Burger King is an American multinational chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. Headquartered in the unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County, the company was founded in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida–based restaurant chain. After Insta-Burger King ran into financial difficulties in 1954, its two Miami-based franchisees David Edgerton and James McLamore purchased the company and renamed it "Burger King". Over the next half-century, the company changed hands four times, with its third set of owners, a partnership of TPG Capital, Bain Capital, Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, taking it public in 2002. In late-2010, 3G Capital of Brazil acquired a majority stake in the company, in a deal valued at US$3.26 billion. The new owners promptly initiated a restructuring of the company to reverse its fortunes. 3G, along with partner Berkshire Hathaway merged the company with the Canadian-based doughnut chain Tim Hortons, under the auspices of a new Canadian-based parent company named Restaurant Brands International.
The 1970s were the "Golden Age" of the company's advertising, but beginning in the early-1980s Burger King advertising began losing focus. A series of less successful advertising campaigns created by a procession of advertising agencies continued for the next two decades. In 2003, Burger King hired the Miami-based advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky, which reorganized its advertising with a series of new campaigns centered on a redesigned Burger King character nicknamed "The King", accompanied by a new online presence. While successful, some of CP+B's commercials were derided for perceived sexism or cultural insensitivity. Burger King's new owner, 3G Capital terminated the relationship with CP+B in 2011 and moved its advertising to McGarryBowen, to begin a new product-oriented campaign with expanded demographic targeting. Burger King's menu has expanded from a basic offering of burgers, French fries and milkshakes to a larger and more diverse set of products. In 1957, the "Whopper" became the first major addition to the menu, it has become Burger King's signature product since.
Conversely, Burger King has introduced many products. Some of these failures in the United States have seen success in foreign markets, where Burger King has tailored its menu for regional tastes. From 2002 to 2010, Burger King aggressively targeted the 18–34 male demographic with larger products that carried correspondingly large amounts of unhealthy fats and trans-fats; this tactic would damage the company's financial underpinnings, cast a negative pall on its earnings. Beginning in 2011, the company began to move away from its previous male-oriented menu and introduce new menu items, product reformulations and packaging, as part of its current owner 3G Capital's restructuring plans of the company; as of December 31, 2018, Burger King reported. Of these, nearly half are located in the United States, 99.7% are owned and operated, with its new owners moving to an entirely franchised model in 2013. Burger King has used several variations of franchising to expand its operations; the manner in which the company licenses its franchisees varies depending on the region, with some regional franchises, known as master franchises, responsible for selling franchise sub-licenses on the company's behalf.
Burger King's relationship with its franchises has not always been harmonious. Occasional spats between the two have caused numerous issues, in several instances, the company's and its licensees' relations have degenerated into precedent-setting court cases. Burger King's Australian franchise Hungry Jack's is the only franchise to operate under a different name, due to a trademark dispute and a series of legal cases between the two; the predecessor to Burger King was founded in 1953 in Florida, as Insta-Burger King. After visiting the McDonald brothers' original store location in San Bernardino, the founders and owners, who had purchased the rights to two pieces of equipment called "Insta-machines", opened their first restaurants, their production model was based on one of the machines they had acquired, an oven called the "Insta-Broiler". This strategy proved to be so successful that they required all of their franchises to use the device. After the company faltered in 1959, it was purchased by its Miami, franchisees, James McLamore and David R. Edgerton.
They initiated a corporate restructuring of the chain. They ran the company as an independent entity for eight years, before selling it to the Pillsbury Company in 1967. Pillsbury's management tried several times to restructure Burger King during the late 1970s and the early 1980s; the most prominent change came in 1978 when Burger King hired McDonald's executive Donald N. Smith to help revamp the company. In a plan called "Operation Phoenix", Smith restructured corporate business practices at all levels of the company. Changes included updated franchise agreements, a broader menu and new standardized restaurant designs. Smith left Burger King for PepsiCo in 1980 shortly before a system-wide decline in sales. Pillsbury's Executive Vice President of Restaurant Operations Norman E. Brinker was tasked with turning the brand around, strengthening its position against its main rival McDonald's. One of his initiatives was a new advertising campaign featuring a series of attack ads against its major competitors.
