Burglary called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking, is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence. That offence is theft, but most jurisdictions include others within the ambit of burglary. To engage in the act of burglary is to burgle, a term back-formed from the word burglar, or to burglarize. Sir Edward Coke explains at the start of Chapter 14 in the third part of Institutes of the Lawes of England, that the word Burglar, is derived from the words burgh and laron, meaning house-thieves. A note indicates he relies on the Brooke's case for this definition. According to one textbook, the etymology originates from Anglo-Saxon or Old English, one of the Germanic languages. "The word burglar comes from the two German words burg, meaning "house", laron, meaning "thief"."Another suggested etymology is from the Latin word burgare, "to break open" or "to commit burglary", from burgus, meaning "fortress" or "castle", with the word passing through French and Middle English, with influence from the Latin latro, "thief".
The British verb "burgle" is a late back-formation. Ancient references to breaking into a house can be found in the Code of Hammurabi and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Sir Edward Coke, in chapter 14 of the third part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England, describes the felony of Burglary and explains the various elements of the offence, he distinguished this from housebreaking because the night aggravated the offence since the night time was when man was at rest. He described the night as the time when the countenance of a man could not be discerned. In Pleas of the Crown. A Methodical Summary, Sir Matthew Hale classifies Burglary and Arson as offences against the dwelling or habitation. In chapter 16 of the fourth book of the Commentaries on the Laws of England, Sir William Blackstone observes that Burglary "... has always been looked on as a heinous offence: not only because of the abundant terror that it carries with it, but as it is a forcible invasion of that right of habitation..."
After reforms in France lead to the Napoleonic Code being established in 1804. During the 19th Century, English politicians turned their minds to codifying English law. In 1826, Sir Robert Peel was able to achieve some long advocated reforms by codify offences concerning larceny and other property offences as well as offences against the person. Further reforms followed in 1861. Colonial legislatures adopted the English reforms. However, while further Criminal Code reforms failed to progress though the English parliament during the 1880s, other colonies, including Canada, New Zealand and various Australian states codified their criminal law. At common law, burglary was defined by Sir Matthew Hale as: The breaking and entering the house of another in the night time, with intent to commit a felony therein, whether the felony be committed or not. Breaking can be either actual, such as by forcing open a door, or constructive, such as by fraud or threats. Breaking does not require that anything be "broken" in terms of physical damage occurring.
A person who has permission to enter part of a house, but not another part, commits a breaking and entering when they use any means to enter a room where they are not permitted, so long as the room was not open to enter. Entering can involve either physical entry by a person, or the insertion of an instrument to remove property. Insertion of a tool to gain entry may not constitute entering by itself. Note that there must be a breaking and an entering for common-law burglary. Breaking without entry or entry without breaking is not sufficient for common-law burglary. Although listed as an element, the common law required that "entry occur as a consequence of the breaking". For example, if wrongdoers open a window with a pry bar—but notice an open door, which they use to enter the dwelling instead, there is no burglary under common law; the use of the pry bar would not constitute an entry if a portion of the prybar "entered" the residence. Under the instrumentality rule the use of an instrument to effect a breaking would not constitute an entry.
However, if any part of the perpetrator's body entered the residence in an attempt to gain entry, the instrumentality rule did not apply. Thus, if the perpetrators uses the prybar to pry open the window and used their hands to lift the opened window, an "entry" would have taken place when they grasped the bottom of the window with their hands. House includes a temporarily unoccupied dwelling, but not a building used only as a habitation. Night time is defined as hours between half an hour after half an hour before sunrise; this element is expressed as the intent to commit a felony “therein”. The use of the word “therein” adds nothing and does not limit the scope of burglary to those wrongdoers who break and enter a dwelling intending to commit a felony on the premises; the situs of the felony does not matter, burglary occurs if the wrongdoers intended to commit a felony at the time they broke and entered. The common-law elements of burglary vary between jurisdictions; the common-law definition has been expanded in most jurisdictions, such that the building need not be a dwelling or a building in the conventional sense, physical breaking is not necessary, the entry does not need to occur at night, the intent may be to commit any felony or theft.
