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Burgos

Burgos is a city of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is most populated municipality of the province of Burgos, it is situated in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the central plateau. The municipality has a population of about 180,000 inhabitants, it forms part of the Camino de Santiago. Founded in 884 by Diego Rodríguez Porcelos, Burgos soon became the leading city of the embryonic County of Castile. 11th century chieftain Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar is connected to the city, as he was born near Burgos and was raised and educated there. In a long-lasting decline since the 17th century, following the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Burgos became the headquarters of the Francoist proto-government. Declared in 1964 as Pole of Industrial Promotion and in 1969 as Pole of Industrial Development, the city has grown since in terms of economic activity. At the regional level, Burgos forms part of an economic axis together with the cities of Valladolid and Palencia.

In 2008, the international Burgos Airport started to offer commercial flights. The Museum of Human Evolution opened here in 2010; the museum features remains of the first hominins in Europe, which lived in this area 750,000-800,000 years ago. The Cathedral of Burgos is a World Heritage Site. Burgos was selected as the "Spanish Gastronomy Capital" of 2013. In 2015 it was named "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. There are several possible origins for the toponymy; when the city was founded, the inhabitants of the surrounding country moved into the fortified village, whose Visigothic name of Burgos signified consolidated walled villages. The city began to be called Caput Castellae. Early humans occupied sites around Burgos as early as 800,000 years ago; when the Romans took possession of what is now the province of Burgos, the site had been a Celtic city. In Roman times, it belonged to Hispania Citerior and to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the 5th century, the Visigoths drove back the Suebi the Berbers occupied all of Castile in the 8th century, though only for a brief period, left little if any trace of their occupation.

King Alfonso III the Great of León reconquered it about the middle of the 9th century, built several castles for the defence of Christendom, extended through the reconquest of lost territory. The region came to be known as Castile, i.e. " castles". Burgos was founded in 884 as an outpost of this expanding Christian frontier, when Diego Rodríguez "Porcelos", count of Castile, governed this territory with orders to promote the increase of the Christian population; the city began to be called Caput Castellae. The county of Castile, subject to the Kings of León, continued to be governed by counts and was extended. In the 11th century, the city became the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Burgos and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. Burgos was a major stop for pilgrims on the French Way the most popular path to Santiago de Compostela and a centre of trade between the Bay of Biscay and the south, which attracted an unusually large foreign merchant population, who became part of the city oligarchy and excluded other foreigners.

Throughout the 13th and 14th centuries, Burgos was a favourite seat of the kings of León and Castile and a favoured burial site. The consejo or urban commune of Burgos was in the hands of an oligarchic class of caballeros villanos, the "peasant knights" of Burgos, who provided the monarchs with a mounted contingent: in 1255 and 1266 royal charters granted relief from taxes to those citizens of Burgos who owned horses and could arm themselves, provided that they continue to live within the city walls; the merchant oligarchy succeeded the cathedral chapter as the major purchasers of land after 1250. A few families within the hermandades or confraternities like the Sarracín and Bonifaz succeeded in monopolising the post of alcalde, or mayor. By the reign of Alfonso X, the exemption of the non-noble knights and religious corporations, combined with exorbitant gifts and grants to monasteries and private individuals, placed great stress on the economic well-being of the realm. In the century following the conquest of Seville on the Moors, Burgos became a testing ground for royal policies of increasing power against the consejo, in part by encouraging the right to appeal from the consejo to the king.

In 1285, Sancho IV added a new body to the consejo which came to dominate it: the jurado in charge of collecting taxes and overseeing public works. The city perceived that danger to its autonomy came rather from an uncontrolled aristocracy during royal minorities: Burgos joined the hermandades of cities that leagued together for mutual protection in 1295 and 1315. In the 14th century, official royal intrusion in city affairs was perceived as a palliative against outbreaks of violence by the large excluded class of smaller merchants and artisans, on whom the tax burden fell; the alguacil was the royal official instituted to judge disagreements. On 9 June 1345, sweeping aside the city gov

Bundeshaus (Bonn)

The Bundeshaus is a building complex in Bonn, which served as the Provisional Parliament House of the Federal Republic of Germany, thus the seat of the German Bundestag and Bundesrat, from 1949 until 1999. The main building, constructed between 1930 and 1933, served as a Pedagogical Academy until the end of the Second World War. After the resolution of the Hauptstadtfrage in 1949 in favor of Bonn, the structure was converted into the provisional seat of the Bundestag and Bundesrat. For over forty years it served as the seat of both constitutional bodies; the Bundeshaus was expanded and renovated numerous times until these institutions were transferred to Berlin after the Hauptstadtbeschluss in 1999, nine years after the German reunification. The parliamentary chamber became the "Internationale Kongresszentrum Bundeshaus Bonn", now known as the "World Conference Center Bonn", in which national and international conferences take place; the southern part of the building is to become the headquarters of the Climate Secretariat of the United Nations as part of the "UN-Campus", including the former Abgeordnetenhochhaus and the office block known as "Langer Eugen".

