A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people and valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are underground, in contrast to blockhouses which are above ground, they were used extensively in World War I, World War II, the Cold War for weapons facilities and control centers, storage facilities. Bunkers can be used as protection from tornadoes. Trench bunkers are small concrete structures dug into the ground. Many artillery installations for coastal artillery, have been protected by extensive bunker systems. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, sometimes living quarters; when a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. Nuclear bunkers must cope with the underpressure that lasts for several seconds after the shock wave passes, block radiation.
A bunker's door must be at least as strong as the walls. In bunkers inhabited for prolonged periods, large amounts of ventilation or air conditioning must be provided. Bunkers can be destroyed with bunker-busting warheads; the word bunker originates as a Scots word for "bench, seat" recorded 1758, alongside shortened bunk "sleeping berth". The word has a Scandinavian origin: Old Swedish bunke means "boards used to protect the cargo of a ship". In the 19th century the word came to describe a coal store below decks in a ship, it was used for a sand-filled depression installed on a golf course as a hazard. In the First World War the belligerents built underground shelters, called dugouts in English, while the Germans used the term bunker. By the Second World War the term came to be used by the Germans to describe permanent structures both large: blockhouse, small: pillbox, to bombproof shelters both above ground and below ground; the military sense of the word was imported into English during World War II, at first in reference to German dug-outs.
All the early references to its usage in the Oxford English Dictionary are to German fortifications. However in the Far East the term was applied to the earth and log positions built by the Japanese, the term appearing in a 1943 instruction manual issued by the British Indian Army and gaining wide currency. By 1947 the word was familiar enough in English that Hugh Trevor-Roper in The Last Days of Hitler was describing Hitler's underground complex near the Reich Chancellery as "Hitler's own bunker" without quotes around the word bunker; this type of bunker is a small concrete structure dug into the ground, a part of a trench system. Such bunkers give the defending soldiers better protection than the open trench and include top protection against aerial attack, they provide shelter against the weather. Some bunkers may have open tops to allow weapons to be discharged with the muzzle pointing upwards. Many artillery installations for coastal artillery, have been protected by extensive bunker systems.
These housed the crews serving the weapons, protected the ammunition against counter-battery fire, in numerous examples protected the guns themselves, though this was a trade-off reducing their fields of fire. Artillery bunkers are some of the largest individual pre-Cold War bunkers; the walls of the'Batterie Todt' gun installation in northern France were up to 3.5 metres thick, an underground bunker was constructed for the V-3 cannon. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, sometimes living quarters, they were built by nations like Germany during World War II to protect important industries from aerial bombardment. Industrial bunkers are built for control rooms of dangerous activities, such as tests of rocket engines or explosive experiments, they are built in order to perform dangerous experiments in them or to store radioactive or explosive goods. Such bunkers exist on non-military facilities; when a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with large cabinets.
One common design approach uses fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Compressive protection may be provided by inexpensive earth arching; the overburden is designed to shield from radiation. To prevent the shelter from floating to the surface in high groundwater, some designs have a skirt held-down with the overburden, it may serve the purpose of a safe room. Munitions storage bunkers are designed to securely store explosive ordnance, contain any internal explosions; the most common configuration for high explosives storage is the igloo shaped bunker. They are built into a hillside in order to provide additional containment mass. A specialized version of the munitions bunker called a Gravel Gertie is designed to contain radioactive debris from an explosive accident while assembling or disassembling nuclear warheads, they are installed at all facilities in the United States and United Kingdom which do warhead assembly and disassembly, the largest being the Pantex plant in Amarillo, which has 12 Gravel Gerties.
Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries
Dr John Browne D. D. was administrator. He was Fellow and Master of University College and served as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. John Browne was a student at University College and a Fellow from 1711 to 1739. In 1738, Browne became Archdeacon of Northampton. In 1743, he became a Canon of Peterborough Cathedral. From 1745 he was Master of University College. In 1753, as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, Browne chose the design for the Oxford Almanack; this included King Alfred, the supposed founder of University College at the time, in front of the Radcliffe Quad, University College's second quadrangle. Browne bequeathed his books to the Master of his successors; the library was located in a ground-floor room in the Radcliffe Quad of the College. However, when a new Master's Lodgings was built, the books were moved there, they form a decorative backdrop in the dining room, in fitted bookcases. John Browne died on 7 August 1764
Horace William Baden Donegan was a bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America and served as the Bishop of New York from 1950 to 1972. Donegan was born at Cordella, the family home of his parents Horace George Donegani and Emma Hand in Matlock Bath, Derbyshire, his father Horace George Donegani was a butcher who ran Donegani and Sons Butchers on the South Parade in Matlock Bath. When Donegan was ten, he and his family emigrated to the United States, settling in Baltimore, Maryland, his last name was changed from "Donegani" to "Donegan". He pursued a career as a stage actor. After falling in love with the daughter of his landlady, he decided on an ecclesiastical path, he never married. Donegan completed his undergraduate work at St. Stephen's College in New York, he studied t Harvard Divinity School, theology at Oxford University. He obtained his divinity degree in 1927 from the Episcopal Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Donegan was ordained to the priesthood on May 28, 1928, served as curate of All Saints' Church in Worcester, Massachusetts for two years.
