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Bureau County, Illinois

Bureau County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 34,978, its county seat is Princeton. Bureau County is part of the Ottawa–Peru, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, the Hennepin Canal Parkway State Park is located in this county. Bureau County was created from a portion of Putnam County in 1837, it is named for brothers Michel and Pierre Bureau, French Canadians who ran a trading post from 1776 until the 1780s near the conjunction of Big Bureau Creek with Illinois River. Their actual surname most was Belleau, but the local American Indians had difficulty pronouncing the "l" sound, not found in some local languages. An early settler of this area was Bulbona, a man of mixed French and Native American descent with a Native American wife. Unlike most of the other Native Americans in the area, Bulbona remained after the area was settled by Euro-Americans and ran a trading post, where he sold whiskey among other necessities; the founders of Princeton, the area's oldest town, were settlers from New England, descendants of the English Puritans who settled New England in the 17th century.

They were part of a wave of New England farmers who moved to the Northwest Territory in the early 19th century. Most of them came soon after of the completion of the Erie Canal; when they arrived, they faced wild prairie. These New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools, were staunch abolitionists. They were members of the Congregationalist Church or Episcopalians. Early Bureau County, like much of northern Illinois, was culturally continuous with early New England culture. Like so many other areas in the Midwest, this county was on a "line" of the Underground Railroad. There was a "station" at the home of Owen Lovejoy in Princeton, several other locations in the county. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 874 square miles, of which 869 square miles is land and 4.5 square miles is water.

Big Bureau Creek is the main body of water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Princeton have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in February 1996 and a record high of 102 °F was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.48 inches in February to 4.76 inches in August. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,978 people, 14,262 households, 9,605 families residing in the county; the population density was 40.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,720 housing units at an average density of 18.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.2% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 3.0% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 32.8% were German, 13.8% were Irish, 12.1% were English, 9.2% were American, 8.8% were Italian, 7.6% were Swedish, 5.8% were Polish.

Of the 14,262 households, 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families, 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 42.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,692 and the median income for a family was $55,217. Males had a median income of $42,327 versus $29,210 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,103. About 8.6% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. Princeton Spring Valley Charles W. Brooks, U. S. Senator Warren Giles, executive in Baseball Hall of Fame Virgil Fox, concert organist Kathryn Hays, actress Joseph R. Peterson, Illinois state legislator and lawyer Robert Petkoff, actor Eliza Suggs and temperance activist Richard Widmark, actor As part of Yankee-settled Northern Illinois, Bureau County became powerfully Republican for the century following the Civil War.

The only Democrat to carry the county between 1856 and 1988 was Franklin D. Roosevelt during his landslide 1932 victory, although Progressive Theodore Roosevelt did carry the county during the 1912 election when the GOP was mortally divided. Between 1988 and 2012, the county trended Democratic – Bill Clinton won pluralities in both his elections and Barack Obama won an absolute majority in 2008 and nearly did so in 2012 – however concern with lack of employment opportunities in the Rust Belt led to a powerful swing toward Donald Trump in 2016 for the best GOP result since Ronald Reagan’s 1984 landslide. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bureau County, Illinois Specific GeneralUS Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles US Board on Geographic Names US National Atlas Official website

Scouting and Guiding in Nauru

Nauru is one of 35 countries where Scouting exists but where there is no national Scout organisation, yet a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Scouting in Nauru is tied to Scouts Australia, to Scouts in Geelong, Victoria, a port with which Nauru does much trading. Relationships between the Geelong Scouts and the Nauruan Scouts date back to the 1930s, continue into modern times. Although Nauru does have a Guiding organisation, work towards World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts membership recognition remains unclear; the Nauru Scouting organisation was approved by the Melbourne Scout Headquarters. As of December 1937, more one eighth of the island's population were Scouts. Scouting began in Nauru due to concerns over a decline in physical activity due to the ease of life brought about by the discovery of phosphate. In 1982, Nauru printed a miniature sheet of stamps commemorating the Year of the Scout. One of the first records of interaction between the Nauruan Scouts and the Geelong Scouts is of the 1934 Jamboree, where members from both groups camped next to each other.

