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Bunraku known as Ningyō jōruri, is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theatre, founded in Osaka in the beginning of the 17th century. Three kinds of performers take part in a bunraku performance: the Ningyōtsukai or Ningyōzukai, the Tayū, shamisen musicians. Other instruments such as taiko drums will be used; the most accurate term for the traditional puppet theater in Japan is ningyō jōruri. The combination of chanting and shamisen playing is called jōruri and the Japanese word for puppet is ningyō, it is used in many plays. Bunraku puppetry has been a documented traditional activity for Japanese people for hundreds of years. Bunraku's history goes as far back as the 16th century but the origins of the modern form can be traced to the 1680s, it rose to popularity after the playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon began a collaboration with the magnificent chanter Takemoto Gidayu, who established the Takemoto puppet theater in Osaka in 1684. The term Bunraku referred only to the particular theater established in 1805 in Osaka, named the Bunrakuza after the puppeteering ensemble of Uemura Bunrakuken, an early 18th-century puppeteer from Awaji, whose efforts revived the flagging fortunes of the traditional puppet theatre.

The puppets of the Osaka tradition tend to be somewhat smaller overall, while the puppets in the Awaji tradition are some of the largest as productions in that region tend to be held outdoors. The heads and hands of traditional puppets are carved by specialists, while the bodies and costumes are constructed by puppeteers; the heads can be quite sophisticated mechanically. In plays with supernatural themes, a puppet may be constructed so that its face can transform into that of a demon. Less complex heads may have eyes that move up and down, side to side or close, noses and eyebrows that move. Controls for all movements of parts of the head are located on a handle that extends down from the neck of the puppet and are reached by the main puppeteer inserting his or her left hand into the chest of the puppet through a hole in the back of the torso; the main puppeteer, the omozukai, uses his right hand to control the right hand of the puppet. The left puppeteer, known as the hidarizukai or sashizukai, depending of the tradition of the troupe, manipulates the left hand of the puppet with his or her own right hand by means of a control rod that extends back from the elbow of the puppet.

A third puppeteer, the ashizukai, operates the legs. Puppeteers begin their training by operating the feet move on to the left hand, before being able to train as the main puppeteer. Many practitioners in the traditional puppetry world those in the National Theater, describe the long training period, which requires ten years on the feet, ten years on the left hand, ten years on the head of secondary characters before developing the requisite skills to move to the manipulation of the head of a main character, as an artistic necessity. However, in a culture like that of Japan, which privileges seniority, the system can be considered a mechanism to manage competition among artistic egos and provide for a balance among the demographics of the puppeteers in a troupe in order to fill each role. All but the most minor characters require three puppeteers, who perform in full view of the audience wearing black robes. In most traditions, all puppeteers wear black hoods over their heads, but a few others, including the National Bunraku Theater, leave the main puppeteer unhooded, a style of performance known as dezukai.

The shape of the puppeteers' hoods varies, depending on the school to which the puppeteer belongs. A single chanter recites all the characters' parts, altering his vocal pitch and style in order to portray the various characters in a scene. Multiple chanters are used; the chanters sit next to the shamisen player. Some traditional puppet theaters have revolving platform for the chanter and shamisen player, which rotates bringing replacement musicians for the next scene; the shamisen used in bunraku is larger than other kinds of shamisen and has a different sound, lower in pitch and with a fuller tone. Bunraku shares many themes with kabuki. In fact, many plays were adapted for performance both by actors in kabuki and by puppet troupes in bunraku. Bunraku is noted for lovers' suicide plays; the story of the forty-seven rōnin is famous in both bunraku and kabuki. Bunraku is an author's theater, as opposed to kabuki, a performer's theater. In bunraku, prior to the performance, the chanter holds up the text and bows before it, promising to follow it faithfully.

In kabuki, actors insert puns on their names, ad-libs, references to contemporary happenings and other things which deviate from the script. The most famous bunraku playwright was Chikamatsu Monzaemon. With more than 100 plays to his credit, he is sometimes called the Shakespeare of Japan. Bunraku companies and puppet makers have been designated "Living National Treasures" under Japan's program for preserving its culture. Osaka is the home of the government-supported troupe at National Bunraku Theatre; the National Bunraku Theater offers five or more shows every year, each running for two to three weeks in Osaka before moving to Tokyo for a run at the National Theater. The National Bunraku Theater tours within Japan and abroad; until the late 1800s there were hundreds of other professional, semi-professional, amateur troupes across Japan that performed traditional puppet drama. Since the end of World War II, the number of troupes has dropped to fewer than 40, most of which perform only once or twice a

