Bureau of Indian Affairs

The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U. S. Department of the Interior, it is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian Tribes and Alaska Natives. The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the assistant secretary for Indian affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to 48,000 Native Americans; the BIA’s responsibilities included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health and Welfare, it is now known as the Indian Health Service. Located in Washington, D. C. the BIA is headed by a bureau director. The current assistant secretary is Tara Sweeney; the BIA oversees 573 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices: Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian self-determination, Indian Reservation Roads Program.

Office of Justice Services: directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS; the office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, Program Management. The OJS provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested, it operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, Law Enforcement. Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands and resources; the Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices. Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.

S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, the U. S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade" within the War Department, charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade; the post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822; the government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade. The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U. S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C.

Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun; the BIA's goal to protect domestic and dependent nations, was reaffirmed by the 1831 court case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia; the Supreme Court refused to hear the case, because the Cherokee nation was not an independent state and could not litigate in the federal court. It was not until the court case Worcester v. Georgia, when Chief Justice John Marshall allowed Native American tribes to be recognized as "domestic dependent nations." These court cases set precedent for future treaties, as more Native tribes were recognized as domestic and dependent nations. This period was encompassed by the removal of Native Nations. In 1833 Georgians fought for the removal of the Cherokee Nation from the state of Georgia. Despite the rulings of Worcester v. Georgia, President Monroe and John C. Calhoun created a plan for removal.

The removal of the Cherokee Nation occurred in 1838 and was accompanied by the Treaty of 1846. When reparations from the treaty were unfulfilled, the Senate Committee on the Indian Affairs made the final settlement in 1850; this settlement, "supported the position of the Cherokee that the cost of maintaining the tribesman during their removal and the years upkeep after their arrival West should be paid by the federal government, the expense of the removal agents should be paid as well." In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, such as the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. With an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages and cultures, these schools educated to European-American culture.

Another example of assimilation and Euro-Ameri

Armagh GAA

The Armagh County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Armagh GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, is responsible for Gaelic games in County Armagh. The county board is responsible for the Armagh inter-county teams. Armagh's county colours are White, they wore black and amber striped shirts until 1926 when Dominican nuns from Omeath, in County Louth knitted the team a pair of Orange and White kits ahead of a Junior clash with Dublin which they have kept since. Armagh has a long tradition of football. Several clubs were in existence before the formation of the County Board in 1889. Armagh became only the second team to win the Ulster Senior Football Championship in 1890. In the early years of the GAA, a club that won its county championship went on to represent the county and would wear the county colours. Armagh Harps represented Armagh in the Ulster final, beating Tyrone, but losing to All-Ireland Champions Cork in the All-Ireland Semi-Final. Despite early success at provincial level, national success at junior and minor level and All-Ireland final appearances in 1953 and 1977, it took until 2002 for Armagh to win their first and only All-Ireland Senior Football Championship under manager Joe Kernan.

The county won the All-Ireland Minor Football Championship, in 1949 and again in 2009, but lost the 1957 All-Ireland Minor final to Meath. After a disappointing 2009 campaign which resulted in Armagh being defeated by Tyrone, Peter McDonnell stepped down as Armagh manager, he was replaced by Paddy O'Rourke, from the neighbouring county of Down. Paddy O'Rourke was replaced by Paul Grimley who managed Armagh for the 2014 seasons. In 2015 Kieran McGeeney took over as manager in a five year contract, extended by a year in 2019 to 2020. Joe Kernan is regarded as Armagh's most successful manager having won one League title, four Ulster Championships and one All Ireland Championship. Peter McDonnell was appointed Armagh managed for the 2007-2009 seasons. During his time as Armagh manager, McDonnell won one Ulster Championship. Paddy O'Rourke was appointed Armagh manager between 2010 and 2012. During this time Paddy O'Rourke won the National Football League Division 2 title. In 2015 Kieran McGeeney took over as manager of Armagh from Paul Grimley who resigned after a 1 point All Ireland quarter final defeat to Donegal in 2014.