Harold Hurst, former leader of the Geelong Scouts of Frankston, was a driving force in establishing ties between the two groups, having provided transportation and education for visiting Nauruan Scouts. In the 1930s, the Geelong Scouts collected books to send to Nauru; as of 1936, the Nauru Scout organisation had a library of 1000 volumes. As as May 2013, Scouts from Nauru have visited Scouts from Geelong. Scouting portal Some information about sections, etc

Battle of Texel

The naval Battle of Texel or Battle of Kijkduin took place off the southern coast of island of Texel on 21 August 1673 between the Dutch and the combined English and French fleets. It was the last major battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, itself part of the Franco-Dutch War, during which Louis XIV of France invaded the Republic and sought to establish control over the Spanish Netherlands. English involvement came about because of the Treaty of Dover, secretly concluded by Charles II of England, and, unpopular with the English Parliament; the overall commanders of the English and Dutch military forces were Lord High Admiral James, Duke of York, afterwards King James II of England, Admiral-General William III of Orange, James' son-in-law and a future King of England. Neither of them took part in the fight. Prince Rupert of the Rhine commanded the Allied fleet of about 92 ships and 30 fireships, taking control of the centre himself, with Jean II d'Estrées commanding the van, Sir Edward Spragge the rear division.

The Dutch fleet of 75 ships and 30 fireships was commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral-General Michiel de Ruyter, with Lieutenant-Admirals Adriaen Banckert in charge of the van and Cornelis Tromp the rear. The Dutch were disadvantaged due to their warships being on the average smaller than both their English and French opponents; the Battle of Texel was joined when a Dutch fleet sought to oppose the landing of troops by a combined Anglo-French fleet. De Ruyter first decided not to leave his defensive position in the Schooneveld, from which he had engaged the allied fleet in the double Battle of Schooneveld; however the Dutch Spice Fleet was returning from the Indies, filled with precious cargo. With half the country under French occupation for a year, the Dutch Republic's finances were in disastrous straits; the Dutch could not afford to lose the wealth the Spice Fleet was bringing, let alone allow it to be captured by the enemy. As such stadtholder William ordered De Ruyter to seek to engage the enemy.

Although outnumbered, De Ruyter gained the weather gauge and sent his van under Adriaen Banckert in to separate the Allied van from the main fleet. His ploy was effective, the French ships were unable to play a significant part in the remainder of the battle, which became a gruelling encounter between the bulk of the Dutch fleet and the English centre and rear divisions. Both suffered badly during hours of fierce fighting. Spragge and Tromp, commanding their respective rear divisions, clashed – Spragge had publicly sworn an oath in front of King Charles that this time he would either kill or capture his old enemy Tromp – each having their ships so damaged as to need to shift their flags to fresh ships three times. On the third occasion, Spragge drowned when his boat sank; because of Spragge's preoccupation with duelling Tromp, the English centre had separated from the rear, clashing with the Dutch centre under De Ruyter and Lieutenant-Admiral Aert Jansse van Nes. The fight raged for hours, due to turnings of the wind each side gaining or losing the advantage of the weather gauge.

Banckert managed to disengage from the French and joined the Dutch centre, upon which Rupert decided to move north to the rear squadron to prevent that he would have to fight a superior Dutch force, followed by De Ruyter with the mass of his ships. The fight focused on an attempt by the Dutch to capture Spragge's isolated flagship, the Prince, which in the end failed. With both fleets exhausted, the English abandoned their attempt to land troops, both sides retired. No major ship was sunk, but many were damaged and about 3,000 men died: two-thirds of them English or French. After the battle Prince Rupert complained that the French had not done their share of the fighting, but historians ascribe the lack of French impact on the battle to de Ruyter's brilliant fleet handling, it is true however that Count d'Estrées had strict orders from Louis XIV not to endanger the French fleet, as he himself admitted after the battle. Despite its inconclusive finish, the battle was a clear strategic victory for the Dutch.