Round Foundry

The Round Foundry is a former engineering works off Water Lane in Holbeck, West Yorkshire, England. Founded in the late 18th century, the building was developed into the Round Foundry Media Centre in 2005; the Round Foundry was built in 1795–1797 by a partnership of James Fenton, Matthew Murray, David Wood and the financier William Lister, trading as Fenton and Wood. It was at the Round Foundry, he produced textile machinery, steam engines and the first locomotives for the Middleton Railway including Salamanca. The Round Foundry developed to become one of the world's first specialist engineering foundries. Disaster struck in 1875 when fire destroyed some of the original buildings, including the large rotunda that gave the Round Foundry its name; some buildings were saved, the earliest of which dates from 1798. There are a total of 7 listed buildings in the Round Foundry complex; these include the Green Sand Foundry and 101 Water Lane. The first phase of a £30 million redevelopment has led to the creation of the Round Foundry Media Centre, which provides office space for creative and digital media companies.

This project provides restaurants and cafés set in a number of courtyards that try to retain as much of the character of the old foundry as is possible. This redevelopment project has won a number of architectural awards including; the Engine House, where the Salamanca was constructed, is now home to a number of businesses including KBW Barristers Chambers, ISG engineering and the Engine House Café. Railway Foundry Matthew Murray Diagram of Marshall's mills and Matthew Murray's engineering works at Water Lane. Leeds Engine Builders Plan of Round Foundry c.1841, steam engine manufactory of Fenton and Jackson


Dayalbagh or Dayal Bagh means'Garden' of'Merciful', inferring "Garden of the Merciful", is a locality in metropolitan Agra in western Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the headquarters of the Dayalbagh sect of the Radhasoami faith where the 8th revered leader lives and presides over the satsang, it is a self-sustained colony, where its inhabitants lead an active, disciplined and co-operative community life, conforming to the spiritual ideals of their faith. It has affiliated educational institutes such as the Dayalbagh Educational Institute affiliated to Dayalbagh University. Radhasoami Satsang Sabha is the chief working committee of Radhasoami Faith Dayalbagh; as of the 2001 India census, Dayalbagh had a population of 3324. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. In Dayalbagh, 8% of the population is under six years of age; the colony of Dayalbagh was founded on the Basant Day on 20 January 1915 by Sir Anand Swarup, the Fifth Revered Leader of Radhasoami Faith, as an ashram or a spiritual home for the followers of the faith, by planting a mulberry tree.

The colony was built by the voluntary contribution of the early residents, who considered it as Sewa. The fields near Yamuna river were acquired by Dayalbagh and as a daily practice and devotees coming from outside leveled the uneven landmass and irrigated it, making it a fertile land from the barren desert. Today the devotees give their voluntary contribution everyday in agricultural activities in the fields; the colony is laid out in an open garden setting. The land where the colony was established once consisted of sand dunes. For more than 60 years residents of the colony - men and women and old - have worked with quiet dedication in a vast programme for reclamation of land launched in 1943 by Huzur Mehtaji Maharaj, the sixth Revered Leader of the Faith; the result is a lush green 1,200-acre farm where food-grains, oil-seeds and vegetables are grown. No individual owns property in Dayalbagh, as the land and institutions belong to the community. People work as a community. For example, the residents share various responsibilities like cleaning up the colony and arranging night security.

The colony has its own water supply, electricity distribution, civic services. The colony's dairy provides most of the milk, needed, a community kitchen that supplies food at a nominal cost to pilgrims; the residents can obtain meals from there and free themselves from household chores. Soamibagh is an area adjacent to Dayalbagh; the land was purchased by Soamiji Maharaj. Soamiji's Samadh has been under construction since building began in 1905 by Guru Maharaj Saheb, continues to the present day; the construction involves magnificent piece of art work. A variety of fruits and flowers are carved out on walls and pillars on Marble stone. There is a hospital called as "Saran Ashram Hospital" with a maternity ward. Facilities exist for ophthalmic and dental treatment, ultrasound, ECG, pathological and X-Ray testing. All consultations and treatment are free for everyone; the majority of patients are from outside Dayalbagh. There are homeopathic and ayurvedic dispensaries; the day in Dayalbagh begins with congregational prayers, followed by physical fitness exercise and work on the farms and in colony by way of service, where after people go to their respective vocations.

