click links in text for more info


Burgas, sometimes transliterated as Bourgas, is the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the fourth-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Varna, with a population of 202,694 inhabitants, while 277,922 live in its urban area. It is the capital of Burgas Province and an important industrial, transport and tourist centre; the city is surrounded by the Burgas Lakes and located at the westernmost point of the Black Sea, at the large Burgas Bay. The LUKOIL Neftochim Burgas is the largest oil refinery in southeastern Europe and the largest industrial enterprise; the Port of Burgas is the largest port in Bulgaria, Burgas Airport is the second most important in the country. Burgas is the centre of fish processing industry. A similar literal composition have the cities Burgos in Spain and numerous cities containing the Germanic burg "city" such as Hamburg, it is considered, including by the city's official website, that the name of the city is derived from the Latin word "burgos" as meaning a "tower", after a local ancient Roman travel post, which used to be in the area of today's Burgas Port.

15 centuries the settlement was mentioned by the Byzantine poet Manuel Phil as "Pyrgos", a word identical in meaning with the Greek word for tower. The name passed to Bulgarian through the Turkish Burgaz. There are several alternative explanations for the name's origin. By one of them, the city's name comes from Gothic name "baurgs" as meaning "signified consolidated walled villages". According to Bulgarian prof. Kiril Vlahov, the name of the city comes from the Thracian word "pyurg" as meaning "fortification of wooden beams", it is suggested that the name comes from the name of khan Burtaz. Burgas is situated at the westernmost point of the bay by the same name and in the eastern part of the Burgas Plain, in the east of the Upper Thracian Plain. Burgas is located some 389 kilometres from Sofia, 272 km from Plovdiv, 335 km from Istanbul. To the west and north, the city is surrounded by the Burgas Lakes: Burgas and Mandrensko, which are home to several hundred bird species. Pan-European corridor 8 passes through the city, the European routes E87 and E773, the longest national rout I/6.

The St. Anastasia Island is a part of the city. Burgas has a humid subtropical climate but with continental influences; the summertime in Burgas lasts about five months from mid-May until late September. Average temperatures during high season is 24 °C. Summertime sea temperatures stay around 23–24 °C at sunrise and go up to 29–30 °C at dawn, averaging 26 °C. Winters are milder compared with the inland part of the country, with average temperatures of 4–5 °C and below 0 °C during the night. Snow is possible in December, February and in March; the highest temperature was recorded in August 2003, at 42.8 °C and the lowest at −17.8 °C in January 1952. The Burgas Wetlands are recognized for their significance to biodiversity and as a resource pool for products used by people. Lake Burgas is in the middle of the city, it is important for migrating birds. Over 250 species of birds inhabit the lake area, 61 of which are endangered in Bulgaria and 9 globally, attracting keen birdwatchers from all over the world.

The lakes are home to important fish and invertebrates. In the site have been recorded several IUCN Red-Listed species of animals — 5 invertebrates, 4 fish, 4 amphibians, 3 reptiles, 5 birds and 3 mammals. Situated along the second largest migration path of birds in Europe, the Via Pontica, the site is an important stopover and staging site for a large number of water-birds and passerines. Yearly during migration and wintering more than 20,000 waterbirds congregate there; the Atanasovo Lake is one of two salt-water lakes in the Black Sea region and contains rare and representative examples of wetland habitats. It is a hot spot for biodiversity, with many Red-Listed species of animals, it is a well-known bottleneck site for migratory birds, with around 60,000 raptors and 240,000 storks and cranes passing over the site and landing in large numbers for staging. The highest numbers in Europe of migrating White Pelicans, Dalmatian Pelicans, Marsh Harriers and Red-footed Falcons have been recorded here.

Burgas Lake Protected Area Atanasovo Lake Protected Area Mandra Lake Protected Area Poda Protected Area Usungeren Protected Area Chengene Skele Protected Area Strandzha Natural Park Burgas is divided into the following neighbourhoods: With a decision from the Counsel of Ministers in 2009, the villages of Banevo and Vetren were incorporated into Burgas. A new city plan is being considered which will open the city to the sea and includes several residential neighbourhoods and a new highway junction; the earliest signs of life in the region date back 3000 years, to the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. The favorable conditions on the fertile plain, around the sea, have brought people here from early antiquity; the biggest mark was left by the Thracians. This includes their sanctuary at Beglik Tash along the south coast and a burial mound near Sunny Beach, they built the mineral baths of the fortress Tyrsis. Under Darius I became part of the Achaemenid Empire. Greeks from Apollonia built a marketplace to trade with the Thracians, in what is now th

