradition of art in the world; the oldest dated rock art painting in Australia is a charcoal drawing on a rock fragment found during the excavation of the Narwala Gabarnmang rock shelter in south-western Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory. Dated at 28,000 years, it is one of the oldest known pieces of rock art on Earth with a confirmed date. Rock art, including painting and engraving or carving, can be found at sites throughout Australia. Rock paintings appear on caves in the Kimberley region of Western Australia known as Bradshaws, they are named after the European, Joseph Bradshaw, who first reported them in 1891. To Aboriginal people of the region they are known as Giro Giro. Other painted rock art sites include Laura, Ubirr, in the Kakadu National Park and Carnarvon Gorge.
Aboriginal rock art has been around for a long period of time, with the oldest examples, in Western Australia's Pilbara region and the Olary district of South Australia, estimated to be up to around 40,000 years old. Examples have been found that are believed to depict extinct megafauna such as Genyornis and Thylacoleo as well as more recent historical events such as the arrival of European ships. Rock engraving depends on the type of rock being used. Many different methods are used to create rock engravings. There are several different types of Rock art across Australia, the most famous of, Murujuga in Western Australia, the Sydney rock engravings around Sydney in New South Wales, the Panaramitee rock art in Central Australia; the Toowoomba engravings, depicting carved animals and humans, have their own peculiar style not found elsewhere in Australia. The rock art at Murujuga is said to be the world's largest collection of petroglyphs and includes images of extinct animals such as the thylacine.
Activity prior to the last ice age. Papunya art consists of various paint colours like yellow, brown and white; these are traditional Aboriginal colours. Papunya paintings can be painted on anything though traditionally they were painted on rocks, in caves, etc; the paintings were images of animals or lakes, the Dreamtime. Stories and legends were depicted on rocks to represent the artists' religion and beliefs. On modern artwork, dots are applied with bamboo satay sticks; the larger flat end of bamboo satay sticks are more used for single application of dots to paintings, but the sharp pointier end is used to create fine dots. To create superimposed dotting, artists may take a bunch of satay sticks, dip the pointy ends into the paint and transfer them onto the canvas in quick successions of dotting. Stone arrangements in Australia range from the 50m-diameter circles of Victoria, with 1m-high stones embedded in the ground, to the smaller stone arrangements found throughout Australia, such as those near Yirrkala which depict accurate images of the praus used by Macassan Trepang fishermen and spear throwers.
See Aboriginal stone arrangements for more details. Wood carving has always been an essential part of aboriginal culture, requiring wood, sharp stone to carve and fire; the wire and fire were used to create patterns on the object by heating the wire with the fire and placing it on the wood carving. These wood carvings, shaped like animals, were traded to Europeans for goods; the reason aboriginal people made wood carvings was to represent the stories they tell to help tell the stories. They were used in ceremonies where they joined together, sung and enjoyed themselves. Aboriginals from the Tiwi Islands traditionally carved pukumani grave posts and since the 1960's have been carving and painting iron wood figures. In most Pacific areas the men oversee the architecture; the art in clothing are supervised by the head women in charge of the production. These detailed cloths were worn for rituals; the scared clothing is used in trade goods and social and political relationships. Wearing the textile removing it and given to another person meant to bond or reinforce friendship or alliances.
Kampen-ORiley, M.. Baskets: Baskets or coiled baskets were created by twisted bark, palm-leaf, feathers.
The Barapa Barapa people are an indigenous Australian people whose territory covered parts of southern New South Wales and northern Victoria. They had close connections with the Wemba-Wemba. Barapa Barapa have extensive shared country with their traditional neighbours, the Wemba-Wemba and Yorta Yorta, covering Deniliquin, the Kow Swamp and Perrricoota/Koondrook; the Barapa Barapa form part of the North-West Nations Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Group, undertake significant cultural heritage and Natural Resource Management work in the area. R. H. Mathews wrote an early sketch of the grammar of the Barapa Barapa language, stated that one dialect at least existed, spoken on the Murray River near Swan Hill. Baraparapa territory which covered areas in what are now the states of New South Wales and Victoria, is estimated to have taken in some 3,600 square miles of land, southern tributaries of the Murrumbidgee River from above Hay down to Kerang. One early source has them a distinct horde, present in Moulamein It included Cohuna, Brassi and the land south of Carrathool.
Deniliquin Their neighbours to the north west were the Wemba-Wemba, the Wergaia frontier was directly to the west, the Yorta Yorta boundaries ran north and south to their east. The Djadjawurrung lay to the south; the Barapabarapa hordes had a moiety moiety society divided into two phratries, each comprising two sections. The rules of marriage and affiliation are as follows.. Phratry A: a Murri man marries an Ippatha woman, their sons are Umbi, daughters Butha. A Kubbi man marries a Butha woman, their sons are Ippai, daughters Ippatha. Phratry B An Ippai man marries a Matha woman, their sons are Kubbi, daughters Kubbitha. An Umbi man marries a Kubbitha woman, their sons are Murri, daughters Matha. In terms of initiation ceremonies, the Barapabarapa rites were the same as those prevailing among the Wiradjuri. A mortar in Barapa barapa territory, at Koondrook Perricoota Forest near Barbers Creek, was recovered in 2012 and an analysis led to the suggestion that it might have been employed to grind gypsum, used by more northerly tribes in funerals, but here for obtaining a corroborree body paint.
Perrepa Perrepa Burrabura-ba, Baraba-baraba, Barraba-barraba, Bareber Bareber Birraba-birraba, Burreba-burreba Boorabirraba Burrappa, Burapper, Barappu Bureba, Burabura Booraboora Karraba Boort wutthu lêurk bangga kurregurk ngungni barapa gillaty perbur dyelli-dyellic