He was rector of Christ Church in Baltimore until 1933, when he was made rector of St. James' Episcopal Church in Manhattan. In 1947, Donegan was elected Suffragan Bishop of New York, the second-highest official of the diocese, he received his consecration that same year from Bishop Charles K. Gilbert, with Bishops Henry K. Sherrill and Norman B. Nash assisting as co-consecrators. Donegan was seventy-second bishop of the Episcopal Church. In 1949, he was chosen as coadjutor bishop of the same diocese by acclamation, the only instance of such an appointment in its history, he became the founder and president of the Board of Trustees of the House of the Reedemer, chaired numerous national boards and committees within the Episcopal Church. Following Gilbert's retirement, Donegan succeeded him as the twelfth Bishop of New York in 1950. Considered liberal and active, Donegan was an advocate of civil rights, defending the rights of African Americans and the poor, he once declared in 1954 that the church might have to "sacrifice much, time-honored" to address the unchanging racial and economic patterns in New York.
He once proposed a reduction of the period of Lent from forty to seven days, for "what was acceptable in the seventeenth century has become unrealistic for men and women catching commuter trains." He condemned McCarthyism in the United States, which discriminated against numerous artists and entertainers for former political alliances. He opposed the South African policy of apartheid, put into effect after World War II. In December 1955, Donegan sponsored an apartment near the Cathedral of St. John the Divine for a family of German refugees, helping the husband find work as well. A year in 1956, he gave his approval to the election of women as wardens, vestry members, delegates to the National Conventions in his diocese. Donegan was active in the creation of what would become the American Priory of the Order of St John. In 1957, Queen Elizabeth II named him an honorary Commander of the Order of the British Empire. During that year, Donegan initiated a $5 million program for the construction of new churches in poverty-stricken sections of Manhattan and the Bronx, which he described as "the most strategic missionary opportunity that faces the Church."
He encouraged Episcopalians to support of John F. Kennedy in the 1960 presidential election, despite his Roman Catholic faith. Following Kennedy's assassination in November 1963, the Bishop said, "I speak for all the clergy and laity of the Diocese when I say that we are numbed with shock at the assassination of the president, he is now joined with Lincoln and McKinley in the ranks of the martyred leaders of our people." In 1965, several parishioners in the Diocese of New York, upset by their Bishop’s activism in the civil rights movement, withdrew pledges of $2 million for the completion of St. John the Divine. In response, Donegan said, "I can only hope that the Cathedral's unfinished quality will stand as a memorial to a diocese which in the twentieth century tried to do what it believed to be right." In an address to the Patriotic Societies of New York in 1965, Donegan expressed his incomprehension of young men's refusal to serve in the Vietnam War if they did not support the war. He stated, "Were it in my power, I would fine every person who did not vote, reward doubly everyone who enlisted in the service of our country, whether as an Episcopalian in the armed forces or as Quaker in the courageous group who will carry the wounded off the field of battle."
In regards to the controversial beliefs of Bishop James Pike, Donegan once commented in 1966, when the possibility of a heresy trial was raised, "Of all the methods of dealing with Bishop Pike's views, the worst is a heresy trial! Whatever the result, the good name of the Church will be injured. Should there be a presentment and trial of Bishop Pike the harm, the divisiveness and the lasting bitterness that will be inflicted on the Church we love and serve will be inevitable." In 1967 he made the stunning announcement that he would be taking the donations for finishing St. John the Divine and put them toward housing and development projects in nearby Harlem, he once said of St. John, "This unfinished cathedral, towering as it d
Thomas Hill Williams was a senator from Mississippi. Born in North Carolina, he completed preparatory studies, studied law, was admitted to the bar and practiced, he was register of the land office for the Territory of Mississippi in 1805, secretary of the Territory in 1805, Acting Governor in 1806. He was reappointed secretary in 1807, was again Acting Governor in 1809. In 1810 he was collector of customs at New Orleans, was a delegate to the state constitutional convention. Upon the admission of Mississippi as a State into the Union in 1817, Williams was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the U. S. Senate, he was reelected as a Jackson Republican in 1823 and served from December 10, 1817, to March 3, 1829. He moved to Tennessee, where he died, in Robertson County, in 1840
The 2010 Tirreno–Adriatico was the 45th running of the Tirreno–Adriatico stage race. It finished on 16 March; the race ended San Benedetto del Tronto. The race was won by Stefano Garzelli after gaining 2 seconds in intermediate sprints in the last stage which tied him for first with Michele Scarponi. Twenty-two teams started the race; these included sixteen UCI ProTour teams, including the provisionally-licensed Lampre–Farnese Vini, six UCI Professional Continental teams. These teams, along with three others contested Milan–San Remo; the 22 teams participating in the race were: 10 March 2010 - Livorno to Rosignano Solvay, 148 km The race of two seas began with a flat stage from Livorno on the Tyrrhenian coast to Rosignano Solvay. The riders took a finishing circuit in the arrival town. A lone rider from ISD–NERI comprised this stage's major breakaway. Dmytro Grabovskyy slipped away early and built an advantage of over five minutes; the peloton, battered by the freezing rain that kept the stage from being run at all, was content to let him stay away until the 40 km to go mark, when the Liquigas–Doimo and Garmin–Transitions teams set to bringing him back in the hopes of setting up a potential mass sprint finish for their top sprinters Daniele Bennati and Tyler Farrar.