In Australia, burglary type offences are called unlawful entry with intent if these involve non-residential premises. In Canada and entering i
The Trade Act of 1974 was passed to help industry in the United States become more competitive or phase workers into other industries or occupations. The Trade Act of 1974 created fast track authority for the President to negotiate trade agreements that Congress can approve or disapprove but cannot amend or filibuster; the Act provided the President with tariff and non-tariff trade barrier negotiating authority for the Tokyo Round of multilateral trade negotiations. Gerald Ford was the President at the time; the fast track authority created under the Act was set to expire in 1980, was extended for 8 years in 1979, was renewed again in 1988 until 1993 to allow for the negotiation of the Uruguay Round within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, was again extended to 16 April 1994, a day after the Uruguay Round concluded in the Marrakech Agreement transforming the GATT into the World Trade Organization. It was restored in 2002 by the Trade Act of 2002; the Obama Administration sought renewal for fast track authority in 2012.
It gave the President broad authority to counteract injurious and unfair foreign trade practices. Section 135 of the Act provides for the establishment of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy whose duty is to provide advice and information to the Office of the United States Trade Representative and the Secretary of Labor regarding the U. S.'s negotiating objectives and bargaining positions before the nation enters into trade agreements with foreign countries. LAC is to meet on any trade agreement and provide a report to the President, the Congress, the Office of the USTR at the conclusion of negotiations. Section 201 of the Act requires the International Trade Commission to investigate petitions filed by domestic industries or workers claiming injury or threat of injury due to expanding imports. Investigations must be completed within 6 months. If such injury is found, restrictive measures may be implemented. Action under Section 201 is allowed under the GATT escape clause, GATT Article XIX.
Section 301 was designed to eliminate unfair foreign trade practices that adversely affect U. S. trade and investment in both goods and services. Under Section 301, the President must determine whether the alleged practices are unjustifiable, unreasonable, or discriminatory and burden or restrict U. S. commerce. If the President determines that action is necessary, the law directs that all appropriate and feasible action within the President’s power should be taken to secure the elimination of the practice. A Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the Office of the USTR which must identify a list of "Priority Foreign Countries", those countries judged to have inadequate intellectual property laws; this has been issued every year beginning in 1989 since the enactment of the Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. Trade Expansion Act Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
John Kaefer is a composer for film and the concert stage. Kaefer is a doctoral graduate of The Juilliard School and earned degrees in composition from Yale University and the Eastman School of Music. Kaefer began his professional television music career during his time at The Juilliard School, where he composed the music for the TV mini-series Dance School: Juilliard, he went on to compose the scores for several short films, including To Kill A Bore and They Say It’s Wonderful, In Pursuit of Woody Allen. In 2007, he provided additional music for another short, Room Service, as well as for his first feature film, Mama’s Boy, he began working on ABC’s Good Morning America, co-composing the theme music and the rest of the score until 2012. Kaefer co-composed the music for Good Morning America Weekend Edition. In 2009, Kaefer composed for another short film, Forget Me Not, contributed the theme music for Focus Earth with Bob Woodruff; that year, he composed the thematic music package for ABC’s hour-long news magazine, 20/20.
In 2010, Kaefer composed his second full-length film score for the crime-drama The Rise and Fall of Their American Dream and for another short, Lily of the Feast. He was credited as music programmer and orchestrator for the film One Fall in 2011. In 2012, Kaefer composed for another short, Pandora’s Box, ended his time with Good Morning America and Good Morning America Weekend Edition. In 2013, Kaefer provided the theme music for Primetime: Would You Fall for That?. He scored his first documentary, A Polite Bribe. In 2014, Kaefer worked on the series, the first season of which aired on the Crackle network, he composed the music for his second documentary by Robert Orlando, Silence Patton, the following year in 2015. Kaefer worked on the score for the live-action sequences of Quantum Break, a third-person shooter action game released for the Xbox One on April 5, 2016, he composed the music for the Fullscreen series, Making Moves, which will be released on April 26, 2016, he composed the theme music for The Kidnapping of a Fish, a short set to release in 2016.
