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A burette is a graduated glass tube with a tap at one end, for delivering known volumes of a liquid in titrations. It is a long, graduated glass tube, with a stopcock at its lower end and a tapered capillary tube at the stopcock's outlet; the flow of liquid from the tube to the burette tip is controlled by the stopcock valve. There are two main types of burette. A volumetric burette delivers measured volumes of liquid. Piston burettes with a precision bore and a plunger. Piston burettes may be motorized. A weight burette delivers measured weights of a liquid. A burette is a volumetric measuring glassware, used in analytical chemistry for the accurate dispensing of a liquid of one of the reagents in a titration; the burette tube carries graduated marks from which the dispensed volume of the liquid can be determined. Compared to a volumetric pipette, a burette has similar precision if used to its full capacity, but as it is used to deliver less than its full capacity, a burette is less precise than a pipette.

The burette is used to measure the volume of a dispensed substance, but is different from a measuring cylinder as its graduations measure from top to bottom. Therefore, the difference between the starting and the final volume is equal to the amount dispensed; the precision and control of the burette over other means of adding solution is beneficial for use in titration. A volumetric burette can be made of glass or plastic, is a straight tube with a graduation scale. At the tip of burette, there are a valve to control the flow of the chemical solution; the barrel of the stopcock can be made of glass or the plastic PTFE. Stopcocks with glass barrels need to be lubricated with a specialized grease. Burettes are manufactured for specific tolerances, designated as class A or B and this is etched on the glass. In order to measure the amount of solution added in or drained out, the burette must be observed at eye level straight to the bottom of the meniscus; the liquid in the burette should be free of bubbles to ensure accurate measurements.

The difference in volume can be calculated by taking the difference of the final and initial recorded volume. Using the burette with a colorless solution may make it difficult to observe the bottom of the meniscus, so the black strip technique can make it easier to observe and record measurements. Specification or product specification is used as an identification of volumetric burette for example nominal volume, volume unit, error limit, accuracy class of the burette and manufacture's related details. Specification is directly association with the usage of each laboratory equipment including burette. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to understand each of specification in details in order to perform the accurate experiment. Nominal volume and units are the basic knowledge in order to distinguish the amount of solution delivered from the burette in unit of ml or cm3. Another specification for burette is called calibration marked as TD or Ex stand for "Calibration to Deliver", it indicates that this burette is better used to delivery purpose which the amount will be correspond to the volume as specified The accuracy classes of equipment shown in the specification of burette as well and it includes class A and class B.

Class A is more preferred than Class B when volumetric accuracy is important for the accuracy of the experiment with accuracy up to 0.1 percent compared to 0.2 percent in Class B burette. Digital burettes are based on a syringe design; the barrel and plunger may be made of glass. With liquids that corrode glass, including solutions of alkali, the barrel and plunger may be made of polyethylene or another resistant plastic material; the barrel is held in a fixed position and the plunger is moved incrementally either by turning wheel by hand, or by means of a step motor. The volume is shown on a digital display. A high-precision syringe may be used to deliver precise aliquots. Motorized digital burettes may be controlled by a computer; the first burette was invented in 1845 by the French chemist Étienne Ossian Henry. In 1855, the German chemist Karl Friedrich Mohr presented an improved version of Henry's burette, having graduations inscribed on the tube of the burette; the word "burette" was coined in 1824 by the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac.

Using a Burette from ChemLab at Dartmouth College demonstrating how to use a burette Use of the Buret

2006 Shelbourne F.C. season

In the 2006 season, Shelbourne were crowned League of Ireland Premier Division champions. Despite having battled with dire finances for much of the 2006 season due to market risk-taking in the drive for success, over-expenditure on player-purchase fees, high wages, low home attendance rates and continuing tax debts, Shelbourne managed to win the title. However, they had been hit with three winding-up orders by the Revenue Commissioners within a spell of nine months but just about managed to gather enough funds and investment to keep the tax collectors off their backs and keep the club running on each occasion; this was at the expense of the players, who had gone for weeks without their wages and it seemed that the only thing keeping them performing at the club was the season's climax and the drive for the title, as well as promises of a remedy. Once the season came to a close the rot set in and the general public were made aware of the true extent of how poor a state the club were in. Due to the finances, many found it extraordinary that Shelbourne had been awarded a Premier Division licence for 2007 by the Independent Assessment Group a few months earlier.