In his first season as Armagh manager, McGeeney secured promotion to division 2 of the National Football League and beating Fermanagh in the final - this would be his first of two division 3 NFL titles. In his first Ulster championship as manager, Armagh were defeated by Donegal on a scoreline of 0-8 to 2-11. Armagh's championship continued through the qualifiers where they managed a single win over Wicklow before being defeated by Galway in round 2; the 2016 NFL campaign ended with four teams finishing on the same points but by virtue of having a poor scoring difference Armagh were relegated to division 3. In the 2016 Ulster championship, Armagh were suffered a defeat at the hands of Cavan forcing Armagh to continue their championship through the backdoor which resulted in a defeat to Laois in round 1. Armagh's 2017 NFL campaign ended with Tipperary beating Armagh in the last league game, this defeat resulted in Armagh missing out on promotion back to division 2. In the Ulster championship Armagh went out at the hands of Down.

However, Armagh recovered with wins over Fermanagh, Westmeath and Kildare to book a place in the All Ireland quarter finals where they were defeated by rivals Tyrone. Armagh started the 2018 season with promotion to division 2 but their Ulster championship ended with a loss to Fermanagh in the quarter final. Armagh continued their championship in round 1 of the qualifiers where they beat Westmeath and Clare GAA but were unable to overcome Connacht finalists Roscommon; the 2019 campaign started off with Armagh securing their division 2 status with two wins and two draws. Armagh's 2019 Ulster championships started of with a quarter final win against rivals Down which would be Kieran McGeeney's first win in Ulster as manager of Armagh. Cavan and Armagh were inseparable in the first game but Cavan took the victory in the replay. In the qualifiers Armagh were pitted against Monaghan winning the game 2-17 to 1-12. In round 3 of the qualifiers Armagh were drawn against Mayo who would defeat the Orchard county by a single point.

All-Ireland Senior Football Championships: 1 All-Ireland Under-21 Football Championships: 1 All-Ireland Minor Football Championships: 2 All-Ireland Junior Football Championships: 1 National Football Leagues: 1 Ulster Senior Football Championships: 14 1890, 1903, 1950, 1953, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 Ulster Under-21 Football Championships: 3 1998, 2004, 2007 Ulster Minor Football Championships: 11 1930, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1961, 1968, 1992, 1994, 2005, 2009 Ulster Junior Football Championships: 6 1925, 1926, 1935, 1948, 1951, 1985 Dr. McKenna Cup: 9 1929, 1931, 1938, 1939, 1949, 1950, 1986, 1990, 1994 Dr Lagan Cups: 1954, 1955, 1956 Armagh has a total of 24 All Star awards. 1972: P. Moriarty 1977: Joe Kernan, J. Smyth, P. Moriarty 1980: Colm McKinstry 1982: Joe Kernan 1993: Ger Houlahan 1999: Kieran McGeeney, Diarmuid Marsden 2000: Kieran McGeeney, Oisín McConville 2002: Enda McNulty, Aidan O'Rourke, Kieran McGeeney, Paul McGrane, Stevie McDonnell, Oisín McConville 2003: Francie Bellew, Stevie McDonnell 2005: Andy Mallon, Paul McGrane, Stevie McDonnell 2006: Rónán Clarke 2008: Rónán Clarke Squad as per Armagh vs Roscommon, 2018 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Like

NLS (computer system)

NLS, or the "oN-Line System", was a revolutionary computer collaboration system developed in the 1960s. Designed by Douglas Engelbart and implemented by researchers at the Augmentation Research Center at the Stanford Research Institute, the NLS system was the first to employ the practical use of hypertext links, the mouse, raster-scan video monitors, information organized by relevance, screen windowing, presentation programs, other modern computing concepts, it was funded by ARPA, NASA, the U. S. Air Force. Douglas Engelbart developed his concepts while supported by the US Air Force from 1959 to 1960 and published a framework in 1962; the strange acronym, NLS was an artifact of the evolution of the system. His first computers were not able to support more than one user at a time. First was the CDC 160A in 1963, which had little programming power of its own; as a stopgap measure, the team developed a system where off-line users — that is, anyone not sitting at the one terminal available — could still edit their documents by punching a string of commands onto paper tape with a Flexowriter.