As a composer for the concert stage, Kaefer's music has been programmed by The Pacific Symphony, Eighth Blackbird, the Aspen Music Festival Contemporary Ensemble, The Juilliard Orchestra, Symphony In C, The New York Youth Symphony, the Chamber Symphony of New Jersey and The Yale Philharmonia. Kaefer has led performances at venues including Carnegie Hall and Lincoln Center in New York, Wigmore Hall in London, La Schola Cantorum in Paris. In 2000, Kaefer was recipient of the American Academy of Letters' Charles Ives Scholarship; the following year, he received the Morton Gould Composer Award from the ASCAP Foundation. Kaefer received the BMI foundation's Student Composer Award in 2002 and the Pete Carpenter Fellowship in 2006, he was a panelist/advisor to Mike Post for the Pete Carpenter Fellowship from 2007 to 2010. Kaefer has been a guest composer and instructor in the American Composers Orchestra, Film Music Factory Program and is a member and mentor for the Society of Composers and Lyricists.
John Kaefer on IMDb Official website
USS Winooski was a large steamer with powerful guns acquired by the Navy at the end of the American Civil War. She was used by the Navy as a gunboat and served on the U. S. East Coast and the Caribbean Sea. Winooski, a double-ended, sidewheel gunboat, was launched on 30 July 1863 at the Boston Navy Yard. George W. Cooper in command. For the rest of 1865, she conducted tests at New York City. Between April and August 1866, the warship cruised the fishing banks along the coast of Maine and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, she stood out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on the last day of August and set course for the West Indies. She patrolled the Caribbean until a yellow fever epidemic forced her to return to Portsmouth and quarantine late in June 1867. Laid up at the end of the period of quarantine, the ship remained at Portsmouth until 25 August 1868 when she was sold to Mr. John Mullen. United States Navy This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The entry can be found here
Alix Delaporte is a French film director and screenwriter. Delaporte studied at the London School of Economics between 1988 and 1989, in 1993, she obtained a master's degree in contemporary history. During her screenwriting studies at La Fémis from 1999 to 2000, Delaporte worked as a reporter and cameraperson at the CAPA Agency and collaborated on a number of television shows. In 2006, her short film How Do You Brake Going Downhill? was screened at the 63rd Venice International Film Festival, where it won the Silver Lion for Best Short Film. In 2012, her debut feature film Angel & Tony earned three nominations at the 37th César Awards and won newcomer awards for lead actors Clotilde Hesme and Grégory Gadebois, her next film, The Last Hammer Blow, played in competition at the 71st Venice International Film Festival. Romain Paul, who played the son of Clothilde Hesme and Grégory Gadebois' characters, won the Marcello Mastroianni Award for his performance in the film. In 2015, she was part of the jury for the Horizons section of the 72nd Venice International Film Festival.
Alix Delaporte on IMDb
Bang Kruai is a district in the southern part of Nonthaburi Province, central Thailand. The district was named Bang Yai. Due to its size it was difficult to administer, thus in 1917 the northern part was split off as minor district, Bang Mae Nang. In 1921 Bang Mae Nang became a full district. On 19 October 1930 the district was renamed "Bang Kruai", after the geographic shape of district. Kruai is the Thai word for'cone'. On the same date, Bang Mae Nang received the old name of the district, "Bang Yai". Neighboring districts are Bang Yai, Mueang Nonthaburi, the districts Bang Sue, Bang Phlat, Taling Chan, Thawi Watthana of Bangkok, Phutthamonthon; the district is divided into nine sub-districts. Since 2002 Bang Kruai itself has had town status. Plai Bang has had township status since 1999. Sala Klang has had township status since 2008. There another four tambon administrative organizations. Amphoe.com