They saw it as another chance to criticise the lack of transparency within the organisation that appointed the Group who were supposed to dispense licences to clubs who were solvent and financially stable for the foreseeable future - the Football Association of Ireland. The association has been well used to criticism of its administration in the past, but the Group could not have been said to have performed their role effectively. Manager Pat Fenlon tendered his resignation from Shelbourne on 5 December 2006; this was in spite of Shelbourne winning the title on goal difference from Derry City. Fenlon's departure precipitated a widescale exodus from Tolka Park, as players, unhappy with the wage situation, departed to rival clubs - many having their contracts rescinded by law. Manager: Pat Fenlon Assistant Manager: Eamon Collins Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. The following players joined Shelbourne for the 2006 campaign: Shelbourne won 5 - 0 on aggregate OB Odense won 3 - 1 on aggregate As of November 17, 2006

John Perceval, 1st Earl of Egmont

John Perceval, 1st Earl of Egmont, PC, FRS, known as Sir John Perceval, Bt, from 1691 to 1715, as The Lord Perceval from 1715 to 1722 and as The Viscount Perceval from 1722 to 1733, was an Anglo-Irish politician. Perceval was born at Burton, County Cork, the second son of Sir John Perceval, 3rd Baronet, Catherine, daughter of Sir Edward Dering, 2nd Baronet, his great-grandfather was Sir Philip Perceval, who had obtained estates in Ireland and England from his father, Sir Richard Perceval, through the death of his elder brother, Walter. Richard Perceval in 1616 had sold a great part of his ancient patrimony, invested the sum realised in purchases and mortgages in County Cork, thus laying the foundation of the prosperity and property of his family there. Sir Philip had three children by Catherine Ussher: Judith and George. John would become the first Baronet and grandfather to Egmont. John Perceval's father died when he was two, in 1691, he succeeded his elder brother as fifth Baronet; the following year his mother died.

Perceval was educated at Westminster School, at Magdalen College, Oxford. However, he left university without taking a degree. In 1703, he was elected to the Irish House of Commons for County Cork, in 1704 he was admitted to the Irish Privy Council. Perceval was again elected for County Cork in 1713, he sat until 1715, when he was raised to the Peerage of Ireland as Baron Perceval, of Burton in the County of Cork, with remainder to the heirs male of his father. In 1722, he was created Viscount Perceval, of Kanturk in the County of Cork, in the Peerage of Ireland, with remainder to his heirs male. Lord Perceval was elected to the British House of Commons for Harwich in 1727, which constituency he continued to represent until 1734, was a Recorder of Harwich from 1728 to 1734. In 1733, he was further honoured. However, he rejected the offer of a British peerage three times. Apart from his political career, he was a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1728 he became a member of the committee of Parliament investigating prison conditions.

He soon became a close associate of James Oglethorpe. In 1730, the two men were among those who formed an association that became the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America. George II approved a charter for the colony in 1732, making Egmont president of the Georgia Trustees, he and Oglethorpe, working with several other close associates, devised an elaborate plan for settlement of the colony now famously known as the Oglethorpe Plan. He superintended the colonisation of Georgia, withholding ‘neither money, nor influence in his ceaseless efforts to advance what he conceived to be the best interests of the province,’ and keeping with his own hand ‘A Journal of the Transactions of the Trustees,’ &c. the second and third volumes of which have been printed. His diary is an important source on Parliamentary History in the early 1740s. Lord Egmont married Catherine, daughter of Sir Philip Parker, 2nd Baronet, in 1710, they had three sons and four daughters. Only three of the children reached adulthood.

