Burberry Group PLC is a British luxury fashion house headquartered in London, England. Its main fashion house focuses on and distributes trench coats, ready-to-wear outerwear, fashion accessories, fragrances and cosmetics. Established in 1856 by Thomas Burberry focusing on the development of outdoor attire, the fashion house has moved into the high fashion market, developing a first of its kind fabric called Gabardine, breathable and waterproof, made for the brand, their pattern-based scarves, trench coats, other fashion accessories are unique. The first shop opened in the Haymarket, London, in 1891. Burberry was an independent family-controlled company until 1955. In 2005, it completed its demerger from the company's former majority shareholder; the company is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. In 2015, Burberry ranked 73rd in Interbrand's Best Global Brands report, alongside Louis Vuitton and Prada. Burberry has stores in 51 countries. Burberry was founded in 1856 when 21-year-old Thomas Burberry, a former draper's apprentice, opened his own store in Basingstoke, England.
By 1870, the business had established itself by focusing on the development of outdoors attire. In 1879, Burberry introduced in his brand the gabardine, a hardwearing, water-resistant yet breathable fabric, in which the yarn is waterproofed before weaving. In 1891, Burberry opened a shop in London. In 1901, the Burberry Equestrian Knight logo was developed containing the Latin word "Prorsum", meaning forwards, registered it as a trademark in 1909. In 1911, the company became the outfitters for Roald Amundsen, the first man to reach the South Pole, Ernest Shackleton, who led a 1914 expedition to cross Antarctica. A Burberry gabardine jacket was worn by George Mallory on his attempt on Mount Everest in 1924. Adapted to meet the needs of military personnel, the "trench coat" was born during the First World War due to its being worn by British officers in the trenches. After the war, it became popular with civilians; the Burberry check has been in use since at least the 1920s as a lining in its trench coats.
Burberry specially designed aviation garments. In 1937, A. E. Clouston and Betty Kirby-Green broke the world record for the fastest return flight from London to Cape Town in The Burberry airplane, sponsored by the brand. Burberry was an independent family-controlled company until 1955, when Great Universal Stores assumed ownership. Stars of the modern world began wearing the Burberrys brand. During the 1970s and 1980s, Burberry signed agreements with worldwide manufacturers to produce complementary products to the existing British collection such as suits, shirts, accessories, for men and children; these products, designed under the strict control of headquarters in London, were produced and distributed through independent retail stores worldwide as well as the Burberry stores, contributed to the growth of the brand in sales and profits through to the late 90s, although the full extent of sales was not apparent in the parent company accounts since much was done through licensed agreements. The company had signed Lord Litchfield as photographer, Lord Wolfson was Chairman and Stanley Peacock OBE Managing Director.
In May 2001, Christopher Bailey joined Burberry as creative director. Christopher Bailey has been the chief creative officer since 2014, as well as CEO from 2014 – November 2017. Bailey stepped down as chief creative officer in March 2018 and departed the brand by the end of 2018. Between 2001 and 2005, Burberry became associated with football hooligan culture; this change in the brand reputation was attributed to lower priced products, the proliferation of counterfeit goods adopting Burberry's trademark check pattern, adoption by celebrities prominently identified with "chav" culture. The association with football hooliganism led to the wearing of Burberry check garments being banned at some venues. GUS divested its remaining interest in Burberry in December 2005. Burberry Group plc was floated on the London Stock Exchange in July 2002. In 2005, Sanyo-shokai was the Burberry ready-to-wear licence holder in Japan with retail value of €435 million. In 2006, Rose Marie Bravo, who as chief executive had led Burberry to mass market success through licensing, decided to retire.
She was replaced by another American, Angela Ahrendts, who joined from Liz Claiborne in January 2006, took up the position of CEO on 1 July 2006. Ahrendts and Bailey turned around the Chav-like reputation that the brand had acquired at the end of Bravo's tenure and cheapening effect of the brand's omnipresence, by removing the brand's check-pattern from all but 10% of the company's products, taking the fragrance and beauty product licenses back in-house and buying out the Spanish franchise, worth 20% of group revenues. Burberry first sold online in the US in the UK in October 2006, the rest of the EU in 2007. Bailey became Chief Creative Officer in November 2009, it was reported in 2012 Ahrendts was the highest paid CEO in the UK, making £16.9m, the first time an English woman has held that title. In October 2013, it was announced that Ahrendts would take up the position of Senior Vice President of retail and online at Apple, Inc. from April 2014, be replaced as CEO by Bailey. During her tenure, sales increased to over £2 billion, shares gained more than threefold to £7 billion.