The Spice Fleet arrived safely. In the months following, the Netherlands formed a formal alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire; the threat posed by German and Spanish invasions from the south and east forced the French to withdraw from the territory of the Republic. The Third Anglo-Dutch War came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Westminster between the English and the Dutch in 1674. Fourteen years the Glorious Revolution, which saw Stadtholder William III ascend the throne of England, put an end to the Anglo-Dutch conflicts of the 17th century. Only in 1781 would the Dutch and British fleets fight each other again in the battle of Dogger Bank.? John Winkler White Squadron: 30 SOLs about 1828 guns 27 SOLs from the previous battle, plus 3 new ones: Royale Therese 80 - RA Marquis de Martel Pompeux 70 Diamant 60 Media related to Battle of Texel at Wikimedia Commons

1952–53 British Home Championship

The 1952–53 British Home Championship was a football tournament played between the British Home Nations throughout the 1952–53 season. The tournament saw a last minute goal by Lawrie Reilly in the final game at Wembley which salvaged a draw and thus a share in the trophy for Scotland. England were the other winners whilst both Wales and Ireland played well in a competitive competition. England began with a draw against a combative Irish team in a game which finished 2–2; the Scots however were able to narrowly beat Wales in Cardiff, taking the lead after the first round. In the second games and Ireland played another score draw, keeping both sides tournament hopes alive, albeit behind England, who comprehensively beat Wales in their game; the final matches saw a battling Wales side defeat the Irish in Belfast, ending Ireland's lively hopes for the trophy and gaining some pride in the two points necessary to match Ireland. England and Scotland played out the final match knowing that the winner would take the trophy, but that a draw would share it between them as goal difference was not yet used to determine position.

A hotly contested game looked to be going England's way until the 90th minute when Reilly's late goal, his second of the game, gave half the trophy to Scotland. Guy Oliver; the Guinness Record of World Soccer. Guinness. ISBN 0-85112-954-4

South Green Historic District (Hartford, Connecticut)

The South Green Historic District encompasses a predominantly 19th-century residential area near the South Green of Hartford, Connecticut. This area features a variety of residences in both high and common styles, from the elaborate home of armsmaker Samuel Colt to multi-unit apartment houses, many of which were built between about 1860 and 1900; the district is triangular, extending from South Green along Main Street and Wethersfield Avenue to include Morris and Alden Streets. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. What is now the South Green, south of downtown Hartford at Main Street and Maple Avenue, was allocated as common pasture land by the city in 1642; the home of early political leader George Wyllys stood nearby, that family's prominence in the area gave Wyllys Street its name. In 1850, Solomon Porter led a push to increase development in this area, in 1854 the city boundary was moved south. Wethersfield Avenue was built with large Italianate homes in brick, for wealthier buyers, while the side streets were built out with more modest single and multifamily residences.

Most of the construction in the early 20th century was apartment blocks. Non-residential buildings in the district include three churches, a small number of commercial buildings, a modest number of small light industrial buildings; the district is bordered by three other historic districts: the Colt Industrial District to the east, Charter Oak Place to the north, Congress Street to the west. Listed properties within the district include Armsmear, the National Historic Landmark home of armsmaker Samuel Colt, the Henry Barnard House, home to 19th-century educator Henry Barnard and a National Historic Landmark, the Day-Taylor House. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hartford, Connecticut

The Game (treasure hunt)

The Game is a non-stop 24- to 48-hour treasure hunt, puzzlehunt or road rally that has run in the San Francisco Bay and Seattle areas. Its teams use vans rigged with power and Internet access and drive hundreds of miles from puzzle site to puzzle site, overcoming outrageous physical and mental challenges along the way with no sleep. Teams in games have been required to walk around the roof of the Space Needle, find a puzzle hidden in a live rat, circulate a petition to ban dihydrogen monoxide from local ecosystems while dressed in superhero outfits. Game founder Joe Belfiore has described the Game as "the ultimate test for Renaissance men and women." The earliest roots of The Game can be found in games created in Los Angeles in 1973 by a graphic designer named Donald Luskin and longtime friend, Patrick Carlyle. Teams competed all night long solving puzzles across L. A. for a $100 first prize. The game was a underground affair, but drew the attention of the Los Angeles Times, and the Walt Disney Company, who produced a movie, Midnight Madness, based on Luskin's game.

