Burakumin is an outcast group at the bottom of the traditional Japanese social order, the victim of severe discrimination and ostracism. They were members of outcast communities in the Japanese feudal era, composed of those with occupations considered impure or tainted by death, which have severe social stigmas of kegare attached to them. Traditionally, the Burakumin lived in hamlets, or ghettos; the term 部落 buraku refers to a small rural, commune or a hamlet. People from regions of Japan where "discriminated communities" no longer exist may refer to any hamlet as a buraku, indicating the word's use is not pejorative; the term was used for an outcast community, discriminated against and formally. A used term for buraku settlements is dōwa chiku, an official term for districts designated for government and local authority assimilation projects; the social issue surrounding "discriminated communities" is referred to as dōwa mondai or less buraku mondai. In the feudal era, the outcaste were called a term now considered derogatory.
Eta towns were called etamura. Some burakumin refer to their own communities as "mura" and themselves as "mura-no-mono". Other outcaste groups from whom Buraku may have been descended included the hinin; the definition of hinin, as well as their social status and typical occupations varied over time, but included ex-convicts and vagrants who worked as town guards, street cleaners or entertainers. In the 19th century the umbrella term burakumin was coined to name the eta and hinin because both classes were forced to live in separate village neighborhoods; the term burakumin does not refer to any ethnic minorities in Japan. Urban burakumin were destitute peasants who abandoned their fields and became camp followers of samurai in the Sengoku period; as the samurai camps became more permanent Japanese castles, the camp followers settled into various professions. Some became professional beggars, but most became street workers such as musicians, actors, monkey trainers, low-class artisans of various kinds such as matcha whisk makers.
Other burakumin were migrant farmers called kawata because of the rice-paddies which they farmed on undesirable land near rivers. Many migrant burakumin accumulated enough money to purchase the land on which they farmed, to the extent that laws were sometimes passed to dispossess them of their land; because the various types of camp followers were seen as impoverished and homeless, they were regarded as hinin or non-citizens by medieval samurai, taboos of pollution arose around them. In the Tokugawa period, this polluted status sometimes became hereditary, due to Confucian construction of the ie family system. At other times and places, pollution was not hereditary but was associated with jobs involving blood such as hunting and tanning; the belief in pollution ebbed and flowed throughout the Tokugawa period, being most observed in the 19th century as Tokugawa society came under increased pressure. In the 1920s a mythology formed around burakumin which claimed them to have become outcaste due to their work in the tanning industries.
In fact, tanning was a minority profession among burakumin, speaking, ritual pollution was considered separately from the four occupations in the Tokugawa period. Burakumin were recognized members of the farmer caste, who only became seen as polluted due to the medieval connection to poverty; the feudal caste system in Japan formally ended in 1869 with the Meiji restoration. In 1871, the newly formed Meiji government issued a decree called Senmin Haishirei giving outcasts equal legal status, it is better known as the Kaihōrei. However, the elimination of their economic monopolies over certain occupations led to a decline in their general living standards, while social discrimination continued. For example, the ban on consumption of meat from livestock was lifted in 1871 in order to "westernise" the country, many former eta moved on to work in abattoirs and as butchers. However, slow-changing social attitudes in the countryside, meant that abattoirs and workers were met with hostility from local residents.