The day ends with prayers in the evening. Small-scale industries known as the Model Industries were established in 1916 to provide employment and a source of livelihood to the persons residing in the colony, it has done some pioneering work in the country. The industries have now been decentralized and cottage scale production of goods of daily necessity is taking place in units set up by Satsangis all over the country; the Radhasoami Urban Cooperative Bank and the Dayalbagh Mahila Bank cater to the financial requirements of various organizations and individuals in the colony. The Dayalbagh Printing Press prints Holy Books and the two Satsang weeklies, one in English and the other in Hindi; the foundation of a school was laid after 2 years of the foundation of the colony in 1917. The school has grown in course of time to become a Deemed University-Dayalbagh Educational Institute-with various faculties with facilities for research. In 1981 the Ministry of Education, Government of India, conferred the status of an institution deemed to be a University on the Dayalbagh Educational Institute, to implement the new program of undergraduate studies.

Prof. M. B. Lal Sahab, a former Vice Chancellor of the Lucknow University, founded this institution and was the first director of DEI The education system followed is unique and provides value-based multi-disciplinary education with work experience. In addition, the colony has a diploma level Technical College, a Women's Polytechnic, a nursery, primary level schools and secondary level colleges for boys and girls; the campus is situated in Dayalbagh, away from the noise of the city. It is situated at a distance of about two Km. from the city of Agra on its northern periphery. It is conveniently connected to the railway stations and bus-stands by the city bus, auto-rickshaws and taxies; the Dayalbagh suburb gained national attention when Neha Sharma, a PhD. scholar was found murdered in the nano-biotechnology lab of the Dayalbagh Educational Institute. Students of the institute proteste

Leiter International Performance Scale

Leiter International Performance Scale or Leiter scale is an intelligence test in the form of a strict performance scale. It was designed for children and adolescents ages 2 to 18, although it can yield an intelligence quotient and a measure of logical ability for all ages; the Leiter series of assessments have been published by Stoelting. Leiter devised an experimental edition of the test in 1929 to assess the intelligence of those with hearing or speech impairment and with non English speaking examinees; this test purports to "provide a nonverbal measure of general intelligence by sampling a wide variety of functions from memory to nonverbal reasoning." A remarkable feature of the Leiter scale is that it can be administered without the use of oral language, including instructions, requires no verbal response from the participant. Without any verbal subtests, the Leiter scale only measures nonverbal intelligence; because of the exclusion of language, it claims to be more accurate than other tests when testing children who cannot or will not provide a verbal response.

This includes children with any of these features: Non native speaking, traumatic brain injury, speech impairment, hearing problems. The Leiter scale was used as a nonverbal alternative to the Binet scale, verbally weighted. However, it is used by researchers, very by clinicians who assess the "intellectual function of children with pervasive developmental disorders."The latest version of Leiter is called Leiter- 3, revised in 2013. It has an age range of 3 years to 75+ years. Not all subtests must be administered to every child. Although this scale does an excellent job as an "aid to clinical diagnosis in disabled children... the test user must exercise caution in interpreting... test results because the meaning of test scores requires more research." In a review by Buros, an independent organization reviewing psychological and educational assessments, reviewers concluded that, "The Leiter-3 authors have succeeded in their goal of constructing a reliable and valid nonverbal measure of intellectual ability and attention/memory.

Guided by feedback 20 from users of previous versions, the redesigned Leiter-3 is more engaging for examinees yet less time consuming for examiners while still providing several diagnostic indexes and interpretive options to guide program planning for a wide range of individuals."The Leiter-3 was normed and validated with a diverse group, representative of the 2008 updated U. S. census, including a number of special groups, including those with speech impairments, deaf or hard-of-hearing, motor delays, traumatic brain injuries, intellectual delays, ADHD, learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, English as a Second Language. The Leiter contains 10 subtests organized into four domains: Fluid Intelligence Visualization Memory Attention The five Fluid Intelligence subtests are: Sequential Order Form Completion Classification and Analogies Figure Ground Matching/Repeated Patterns - optional The five Attention and Memory subtests are: Forward Memory Attention Sustained Reverse Memory Nonverbal Stroop Attention Divided The last scale is the Social/Emotional scale, which gathers information on the following domains Attention Organization Skills Impulse Control Activity Level Anxiety Energy and Feelings Mood Regulation Sociability Sensory Reactivity