This campaign started a competitive period between Burger King, McDonald's, top burger chains known as the Burger wars
RAF Turnberry was an airfield in Scotland used by the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Air Force during the First World War, again by the RAF in the Second World War. Between the two wars, the site reverted to its pre-1914 use as hotel, it reverted to this use again after the Second World War. Although there is still a disused landing strip, the site is now the Trump Turnberry. During the First World War, the base housed No. 1 School of Aerial Fighting. The school merged with No. 2 School of Air Gunnery, becoming No. 1 School of Aerial Fighting and Gunnery, renamed No. 1 Fighting School on 29 May 1918. It provided pilots with three-week courses in the arts of aerial combat, it was disbanded on 25 January 1919. The Turnberry Hotel was used during the war as a hospital for the wounded. After the war, courses 1 and 2 were rebuilt and renamed "Ailsa" and "Arran". A memorial to honour lost airmen was erected on the hill overlooking the 12th green of Ailsa and still remains; the cycle was repeated for World War II.
The hotel was commissioned as a hospital, the golf courses were seconded for air training for the Royal Air Force. Coastal Command based Consolidated Liberators there for anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic; the base was used for training Bristol Beaufighter and Bristol Beaufort crews. Testing of Barnes Wallis's "Highball" bouncing bomb was performed by 618 Squadron, flying from Turnberry; the hotel was used a Royal Navy hospital. It is thought; the Ayrshire airfield that helped shape the fledgling RAF Alison Campsie, The Scotsman, 31 March 2018
A field guide is a book designed to help the reader identify wildlife or other objects of natural occurrence. It is designed to be brought into the'field' or local area where such objects exist to help distinguish between similar objects. Field guides are designed to help users distinguish animals and plants that may be similar in appearance but are not closely related, it will include a description of the objects covered, together with paintings or photographs and an index. More serious and scientific field identification books, including those intended for students, will include identification keys to assist with identification, but the publicly accessible field guide is more a browsable picture guide organized by family, shape, location or other descriptors. Popular interests in identifying things in nature were strongest in bird and plant guides; the first popular field guide to plants in the United States was the 1893 How to Know the Wildflowers by "Mrs. William Starr Dana". In 1890, Florence Merriam published describing 70 common species.
Focused on living birds observed in the field, the book is considered the first in the tradition of modern, illustrated bird guides. In 1902, now writing as Florence Merriam Bailey, she published Handbook of Birds of the Western United States. By contrast, the Handbook is designed as a comprehensive reference for the lab rather a portable book for the field, it was arranged by taxonomic order and had clear descriptions of species size, distribution and nesting habits. From this point into the 1930s, features of field guides were introduced by Chester A. Reed and others such as changing the size of the book to fit the pocket, including colour plates, producing guides in uniform editions that covered subjects such as garden and woodland flowers, mushrooms and dogs. In 1934, Roger Tory Peterson, using his fine skill as an artist, changed the way modern field guides approached identification. Using color plates with paintings of similar species together – and marked with arrows showing the differences – people could use his bird guide in the field to compare species to make identification easier.
This technique, the "Peterson Identification System", was used in most of Peterson's Field Guides from animal tracks to seashells and has been adopted by other publishers and authors as well. Today, each field guide has its own range and organization. Specialist publishers such as Croom Helm, along with organisations like the Audubon Society, the RSPB, the Field Studies Council, National Geographic, HarperCollins, many others all produce quality field guides, it is somewhat difficult to generalise about how field guides are intended to be used, because this varies from one guide to another depending on how expert the targeted reader is expected to be. For general public use, the main function of a field guide is to help the reader identify a bird, rock, butterfly or other natural object down to at least the popular naming level. To this end some field guides employ simple keys and other techniques: the reader is encouraged to scan illustrations looking for a match, to compare similar-looking choices using information on their differences.
Guides are designed to first lead readers to the appropriate section of the book, where the choices are not so overwhelming in number. Guides for students introduce the concept of identification keys. Plant field guides such as Newcomb's Wildflower Guide have an abbreviated key that helps limit the search. Insect guides tend to limit identification to Order or Family levels rather than individual species, due to their diversity. Many taxa show variability and it is difficult to capture the constant features using a small number of photographs. Illustrations by artists or post processing of photographs help in emphasising specific features needed to for reliable identification. Peterson introduced the idea of lines to point to these key features, he noted the advantages of illustrations over photographs: A drawing can do much more than a photograph to emphasize the field marks. A photograph is a record of a fleeting instant; the artist can edit out, show field marks to best advantage, delete unnecessary clutter.
He can choose position and stress basic color and pattern unmodified by transitory light and shade.... The artist has more options and far more control.... Whereas a photograph can have a living immediacy a good drawing is more instructive. Field guides aid in improving the state of knowledge of various taxa. By making the knowledge of experienced museum specialists available to amateurs, they increase the gathering of information by amateurs from a wider geographic area and increasing the communication of these findings to the specialists. Field Guides from the Encyclopedia of Life