Continued ostracism as well as the decline in living standards led to former eta communities turning into slum areas. There were many terms used to indicate former outcastes, their communities or settlements at the time. Official documents at the time referred to them as kyu-eta, while the newly liberated outcasts called themselves shin-heimin, among other things; the term tokushu buraku started being used by officials in the 1900s, leading to the meaning of the word buraku coming to imply former eta villages in certain parts of Japan. Movements to resolve the problem in the early 20th century were divided into two camps: the "assimilation" movement which encouraged improvements in living standards of buraku communities and integration with the mainstream Japanese society, the "levelers" movement which concentrated on confronting and criticising alleged pe
WISE 1405+5534 is a brown dwarf of spectral class Y0, located in constellation Ursa Major at 25.3 light-years from Earth. It is one of the Sun's nearest neighbors. WISE 1405+5534 was discovered in 2011 from data collected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in the infrared at a wavelength of 40 cm. WISE 1405+5534 has two discovery papers: Kirkpatrick et al. and Cushing et al. however with the same authors and published nearly simultaneously. Kirkpatrick et al. presented discovery of 98 new found by WISE brown dwarf systems with components of spectral types M, L, T and Y, among, WISE 1405+5534. Cushing et al. presented discovery of seven brown dwarfs—one of T9.5 type, six of Y-type—first members of the Y spectral class discovered and spectroscopically confirmed, including "archetypal member" of the Y spectral class WISE 1828+2650, WISE 1405+5534. These seven objects are the faintest seven of 98 brown dwarfs, presented in Kirkpatrick et al.. The most accurate distance estimate of WISE 1405+5534 is a trigonometric parallax, measured using Spitzer Space Telescope and published in 2013 by Trent Dupuy and Adam Kraus: 0.129 ± 0.019 arcsec, corresponding to a distance 7.8+1.3−1.0 pc, or 25.3+4.4−3.2 ly.
WISE 1405 +5534 distance estimates. The most precise estimate is marked in bold. WISE 1405+5534 has a large proper motion of about 2281 milliarcseconds per year. WISE 1405 +5534 proper motion estimates; the object's temperature estimate is 350 K. Its spectrum is similar with spectrum of another Y-dwarf WISE 1738+2732. However, WISE 1405+5534's spectrum has a red shift of H-band flux peak, suggesting that WISE 1405+5534 may be peculiar, therefore it is classified as Y0. List of star systems within 25–30 light-years WISE 0148-7202 WISE 0410+1502 WISE 1541-2250 WISE 1738+2732 WISE 1828+2650 WISE 2056+1459
Zorba is an open source query processor written in C++, implementing several W3C XQuery and XML specifications and the JSONiq language for processing JSON data. Zorba is distributed under Apache License, Version 2.0. The project is supported by the FLWOR Foundation, 28msec. Zorba provides the implementation of the following W3C specifications: XQuery 1.0 XQuery 3.0 XQuery Update Facility 1.0 XQuery and XPath Full Text 1.0 XML Syntax for XQuery 1.0 XML Schema XSL Transformations XSL Formatting ObjectsZorba provides implementations of: JSONiq Scripting Extension Data Definition Facility Scripting Extension is an open specification that provides semantic for side-effects in XQuery or JSONiq programs. It provides a user-friendly syntax for imperative programming within such programs; the following code snippet is an example of the Scripting syntax. It computes a sequence containing all the Fibonacci numbers that are less than 100; the following is an example of CRUD operations using Scripting, XQuery, XQuery Update.
Data Definition Facility provides a semantic for persistent artifacts such as collections and indexes in XQuery or JSONiq programs. For instance, the following code snippets declares a collection named entries and an index on that collection named entry. Zorba provides a pluggable store so it can be used on different kind of environments: disk, browser. By default, Zorba is built with a main memory store. 28msec implements a store on top of MongoDB. The XQuery in the Browser project has built a browser plugin for Zorba and leverages the DOM as its store. Zorba is usable through different host languages: C++, C, XQJ / Java, PHP, Python, C#, XQuery/JSONiq. Zorba is available as a command-line tool. XQDT is an XQuery plugin for the Eclipse, it supports Zorba API and syntax. Zorba provides more than 70 XQuery modules for building applications; some of these modules are: File system, Email, HTTP client, OAuth client XQuery and JSONiq Data Model Processing: typing, atomic items, nodes. Full-text: tokenizer, thesaurus lookup.
Data Cleaning: phonetic similarities, set similarities, conversions. Data Conversion: Base64, CSV, HTML, JSON, XML Data Formatting: XSL-FO Introspection and Reflection Cryptography Image processing Zorba website Zorba live demo Zorba modules