Cyclotomic unit

In mathematics, a cyclotomic unit is a unit of an algebraic number field, the product of numbers of the form for ζn an nth root of unity and 0 < a < n. The cyclotomic units form a subgroup of finite index in the group of units of a cyclotomic field; the index of this subgroup of real cyclotomic units within the full real unit group is equal to the class number of the maximal real subfield of the cyclotomic field. If n is the power of a prime ζan − 1 is not a unit. If n is a composite number, the subgroup of cyclotomic units generated by /with = 1 is not of finite index in general; the cyclotomic units satisfy distribution relations. Let a be a rational number prime to p and let ga denote exp−1. For a≠ 0 we have ∏ p b = a g b = g a. Using these distribution relations and the symmetry relation ζan − 1 = -ζan a basis Bn of the cyclotomic units can be constructed with the property that Bd ⊆ Bn for d | n. Elliptic unit Modular unit Lang, Serge. Cyclotomic Fields I and II. Graduate Texts in Mathematics.

121. Springer Verlag. ISBN 3-540-96671-4. Zbl 0704.11038. Narkiewicz, Władysław. Elementary and analytic theory of numbers. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-51250-0. Zbl 0717.11045. Washington, Lawrence C.. Introduction to Cyclotomic Fields. Graduate Texts in Mathematics. 83. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-94762-0. Zbl 0966.11047

Samuel Der-Yeghiayan

Samuel Der-Yeghiayan is a former United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois. Confirmed in 2003, he is noteworthy for being the first Armenian immigrant federal judge in the United States, he retired from active service in 2018. Der-Yeghiayan was raised in Beirut, Lebanon, he moved to the United States at age 19. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Evangel University in Springfield, Missouri, in 1975, his Juris Doctor from the Franklin Pierce Law Center in Concord, New Hampshire in 1978, he began his legal career as an Honor Law Graduate under the United States Attorney General's Honors Program. He served in various capacities with the Justice Department's Chicago District of Immigration and Naturalization Service, with jurisdiction over the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, including as a trial attorney from 1978 to 1982, district counsel from 1982 to 2000, acting district director from 1986 to 1987. For twenty consecutive years from 1981 to 2000, Der-Yeghiayan received Outstanding Performance Ratings as a U.

S. Justice Department Attorney from different Attorneys General of the United States. In 1986, he received the Frank J. McGarr Award of the Federal Bar Association as the Outstanding Federal Government Attorney in Chicago. In 1998, he received the District Counsel of the Year Award from the Commissioner of the INS and the Attorney General of the United States. From 2000 to 2003, Der-Yeghiayan served as an immigration judge in the Department of Justice Executive Office for Immigration Review, he was nominated by President George W. Bush on March 5, 2003, for the district court seat vacated by Marvin E. Aspen, was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on July 14, 2003, he received his judicial commission on July 15, 2003. He retired on February 17, 2018. During his years on the federal bench, Der-Yeghiayan has presided over several high-profile cases, including terrorism related cases. In October 2017, Der-Yeghiayan sentenced Abdella Ahmad Tounisi to a 15-year prison term, the statutory maximum, for seeking to join a terrorist group..

In January 2017, Der-Yeghiayan found that a lesbian nursing home resident could not sue its management under the Fair Housing Act for discriminatory harassment she suffered from other residents. That judgment was reversed by the unanimous United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in August 2018. Der-Yeghiayan presided over several other notable cases: Wallace v. City of Chicago, 472 F. Supp.2d 942. Gowder v. City of Chicago, 923 F. Supp.2d 1110. United States v. Firishchak, 426 F. Supp.2d 780. Life Center, Inc. v. City of Elgin, Ill. 993 F. Supp.2d 863. Judge Der-Yeghiayan met his wife, Becky, at Evangel University, they have two children and three grandchildren. They attend an Assemblies of God church. Department of Justice resumé Evangel press release announcing federal judge confirmation Samuel Der-Yeghiayan at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Hirschfeld Eddy Foundation