In 1985 Joe Belfiore and his friends, inspired by Midnight Madness, created a race like the one in the film. They played four more games. With Stanford classmates Eli Ben-Shoshan and Andrew Reisner, he created the Bay Area Race Fantastique which occurred six times before changing its name to'The Game'. There are some interesting notes about the initial BARFs and number of teams that completed them due to the hyper-competitive aspect of the BARF format; the term "Gentleman's Game" was used to describe the Stanford Game shortly after Joe Belfiore graduated, meaning there was no prize for winning, only bragging rights. Two more events were held in the Bay Area before Joe Belfiore moved to Seattle to work for Microsoft, taking the official "The Game" with him. Structurally, the two Games are identical, but the Seattle Games tend to be more competitive and require more technological gear; the post-Stanford Games were organized in Seattle, Napa/Sonoma, New York, Los Angeles and Las Vegas throughout 1995-2002.

Versions of The Game are organized by Stanford dorm staff members as a bonding activity for their residents. Microsoft continues running the "Intern Game" for summer interns, organized by Stanford Alums employed at Microsoft; the general structure of The Game is a series of puzzle challenges called "Clues". Each challenge solves to the location. During the course of The Game, a team will travel all around a metropolitan area. There is an overall theme to the clues, or a story that ties all the clues together; the next Game each year would be run by whatever team felt the ability and desire to do so. In the early days of BARF and in the subsequent Seattle Games, the first-right-of-refusal fell to the team who won the previous Game. Future Game Controls in the Bay Area tended to rely on the expertise of previous GCs and the so-called legitimacy of owning the "Captain's List". In the Bay Area there is no "Central System" or "Central Ownership" per se, but rather an autonomous collective of Gamers and a group-moderated site.

As the Game grew, it became more high-tech and more psychological in nature, a result of each Game trying to "outdo" the previous Games. For instance, a team member might find themselves stripped of all clothes and spectacles, be dressed in nothing but a hospital gown, have the next puzzle be written on the back of their neck in reverse lettering, be deposited at a strip club. Teams became competitive and would break the rules and mislead other teams in order to gain an advantage, much to the fellow participants' and organizers' displeasure; such teams can become blacklisted by the community at large and no longer find themselves invited to future Games. This nature of self-policing prevents out-of-control teams from destroying the elaborate events; the Game culture has spawned several spinoffs in the Bay Area, including the Bay Area Treasure Hunt, Bay Area Night Game, Park Challenge, The Iron Puzzler. There have been several spinoffs in other parts of North America as well. There are three yearly games in New York City that are similar to The Game: Midnight Madness, The Haystack, The Great All Nighter.

There is a yearly game in Hot Springs, Arkansas called Midnight Madness. Midnight Madness Brevard puts on events many times a year in Brevard County, Florida. Midnight Madness Vermont hosts MMVT events several times a year as well. In 2009, the first multicity Game was coordinated by Deborah Goldstein. Different Area Same Hunt, or DASH, the Game featured puzzles created by teams in Boston, MA, Washington, DC, Houston, TX, Los Angeles, CA, Palo Alto and San Francisco, CA, Portland, OR, Seattle, WA. DASH was played in all 8 cities simultaneously. Since 2009, DASH has occurred several times, continues to create and unite game communities in collaborative, realtime games. Several new Games have appeared with modified formats, including the Black Letter Game in which the emphasis is on puzzles embedded in physical artifacts that are mailed to players on a monthly basis. No travel is required. During the 1999 Game, a bottle of bright green liquid was found at a game location in the New York City World Trade Center by a Marriott Hotel emp