The Haus der Geschichte provides the opportunity to books guidances and to visit the historical place of the former Bundesrat. Media related to Bundeshaus at Wikimedia Commons History of the Bundeshaus from the World Conference Center Bonn Information about guidances by the Haus der Geschichte

Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil (film)

Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil is a 1997 American crime drama film directed and produced by Clint Eastwood and starring Kevin Spacey and John Cusack. The screenplay by John Lee Hancock was based on John Berendt's 1994 book of the same name and follows the story of an antiques dealer on trial for the murder of a male prostitute; the panoramic tale of Savannah's eccentricities focuses on a murder and the subsequent trial of Jim Williams, a self-made man, art collector, antiques dealer, bon vivant, semi-closeted homosexual. John Kelso, a magazine reporter with one book — Before the Fall — to his name, finds himself in Savannah amid the beautiful architecture and odd doings to write a feature for Town & Country on one of Williams' famous Christmas parties. Kelso is intrigued by Williams from the start, but his curiosity is piqued when he meets the violent, young Billy Hanson, Williams' lover; that night, Hanson is dead, Kelso stays on to cover the murder trial. Along the way he encounters the irrepressible a transgender entertainer.

Between becoming Williams' friend, cuddling up to a torch singer, meeting every eccentric in Savannah, participating in midnight graveyard rituals, helping solve the mysteries surrounding Hanson's murder, Kelso has his hands full. The judge and jury find Williams not guilty, much to the pleasure of Kelso and the witnesses. Williams congratulates Kelso on proving his innocence; as depicted in the book, Williams dies a week after the trial concludes. As he dies on the floor near where Hanson died from his wounds, Williams sees an apparition of the hustler in death momentarily alive; the camera cuts away from the scene, showing both Hanson and Williams dead and only a few feet from each other. Following the funeral and visiting Hanson's grave once more with Minerva, Kelso and the Lady Chablis go off together for a picnic with Uga. Clint Eastwood permitted The Lady Chablis to ad-lib some of her lines, he gave her the nickname the "one-take wonder". James Gandolfini made a cameo appearance as the cook in the two scenes filmed at Clary's.

Several changes were made in adapting the film from the book. Many unused characters were combined into composite ones. John Berendt states at the end of his book: "All the characters in this book are real, but it bears mentioning that I have used pseudonyms for a number of them in order to protect their privacy." To create further distance, several character names in the movie are different than in the book. John Berendt removes himself from the journalistic role, instead using the fictional John Kelso Danny Hansford is named Billy Hanson in the film Lee Adler, a member of the Telfair Museums board, becomes Lorne Atwell George Oliver, the judge in Williams' trial, is now Samuel L. WhiteThe multiple trials were combined into one on-screen trial. Williams' real life attorney, Sonny Seiler, played Samuel L. White, the presiding judge of the trial. Seiler was cast as a juror, but Eastwood persuaded him to take on the role of the judge. "I said,'I'm not an actor,' and Clint said,'Of course you are.

All lawyers are actors, you are one of the best. If you do this for me, I won’t have to hire a dialect coach.'" Seiler's daughter, Bess Thompson, appears in the movie as the "pretty girl" in Forsyth Park who asks if she can have her picture taken with Uga. Advertising for the film became a source of controversy when Warner Bros. used elements of Jack Leigh's famous photograph in the posters without permission, infringing copyright law. While entertaining the role of being the film's director, Clint Eastwood visited Savannah, where the entire film would be shot, in 1996. "I didn't get to know too many people at that time — places — but I did meet some people who knew about the Jim Williams episode. And I met the attorney, Sonny Seiler, very helpful in making everyone understand what the attitude and atmosphere was in Savannah in the 1980s," he said. Principal photography began in spring the following year. Several scenes were filmed around Monterey Square. Jim Williams' Mercer House is located at 429 Bull Street.

Williams' sister, Dorothy Kingery, became the owner of the house after her brother's death. After agreeing to permit filming to take place inside the home, she developed cold feet. "Clint Eastwood came from California the next day," Kingery said. "We talked about my concerns, he addressed those." While most of the scenes were filmed inside the home, the fight and shooting scenes were done in a California studio. John Kelso is shown being welcomed by Mrs. Baxter to the Italianate house at 2 East Taylor Street, the 1880-built former home of Hugh Comer, president of Central of Georgia Railroad, on the square's northeastern ward. Kelso does not stay there in the movie, however. Kelso's six-month rental, shown at the end of the film, is 218 West Jones Street, now valued at over $1.4 million. The scenes at Sonny Seiler's offices were filmed at the Armstrong House, 447 Bull Street, south of Monterey Square and close to the northern edge of Forsyth Park. John Bouhan was one of the partners of Bouhan, Williams & Levy, which moved