The Hirschfeld-Eddy Foundation was founded in Berlin in June 2007. It is a foundation focused on human rights of lesbian, gay and transgender people; the Foundation's name remembers two personalities who are important for the worldwide struggle for the Human Rights of gay people: Dr Magnus Hirschfeld, after the German physician, sexual reformer and civil rights activist and FannyAnn Eddy, the prominent lesbian human rights activist from Sierra Leone, murdered in 2004. The initiative came from the Gay Federation in Germany. LSVD is one of three gay and lesbians organisation, formally granted consultative status at the United Nations in 2006 and is giving organizational support for the Foundation; the purpose of the foundation is "to foster respect for the human rights of lesbians, gays and transgender people, contribute to international human rights advocacy, provide active support to human rights defenders, promote awareness-raising and dismantle prejudices." The combination of the names of the "founding father of the gay rights movement in Germany" and the modern-day "human rights activist" and Martyr from Africa reflects that the struggle for the human rights of lesbians, gays and transgender people began in Europe but is now being waged in every continent of the world.

Human rights for LGBT people is a global issue. "The work which began in 1897 with Magnus Hirschfeld, who established the world's first homosexual rights organization, is now being carried forward by countless people on every continent – at great personal risk. The Hirschfeld-Eddy Foundation aims to raise awareness of, counteract, this threat to human rights advocates through international publicity campaigns; the name of FannyAnn Eddy symbolizes this brave dangerous struggle against oppression which puts the lives of those involved at risk." Boris Balanetkii, Executive Director of Information Center GenderDoc-M, Moldova. LGBT rights in Germany List of LGBT rights organisations The Hirschfeld-Eddy Foundation Article on gay news platform about the Foundation Social Times about the Foundation about the Foundation

Saltair (Utah)

Saltair The SaltAir, Saltair Resort, or Saltair Pavilion, is the name, given to several resorts located on the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah, United States, about fifteen miles from Salt Lake City. The first Saltair, completed in 1893, was jointly owned by a corporation associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Salt Lake & Los Angeles Railway, constructed for the express purpose of serving the resort. Saltair was not the first resort built on the shores of the Great Salt Lake, but was the most successful built, it was designed by well-known Utah architect Richard K. A. Kletting and rested on over 2,000 posts and pilings, many of which remain and are still visible over 110 years later. Saltair was a family place, intended to provide a safe and wholesome atmosphere with the open supervision of Church leaders. While some of the other resorts in the area were seen as "spiritually bleak", a young courting Mormon couple could visit Saltair without worrying about gossip.

Trains left from Salt Lake City every 45 minutes, so long as the boy got the girl home at a reasonable time after the train arrived, parents weren't worried – in part because, from the moment of arriving at the station before the outing until they left the station coming home, they were never out of sight of trusted members of the community. More than once, a couple on the way home found themselves in the same car as their parents, who themselves had been dancing at Saltair. Intended from the beginning as the Western counterpart to Coney Island, Saltair was one of the first amusement parks, for a time was the most popular family destination west of New York; the church sold the resort in 1906. The first Saltair pavilion and a few other buildings were destroyed by fire on April 22, 1925. A new pavilion was built and the resort was expanded at the same location by new investors, but several factors prevented the second Saltair from achieving the success of its ancestor; the advent of motion pictures and radio, the Great Depression, the interruption of the "go to Saltair" routine kept people closer to home.

With a huge new dance floor – the world's largest at the time – Saltair became more known as a dance palace, the amusement park becoming secondary to the great traveling bands of the day, such as Glenn Miller. Though Saltair showed motion pictures, there were other theaters more convenient to town. In addition, the first Saltair had benefited from its location on the road from Salt Lake City to the Tooele Valley and to Skull Valley, which in the late 1800s was home to Iosepa, a large community of Polynesian Mormons. Being near a major intersection, Saltair served as the first major facility on the road, making it a popular resting area for those travelling by horseback or wagon; when Saltair was rebuilt, this traffic was all but gone. Part of the reason was the advent of automobiles and train service to the Tooele Valley, but the other cause was the abandonment of Iosepa, as Polynesians went to homes in the Salt Lake Valley or the community forming around the new LDS Temple in Laie, on Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

Saltair thus had to survive against strong competition, in a dwindling market. Disaster struck in 1931, in the form of a fire that caused over $100,000 in damage again in 1933 as the resort was left high and dry when lake waters receded. Saltair was forced to close during the Second World War, which forced the rationing of fuel and other resources while it took many of the resort's paying customers – and vital employees – out of Utah. Reopening after the war, the resort found the same situation. There were so many other entertainment options, closer to home, the public was no longer in the habit of going "all the way out there"; the resort closed in 1958. Attempts over the next decade to breathe new life into the resort ended in November 1970, when an arson fire was set in the center of the wooden dance floor, destroying the main Saltair pavilion. A previous arson fire in September 1967 had destroyed the concourse, entry gate, concession stands, various other support structures but spared the main building.