Saint Glyceria

Saint Glyceria — early Christian saint, Roman virgin. According to Christian legend, she was forced to pay tribute to a stone statue of Jupiter but it was destroyed while she stood before it; the virgin was imprisoned for this sentenced to be torn apart by wild animals. She, was not torn apart. Before the animals could render her any harm, Glyceria died a virgin martyr in Heraclea, her relics reputedly poured forth the substance known as the Oil of Saints, her name means "sweetness". She is honored on May 13, she is recognized as an Eastern Christian Saint, has fallen out of popularity as a Catholic Saint. Https:// Ἡ Ἁγία Γλυκερία ἡ Μάρτυς. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ

Lambert Automobile Company

The Lambert Automobile Company was a 300,000-square-foot automobile factory in Anderson, Indiana to make the Lambert automobile through the Buckeye Manufacturing Company. The Lambert Automobile Company was the second factory plant for the Union Automobile Company of Union City, Ohio built in 1904; the name changed in 1905 to the Lambert Automobile Company and the Union Automobile Company name was dropped. A better quality automobile was manufactured from the Union automobile; the Lambert Automobile Company was founded by automotive pioneer John William Lambert. The company was based in Indiana. In the eleven years from 1905 through 1916 the company manufactured not only automobiles but trucks, fire engines and farm tractors as well; the Lambert automobile was the signature product of the company however. The company always made their own bodies, but sometimes had the engines manufactured by different independent motor builders; these outsourced motors done by manufacturers like Buda, Continental and Daviswere were always of Lambert's design.

The upholstery used on the interiors was of the best quality and the final body finish was done with fifteen coats of paint. In 1906 Lambert produced the first "Lambert" automobile. With this line Lambert established himself as one of the more successful automobile manufacturers of that time period. Most of his automobiles were chain-driven rather than shaft driven. Production of automobiles and trucks had reached two thousand vehicles per year from 1906 to 1910. In 1910 the company had over a thousand employees and from 1910 to 1915 the production had reached about three thousand vehicles per year, it only produced about one thousand vehicles in 1916 and only a few vehicles in 1917. The Lambert Automobile Company manufactured the Lambert automobile through the Buckeye Manufacturing Company which had several subsidiaries. One of the main features of the Lambert automobile was the friction gearing disk drive transmission; when the United States entered into World War I the factory was converted for national defense in 1917.

The company made ammunition shells, caisson wheels and military fire engines. When the war ended Lambert did not resume automobile production, he realized. The Buckeye Manufacturing Company stopped manufacturing automobile parts permanently in 1922. There are only four known Lambert automobiles in existence as of the year 2008. Ohio City, Ohio celebrates Lambert Days every summer. Union City and Union City, Ohio are separated by a city street, the Indiana-Ohio State Line. During the period of the Union Automobile Company all mail was received through an Indiana Post Office. Most advertisements and addresses for the Union Automobile Company will show their mailing address as Union City, Indiana. George Lambert, brother of the famed John William Lambert, constructed the Lambert-Parent house. George sold it to his brother-in-law Wilder Grant Parent in 1898 - hence the name; the house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and located at 631 E. Elm Street in Union City, Ohio; the Lambert brothers worked together in their businesses, associated with automobiles and grain operations.

Union automobile Lambert automobile John William Lambert Buckeye gasoline buggy Union Automobile Company Buckeye Manufacturing Company Lambert Gas and Gasoline Engine Company Lambert friction gearing disk drive transmission Biography of John W. Lambert, written by his son January 25, 1935 — obtained from the Detroit Public Library, National Automotive History Collection Dolnar, Automobile Trade Journal, article: The Lambert, 1906 Line of Automobiles, Chilton Company, v.10 January 1906 Forkner, John L. History of Madison County, New York and Chicago, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1914 The Horseless Age: The Automobile Trade Magazine, The Horseless Age Company, 1902 Bailey, L. Scott, Historic Discovery: 1891 Lambert, New Claim for America's First Car, Antique Automobile magazine, Vol. 24, No. 5, Oct–Nov 1960 David Burgess Wise, The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles ISBN 0-7858-1106-0 Dittlinger, Esther et al. Anderson: A Pictorial History, G. Bradley Publishing, 1990, ISBN 0-943963-16-8 G.

N. Georgano, The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile, Taylor & Francis, 2000, ISBN 1-57958-293-1 Huffman, Wallace Spencer, Indiana's Place in Automobile History in Indiana History Bulletin, vol 44, no. 2, Feb. 1967. Carriages Without Horses: J. Frank Duryea and the Birth of the American Automobile Industry, SAE, 1993, ISBN 1-56091-380-0