Once the tape was complete an off-line user would feed into the computer the paper tape on which the last document draft had been stored, followed by the new commands to be applied, the computer would print out a new paper tape containing the latest version of the document. Without interactive visualization, this could be awkward, since the user had to mentally simulate the cumulative effects of their commands on the document text. On the other hand, it matched the workflow of the 1960s office, since managers would give marked-up printouts of documents to secretaries; the design continued to support this "off-line" workflow, as well as an interactive "on-line" ability to edit the same documents. To avoid two acronyms starting with the same letter, the Off-Line Text System was abbreviated FLTS, while the On-Line Text System was abbreviated NLTS; as the system evolved to support more than just text, the "T" was dropped, the interactive version became known as NLS. Robert Taylor, who had a background in psychology, provided support from NASA.

When Taylor moved to the Information Processing Techniques Office of the US Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency, he was able to provide more funding to the project. In 1965, NLS development moved to a CDC 3100. Jeff Rulifson joined SRI in 1966 and became the lead programmer for NLS until he left in 1973. NLS development moved to a Scientific Data Systems SDS 940 computer running the Berkeley Timesharing System in 1968, it had an 96 MB storage disk. It could support up to 16 workstations, which were composed of a raster-scan monitor, a three-button mouse, a device known as a chord keyset; the input of typed text was sent from the keyboard to a specific subsystem that relayed the information along a bus to one of two display controllers and display generators. The inputted text was sent to a 5-inch cathode ray tube, enclosed by a special cover, a superimposed video image was received by a professional-quality black-and-white TV camera; the TV camera information was sent to the closed-circuit camera control and patch panel, displayed on each workstation's video monitor.

NLS was demonstrated by Engelbart on December 9, 1968, to a large audience at that year's Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco. This has since been dubbed "The Mother of All Demos", as it not only demonstrated the groundbreaking features of NLS, but involved assembling some remarkable state-of-the-art video technologies. Engelbart's onstage terminal keyboard and mouse was linked by a homemade modem at 2400 baud through a leased line that connected to ARC's SDS 940 computer in Menlo Park, 48 kilometers southeast of San Francisco, two microwave links carried video from Menlo Park back to a massive Eidophor video projector loaned by the NASA Ames Research Center. On a 22-foot-high screen with video insets, the audience could follow Engelbart's actions on his display, observe how he used the mouse, watch as members of his team in Menlo Park joined in the presentation. One of NLS's most revolutionary features, the Journal, was developed in 1970 by Australian computer engineer David A. Evans as part of his doctoral thesis.

The Journal was a primitive hypertext-based groupware program, which can be seen as a predecessor of all contemporary server software that supports collaborative document creation. It was used by ARC members to discuss and refine concepts in the same way that wikis are being used today; the journal was used to store documents for the Network Information Center and early network email archives. Most Journal documents have been preserved in paper form and are stored in Stanford University's archives. An additional set of Journal documents exist at the Computer History Museum, along with a large collection of ARC backup tapes starting from the early 1970s, as well as some of the tapes from the 1960s from the SDS 940; the NLS was implemented using several domain-specific languages implemented with the Tree Meta compiler-compiler. The eventual implementation language was called L10. In 1970 NLS was ported to the PDP-10 computer. By mid-1971 the TENEX implementation of NLS was put into service as the new Network Information Center, but this computer could only handle a small number of simultaneous users.

Access was possible from either custom-built display workstations, or simple typewriter-like terminals, less expensive and more com