John, who succeeded him as the second Earl of Egmont Catherine, married, on 14 April 1733, to Thomas Hanmer of Fenns, Flintshire Anne, born 12 May 1713, who died an infant Philip Clarke, born 21 June 1714, who died an infant Mary, born 28 December 1716, who died an infant George Helena (died 12 June 1746, married, on 10 November 1741, to Sir John Rawdon, bart.. Lady Egmont died on 22 August 1749. Engravings of Egmont and his wife by Faber, after Hysing and Gouge can be found in vol. ii. of the "Genealogical History of the House of Yvery," opposite pp. 403 and 444. A whole-length portrait of Egmont by Godfrey Kneller was engraved by John Smith. Lord Egmont died in London in May 1748, aged 64, was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest and only surviving son John; the latter's seventh son was Prime Minister Spencer Perceval. Earl of Egmont Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Perceval, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990.

Portrait in the National Portrait Gallery Sir John Percival papers called: The Egmont Papers, 1732-1745. Manuscripts of the Earl of Egmont. Diary of Viscount Percival afterwards first Earl of Egmont

Golani Family

The Golani family were a royal family in Sindh, a province of Pakistan, dating from the 19th century. After the invasion of Sindh by Charles Napier in 1843, the region was divided into many provinces and each of these provinces were assigned to Zamindars to collect taxes for the British East India Company; these Zamindars were known as'Wadaras'. Wadara of Shikarpur was a merchant born in the royal family of Golani. In 1918 his eldest son Shobraj Golani took over as the Landlord of Shikarpur, Jamrao, Tando Jan Mohammed, Ratnabad and Khayrpur. Shobraj Bhagwandas Golani was invited to Great Britain by the King along with all the Nawabs and Maharajahs of India to discuss the participation of their respective provinces in an expansion of the British Empire in the Middle East. Sindh was made part of Bombay Presidency and became a separate province in 1935. Shobraj along with his eldest son Shri Hashmatrai S Golani moved to Bombay in 1947 after the Partition of India; the Family Tree Starts with Golumal.

Jawaharlal was elder son of Golumal and Lekhraj was Elder son of Jawaharmal. The Famous Seth Kushaldas Lekhraj Golani was the son of Lekhraj. Seth Kushal Das had 5 Sons Pribhdas, Vishindas and Tejumal; the Picture below states the Division of Property of Seth Kushal Das amongst his 5 sons Seth Kushaldas and his son Pribhdas had received many Afrin Namas from the British Government. Both of them were granted chairs in the Darbar of the Commissioner in Sind and Collector of Nawabshah; the following is the list of Afrinama His Excellency the Governor of Bombay had presented an Afrin Nama to Seth Kushaldas for good service rendered by him to all departments and in connection with the new Nanlakhi cut. On 25 January 1923 by Collector of Nawabshah gave Afrin Nama to Seth Kushaldas of Taluka Kandiaro in recognition of meritorious service performed by him in giving assistance in repairs to canals Letter of Acknowledgment accompanied by a lungi was given to Seth Kushaldas as evidence of his good service by Robert Giles Commissioner in Sind on 19 January 1899 and 27 July 1902.

On 25 January 1919 Collector of Nawabshah gave Afrin Nama to Seth Kushaldas Lekhraj Golani in Connection with Second Indian War Loan. One of the certificates showing Seth Priphdas Kushaldas Golani granted the privilege of a Chair in the Darbar of the Commissioner in Sind Walter Frank Hudson; this Certificate is signed by Walter Frank Hudson on 13 July 1927 Above is Photograph of Seth Pribhdas Kushaldas Golani The list of such Afrin Namas is endless and original copies are still available with the family members. The family left all its wealth and abandoned its palaces to move to Bombay and Baroda after the Partition of India and Pakistan. In 1950 the Monarchy system was abolished in India. Members of this family are spread throughout the world, it has famous names like Lekhraj Golani, Khusaldas Golani, Bhagwandas Golani, Hashmatrai Golani, Suryakant. B. Golani, Rajender Golani, Ashok Golani, Vivek Golani, Anup Golani, Mamta Golani, Sanjiv Golani, Gaurav Golani, Kshitij Golani, Dinesh Golani and Kushaldas Golani.