Proximity to Interstate 80, plus new population expansion into the Tooele Valley and the western Salt Lake Valley, prompted the construction of a third Saltair in 1981. The new pavilion was constructed out of a salvaged US Air Force aircraft hangar and located a mile west of the original. Once again the lake was this time flooding the new resort only months after it opened; the waters again receded after several years, again new investors restored and repaired and planned, only to discover that the waters continued to move away from the site, again leaving it high and dry. Concerts and other events have been held at the newest facility, but by the end of the 1990s, Saltair was little more than a memory, too small to compete with larger venues that were closer to the public. While there is activity now and through most of the early twenty-first century, the third Saltair was all but abandoned. In 2005 several investors from the music industry pooled together to purchase the building and are now holding regular concerts there.

Bands, DJs such as George Clinton, Green Day, Marilyn Manson, Rob Zombie, Ruth Mendoza, Bob Dylan, The Used, Dave Matthews Band, The Black Crowes, Deadmau5, Tiësto, DJ Baby Anne, Panic! at the Disco, Children Of Bodom, other notable hip-hop music and rock music acts have all pe

Arthur Somers-Cocks, 6th Baron Somers

Arthur Herbert Tennyson Somers-Cocks, 6th Baron Somers, was a British Army officer who served as the 16th Governor of Victoria, in office from 1926 to 1931. He had a long involvement with the Scout Movement, was Chief Scout of the British Empire from 1942 until his death, in succession to Robert Baden-Powell. Somers was born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, the eldest son of Herbert Haldane Somers-Cocks and the former Blanche Clogstoun, his godfather was Lord Tennyson. Somers' father died, he succeeded a distant relative as Baron Somers at the age of twelve. He attended Charterhouse School before going on to Oxford, he was an able cricketer, played 17 first-class games. In 1904, whilst a schoolboy at Charterhouse, he made 115 against Westminster, two years he made his first-class debut for Marylebone Cricket Club against Worcestershire, scoring 0 and 13, he had enough time to play cricket, but in the 1920s he made a further 16 first-class appearances for Worcestershire, his highest score being 52 against Essex in May 1925.

In life he became both a vice-president of Worcestershire County Cricket Club and, in 1936, President of the MCC. In 1906, Somers joined the 1st Regiment of Life Guards of the British Army taking leave to farm in Canada before rejoining his regiment in 1914 at the start of the First World War, he commanded the 6th Battalion of the new Tank Corps in 1918. He was twice wounded, mentioned in despatches, awarded the Military Cross, the Distinguished Service Order, appointed to the French Legion of Honour. Somers was appointed Governor of Victoria in succession to Lord Stradbroke. Aged 39, he was one of the youngest holders of the office, he "had charm and natural gaiety which won him popularity... warm and generous, he had a genuine interest in people, as well as a high sense of duty and leadership... a shrewd and successful governor". A Freemason, he was initiated into Household Brigade Lodge No.2614 under the United Grand Lodge of England some 18 years before he arrived in Victoria, served as the Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of Victoria between 1927 and 1932.

Following the expiry of Lord Stonehaven's term as Governor-General in October 1930, Somers – as the longest serving state governor – was called upon to act as Administrator of the Commonwealth until Sir Isaac Isaacs took office in January 1931. In 1929, at his own expense, Somers brought together teenage boys from different backgrounds in Australia to what was named Lord Somers Camp which continues to this day. Back in England, he was appointed Chief Commissioner of the Boy Scouts in 1932, was deputy Chief Scout from 1935 to 1941, was designated by Lord Baden-Powell, the founder of the Scout Movement, Chief Scout of the World, as his successor as Chief Scout, he was appointed as Chief Scout of the British Empire on the death of Baden-Powell. He served until his death in 1944, he was succeeded by Lord Rowallan. Somers married Daisy Finola Meeking in 1921 and had issue, an only daughter: Hon. Elizabeth Violet Virginia Somers Cocks, who married Major Benjamin Alexander Frederick Hervey-Bathurst, 2nd son of Sir Frederick Edward William Hervey-Bathurst, 5th Baronet.

Arthur Somers-Cocks, 6th Baron Somers at CricketArchive Arthur Somers-Cocks, 6th Baron Somers at ESPNcricinfo