Although Burberry promotes its British connection, according to The Guardian, a British national daily newspaper, as of July 2012, Burberry maintains two production facilities in Great Britain, one in C
Malyovitsa is a peak in the northwestern part of the Rila Mountain in southwestern Bulgaria. It is one of the most popular tourist regions in the mountain, its northern and eastern slopes are steep and inaccessible while the southern and south-western slopes are more oblique. The Rila Monastery is situated at its southern foothills facing the valley of the Rilska River, Malyovitsa Ski Centre — with two downhill tracks and two ski drags — is to the north; the main starting point for treks in the region is Malyovitsa Hut at an altitude of 1,700 m at about 2 hours walk from the top of the summit. The three Malyovishki Lakes are situated to the north of the summit, while to the southeast the Elenski Lakes three, are located in a deep cirque; the Malyovitsa region is the cradle of Bulgarian rock mountaineering. The first organized expeditions were made in 1921–22 by tourists from the town of Samokov; the imposant north wall of the summit was first climbed in 1938 by Konstantin Savadzhiev and Georgi Stoimenov.
That was the greatest success of Bulgarian climbers for its time and is deemed as the date of birth of Bulgarian alpine mountaineering. Other walls in the region were climbed too with the most difficult routes being made in the 1970s. In the last 15 years, Malyovitsa region has become attractive rock-climbing district with the possibilities it gives for mountaineering and sport rock climbing. Other interesting walls and summits in the vicinity are: Zlia Zab, Iglata, Dyavolski Igli and others. A wall, available for not so experienced rock-climbers is "Kuklata", it is situated across Malyovitsa Hut, 10 minutes walking, the main part of its tours is bolted. Malyovitsa Crag on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Malyovitsa. Мичев, Николай. Географски речник на България. София: Наука и култура
Paithrukam is a 1993 Indian Malayalam-language drama film, directed by Jayaraaj, starring Suresh Gopi, Narendra Prasad and Jayaram. Scripted by Kaloor Dennis, this film revolves around a traditional Brahmin family and the fight between their beliefs and atheism. Devadathan Chemmathiripadu, a vedic scholar is respected by everyone, he completed Somayagam and has gained the title Somayajippadu. Leading a simple life away from all the chaos, Somayajippadu has two sons and Chithrabhanu. While Somadathan left for Delhi to become a journalist, Chitrabhanu stayed along with his father in order to assist him. Bhanu Namboothiri is now a chief priest in the nearby temple. During his Delhi days, Somadathan became interested in atheism and became associated with several radical groups. One day he returns to his village to meet up with his family. But, upon arriving home, he starts questioning them, he starts advocating atheism among the villagers. In the beginning, Somayaji does not take it slowly he becomes to feel it is unbearable.
He advises Dathan to lead a Brahmin's life, to which Dathan shoots back that he is no longer a Brahmin and had given up his Yajnopavitam, long ago. This shocks Somayaji. Dathan gets married to Gayathri, another atheist and his lover; the couple, in their efforts to win out against superstition, decide to stay at an old haunted house, which people believe is dangerous. They along with fellow radicals clean up the place and destroy the idols of Nagas and the small worship place. In the meantime, Bhanu Namboothiri falls in love with a girl in the neighboring village, he requests his mom to speak about this to Somayaji. But, Somayaji reveals that Bhanu has several issues in his horoscope and at the age of 27 his life could be in danger; this breaks him down, he commits suicide. Somadathan accused his father for his brother's death and his anger turns into hatred. Meanwhile, Gayathri gets pregnant both end up in miscarriage; the people cite it as a reason for Sarpadosha. She starts getting dreams of serpents and starts believing that their act of destroying the idols of Nagas were the reason for the abortions.
One evening, while returning home, Somadathan finds Gayathri lighting a lamp for the idols at a cleaned up shrine, which infuriates him. She tries to make him change his mind, but he stubbornly tells her that to stay with him, she needs to follow his principles. Gayathri arrives at Somayaji's house. Devadathan's mother welcomes her and performs special pujas for her, because she is pregnant for third time, she gives birth to a boy. Somadathan argues with Somayaji that he should not be brought up as a Brahmin and no vedic rituals should be conducted for him. In the mean time, a group of people arrive at Somayaji house to perform an Athirathram, in order to please Lord Indra and make it rain. Athirathram is the highest form of yagas, according to Vedas and if performed it will result in heavy rain; the stage is set and all preparations are on full swing. A group of atheists under the leadership of Somadathan decides to oppose it, exposing the meaningless of such rituals, he challenges Somayaji and asks him if no heavy rains fall, will he give up Vedas and accepts atheism, to which Somayaji agrees.
But he put forward another question to Dathan that if it rains, will he be ready to follow his father's way, to which Dathan agrees. On the last day of Athirathram, it rain and Dathan accepts defeat. Somyaji arrives at home and continues his meditation in his home's inner altar, as an oblation sacrifices his life to the fire. Somadathan takes up his father's path and becomes the next priest of the family. Suresh Gopi as Somadathan Jayaram as Chithrabhanu Narendra Prasad Maniyanpilla Raju Geetha Padmini Bobby Kottarakkara Hakim Rawther Nanditha Bose The acclaimed soundtrack of this movie was composed by S. P. Venkatesh for which the acclaimed lyrics were penned by Kaithapram. All the songs of this movie were instant hits and won S. P. Venkatesh the Filmfare Award for Best Music Director – Malayalam for 1993. Paithrukam on IMDb