The Turban of Kushaldas Golani is still famous among Sindhis. The Sindh Story- by K. R. Malkani Sindh And The Races That Inhabit The Valley Of The Indus - by Richard Burton Sindh Development Institute Government of Sindh website: Early history of Sindh

14th Independent Spirit Awards

The 14th Independent Spirit Awards, honoring the best in independent filmmaking for 1998, were announced on March 20, 1999. It was hosted by Queen Latifah. Regret to Inform Dear Jesse Dying to Tell the Story Moment of Impact Paulina Susan A. Stover – The Sticky Fingers of Time & High Art Margot Bridger – Arresting Gena & The Delta Gill HollandHurricane Streets & Spring Forward Andrea Sperling – Nowhere & The Doom Generation David D. Williams – Thirteen Tony Barbieri – One Lynn Hershman LeesonConceiving Ada Eric Tretbar – Snow ""Affliction" Tops Spirit Award Nominations. IndieWire. 1999-01-08. Retrieved 2012-08-17. "'Gods' a Monster of a Hit at Indie Awards". Los Angeles Times. 1999-03-21. Retrieved 2012-08-17. "An Easy Spirit". Entertainment Weekly. 1999-04-02. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 1998 Spirit Awards at IMDb


The Tauri Scythotauri, Tauri Scythae, Tauroscythae were a people settled on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains in the 1st millennium BC and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea. According to the sources, Taurians lived in Crimean peninsula for the first time and never abandoned its borders, they gave their name to the peninsula, known in ancient times as Taurica and Tauris. Taurians intermixed with the Scythians starting from the end of 3rd century BC, were mentioned as Tauroscythians and Scythotaurians in the works of ancient Greek writers; the Taurians underwent the rule of the Pontic Kingdom in the 2nd century BC. As a result of Roman occupations, Taurians were romanized in the first century AD; the Taurians were subsumed by the Alans and Goths, existed till the 4th century. In his Histories, Herodotus describes the Tauri as living "by plundering and war", they became famous for their worship of a virgin goddess, to whom they sacrificed shipwrecked travellers and waylaid Greeks.

He makes a point of them living in Scythia geographically without themselves being Scythians. In Geographica, Strabo refers to the Tauri as a Scythian tribe; the Greeks identified the Tauric goddess with Artemis Tauropolos or with Iphigeneia, daughter of Agamemnon. The Tauric custom of human sacrifice inspired the Greek legends of Iphigeneia and Orestes, recounted in Iphigeneia in Tauris by the playwright Euripides; the original greek title given by Euripides means Iphigeneia among the taurians. Such place as "Tauris" does not exist. According to Herodotus, the manner of their sacrifice was to beat the head with a club and remove the head. Prisoners of war had their heads removed, the head was put onto a tall pole and placed at their house "in order that the whole house may be under their protection". Although the Crimean coast came to be dominated by Greek colonies, notably the one at Chersonesos, the Tauri remained a major threat to Greek power in the region, they engaged in piracy against ships on mounting raids from their base at Symbolon.

By the 2nd century BC they had become subject-allies of the Scythian king Scilurus. In the 4th century AD, the historian Ammianus Marcellinus, mentioned the names of the 3 tribes of the Taurians known for their "extraordinary severity". Taurians played a major role in the development and settlement of the Kizil-Koban Culture in the 8th-4th century BC. Osmolovsky, who conducted a research in the Krasnaya Cave in 1921, pointed out that the arrowheads and necklaces found in the Cave were owned by the Taurians. There are several evidence that this culture belongs to the Tauris, such as: Firstly, in the written sources of the earlier times than the 2nd century BC, there is no mention of any other society living in the Crimean foothills and mountains apart from the Taurians. Secondly, many artifacts found in Taurians territory and cemeteries were found in the Kizil-Koba sites. Tauri and Scythians European Scythian campaign of Darius I