Grabovskyy was caught with 22 km left to race, Euskaltel–Euskadi's Pablo Urtasun took the opportunity to counter-attack, being joined after a short while by Niki Terpstra from Team Milram. They were away until the 8 km to go mark, another move took shape when they were caught, including Terpstra's team leader Linus Gerdemann and Matti Breschel. Despite never holding ten seconds advantage over the main field, not having an appreciable gap over them at the finish line, they were able to contest the stage among themselves and deny the pure sprinters the chance. Gerdemann came around Pablo Lastras' early leadout to take the stage win and the first blue jersey as race leader. With the time bonus at the finish line, he became the first leader of the race with a four-second advantage over Lastras. Gerdemann was awarded the red jersey as points classification leader. 11 March 2010 - Montecatini Terme, 165 km Stage two contained a categorized climb after just 6 km, but following the descent from that climb the course was a plateau with no further raises in elevation of any consequence.
The stage started and ended in the same town, concluded with a 5-lap circuit with repeated visits to a short hill. Four riders again tried their luck to contest the stage win among themselves in a breakaway, but on this day the sprinters would not be denied; the four were Mikhail Ignatiev, Diego Caccia, Alan Pérez, Alan Marangoni, who escaped 11 km into the stage. They built up an advantage of over four minutes, while race leader Linus Gerdemann's Milram team rode a tempo at the front of the peloton. Various teams representing strong sprinters worked to reel in the escape toward the end of the stage, three of them were caught 3.5 km from the finish line. Ignatiev tried to counter-attack as the catch occurred, but the blazing speed with which Liquigas–Doimo was driving the peloton at the time meant that it was only a few seconds until the Russian too was brought back. Liquigas-Doimo led out the sprint in the final kilometer, but their top sprinter Daniele Bennati was unable to take advantage.
Belgian national champion Tom Boonen began his sprint first, but was able to hold on to the finish line for the win. The win, the time bonus it afforded, left Boonen tied with Gerdemann on time in the general classification. 12 March 2010 - San Miniato to Monsummano Terme, 159 km Stage 3 was the last in Tuscany. This course had two categorized climbs in the final 30 km before the peloton reaches Monsummano Terme. There were three uncategorized rises in elevation before that point, a lengthy flat stretch to the finish; the day's escapees were Sebastian Lang, Cameron Wurf, Diego Caccia. By virtue of being in the breakaway for the second day in a row, Caccia took the lead in the mountains classification after the stage from his teammate Dmytro Grabovskyy. Wurf was the last of them to be caught, on the final climb of the day; the main field was all together for a sprint finish, but this was nearly not the case, as ten riders broke away on the descent from the last climb, including overall contenders like defending champion Michele Scarponi, last year's runner-up Stefano Garzelli, the Liquigas–Doimo duo of Vincenzo Nibali and Roman Kreuziger.
This breakaway group had 18 seconds on the main field with 5 km left to race, but they were unable to ride as cohesively as the peloton, who caught them just before they reached the red kite indicating 1 km to the finish line. Just as they had the previous day, the Liquigas-Doimo squad executed an efficient leadout for their top sprinter Daniele Bennati. Unlike the previous day, Bennati used it to his full advantage, winning the stage over Alessandro Petacchi, Bernhard Eisel, Tyler Farrar; the time bonus at the line made Bennati the new race leader. He took the lead in the points classification – previous race leader Linus Gerdemann dons the red jersey for stage 4. 13 March 2010 - San Gemini to Chieti, 243 km The profile for this long stage, entering the region of Abruzzo, is bumpy, with many climbs, both categorized and uncategorized. The riders head east and to the south to Chieti and will nearly reach the Adriatic Sea; the final 3 km are difficult, with stretches containing maximum gradients of 19%.
The peloton reeled in many early attacks on thi
The San Antonio Aquarium is a for-profit aquarium located in San Antonio, Texas. The facility features a number of interactive exhibits; the aquarium is operated by Vince Covino, brother of convicted poacher Ammon Covino. The aquarium is not accredited by the Association of Aquariums. On July 30, 2018, two robbers abducted a female grey horn shark named Miss Helen and transported her to their house; the thieves kept the shark alive and it was rescued by San Antonio police officers and returned alive and well to the aquarium. Following the shark abduction, a public petition of more than 17,000 signatories requested the aquarium to close its touch pool containing a variety of aquatic animals; the petition cited the dangers of touch pools can have on the animals, namely due to the stress and potential injury inflicted by aquarium guests. In October 2018, the United States Department of Agriculture cited the aquarium for the use of untrained lemurs due to the numerous instances of biting and scratching facility visitors.
In November 2018, the Leon Valley Fire Department shut down and evacuated the facility due to a number of safety hazards related to electrical and mechanical systems. Austin Aquarium SeaQuest Interactive Aquariums Official website